BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘hate’

Argument frame: X (hate) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. hates M .
Predicate label Ru: ненавидеть
Argument frame Ru: X (ненавидеть) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. ненавидит М .

Abaza [ĉə-]maʁ

Valency pattern: MAL_ABS
X: MAL
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatíma murád də-l-ĉə́-maʁ-b
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - mal -hate- npst . dcl
‘Fatima hates Murad.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) fe-λeʁʷə + NEG

Valency pattern: BEN_ABS
X: BEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
pŝaŝe-m č̣ʼale-r fe-λeʁʷə-r-ep
girl- obl guy- abs ben -see- dyn - neg
‘The girl hates the guy.’
Note: Lit. ‘cannot see’, with the indirect object of the benefactive corresponding to the ergative agent of the base verb ‘see’.

Aghul dušman-di + ‘be’

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s meʜemed dušman-di a
pn - dat pn enemy- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan hates Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Alik Kryz zehle ğabç'ic

Valency pattern: DAT_PART
X: DAT
Y: PART
Locus: XY
terlan-iz rasul-kar zehle ğarç'ar-yu
pn - dat pn - part hate( f ) go_up. ipfv - prs . f
‘Terlan hates Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s marin mu-tʼu-ši d-akːu-r-ši d-i
pn - dat pn be.good- n eg- cvb . ipfv 2-see- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 2-be
‘Pasha hates Marina.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ləbba ṗakkə

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
ət +Ašur ləbb-u ṗkay=əl mən švav-u
rel pn heart( m )- p .3 m split(intr). prog =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur hates his neighbor.’

Avar roƛ’uq’ɬi buk’ine

Valency pattern: GEN_LATxun
X: GEN
Y: LATxun
Locus: XY
ʕali-l kutaka-b roƛ’uq’ɬi b-ugo aħmad-i-de χun
pn - gen strong- n hate n - cop pn - obl - lat toward
‘Ali hates Ahmad.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Azerbaijani nifrət etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a nifrǝt ed-ir
pn pn - dat / lat hate do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan hates Rasul.’

Bambara kɔ́niya

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye Fátù kɔ́niya
pn pfv . tr pn hate
‘Seku hates Fatu.’

Brazilian Portuguese odiar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro odei-a Miguel
pn ( m ) hate-3 sg . prs pn ( m )
‘Pedro hates Miguel.’

Catalan odiar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere odi-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) hate-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere hates Marc.’

Chirag sːi b-ic’i

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i rasul sːi ic’-ib-le
pn - obl - super pn ( abs ) bile ( m . sg )fill: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali hates Rasul.’

Czech nenávidět

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr nenávidí Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hate( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr hates Michal.’

Danish hade

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter hade-r Marie
pn hate- prs pn
‘Peter hates Marie.’

Dutch haten

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet haat Marie
pn ( c ) hate.3 sg pn ( c )
‘Piet hates Marie.’

Eastern Maninka kɔ́n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára Fántà kɔ́n.
pn prf pn prohibit
‘Seku detests Fanta.’

English hate

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter hates Mary.

Estonian vihkama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter vihka-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom hate- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter hates Maret.’

Finnish vihata

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka viha-a Matti-a
pn . nom hate- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka hates Matti’

Forest Enets nɛseza

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
vasʲa kasa-jʔ nɛseza
pn man- nom . sg .1 sg hate( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘Vasja hates my friend’.

French detester

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul deteste Marie
pn ( m ) hate. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul hates Marie.’

Georgian s-ʒul-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s mašo-Ø s-ʒul-s
pn - dat pn - nom io 3-hate- s 3 sg
‘Petre hates Masho.’

German hassen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl hass-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] hate- prs .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl hates Marie.’

Icari Dargwa či=w=ag-uj w=č:-aq-uj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_ABS
X: SUPLAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-lij Nadir či=w=ag-uj e=j=čː-aq-u
pn - suplat pn - abs on = m =see: pf - inf neg = m =like: ipf - caus - hab
‘Islam hates Nadir.’

Irish bí gráin

Valency pattern: aige_ar
X: aige
Y: ar
Locus: XY
an ghráin aige Pól air Mháire.
be. prs def hatred at pn on pn
‘Pól hates Máire.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian odiare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo odi-a Maria
pn ( m ) hate-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo hates Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-i-s rasul ke-0-jʔ-es ħa-0-jg-aq-u
pn - obl - dat pn on - m -see. ipfv - inf neg - m -love. ipfv - caus - prs
‘Muhammad hates Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani ći navidil

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a ći navidil la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg neg despise- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Murša hates Marijka.’

Karata

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja aħmat’ (tušman-ʔo) riχ-anχwa idja
pn . dat pn enemy- super be_offended- pf . cv cop
‘Ali hates Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa авиччахара

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-j miša avič:uχ-u
pn - datlat pn neg . m .love. ipf - evt
‘Petja hates Misha.’

Kazakh žek kör

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï žek kör-edi
pn pn - acc hate- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya hates Masha.’

Kazym Khanty λǝkǝŋ εtti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-ǝλ λǝkǝŋ εt-λ-ǝλλe
pn - ep - poss . sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg evil- attr go_out- npst -3 sg . so
‘Petja hates Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǃhui

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a a ǃhui
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl aux hate pfv
‘Peter hates Maria.’
Note: The verb here is a stative verb and has to be used with auxiliaries.

Khwarshi j/aca

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
šamile-l aca-na maduʁal
pn ( i )- dat [ i ]hate- pst . u neighbor( i )
‘Shamil hates his neighbor.’

Kina Rutul ulis ʁagur hɨgardiš

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ramazan ul-i-s ʁagu-r hɨga-r-diš
pn - obl - dat pn ( nom ) eye- obl - dat 1.see. pfv - cvb 4.want. ipfv - cvb - neg
‘Rasul hates Ramazan.’

Kumyk görüp bolmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mahammat rasul-nu gör-üp bol-ma-j
pn pn - acc see- cvb be- neg -3 sg
‘Muhammad hates Rasul.’

Latin odi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
quis autem est, qui Tarquini-um Superb-um non od-eri-t
who. nom . sg indeed be. prs . ind . act .3 sg which. nom . sg pn ( m )- acc . sg proud- acc . sg . m not hate- fut 2. ind - act .3 sg
‘But who is it who does not hate Tarquin the Proud?’
Note: (Cic, de Amicitia, 28)

Laz o-ǯog-am-a

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s Fatma-Ø go-n-ǯog-am-s
pn - dat pn - nom prv - io 3-hate- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim hates Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese yànwù

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān yànwù Lǐsì
pn hate pn
‘Zhangsan hates Lisi.’

Mano kɛ̄

Valency pattern: ge_SBJ
X: ge
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
kɛ̄ ŋ̄ gé
3 sg . pst be 1 sg pstp stomach
‘I hated him.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is eba-l=gʷa Nadir
pn - dat boring- attr = ptcl pn
‘Islam hates Nadir.’

Mingrelian va-Ø-(a)-ʒir-u-ap-u(n)-Ø

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s anučia-Ø va-Ø-(a)-ʒir-u-ap-u(n)-Ø
pn - dat pn - nom neg - io 3-( pot )-see- r . ext - aug - sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo hates Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew sone

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas sone et Menaχem
pn hate[ ptcp . sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas hates Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul k'vaˤč'e jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s q'urban k'vaˤč'-e jiʔi
pn - obl - dat pn hated- predic m . cop
‘Murad hates Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai čiurisi

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-ǯi čiuri.si-ni
pn pn - ins be_dismayed. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia hates Masha.’

Nivkh raɣraɣd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + raɣraɣ-d
pn pn + hate- ind
‘Kaskazik hates Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛa musa kit’aɬ-o gudi
pn - dat pn hate- seq . m m . cop
‘Patahi hates Musa.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir suŋulič=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ suŋulǝč-lˈǝ-m
pn pn - acc aff hate- caus - tr .3 sg
‘Semien hates Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å hate

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per hate-r Ola
pn hate- prs pn
‘Per hates Ola.’

Polish nienawidzić

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Feliks nienawidzi Ann-y
pn [ nom . sg ] hate: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - gen . sg
‘Feliks hates Anna.’

Russian nenavidetʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja nenavid-it Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg hate( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja hates Maša.’

Serbian mrzeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar mrzi Marij-u
pn . nom . sg hate. prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar hates Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul k'vač' h-iši-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs k'vač' ij karam
pn - dat hated cop pn
‘Basir hates Karam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni bad vidow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Šamil-ard Azim dis=ga bad
pn - lat pn such=more bad
‘Shamil hates Azim.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami vââjšed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vââjaš Määrʹj
pn . sg . nom hate. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete hates Maria’

Slovak nenávidieť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter nenávidí Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hate( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter hates Marek.’

Slovenian sovražiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter sovraži An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] hate: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter hates Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish r̂ig bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_le
X: EXT
Y: le
Locus: XY
Hîwa r̂iq=î le Ferhad-e
pn hatred=3 sg . pc from pn -be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa hates Farhad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul ğagur çıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
solmaz-ı-s ehmed ğagu-r yıga-ş
pn - obl - dat pn ( m )see. pf - seq m .want. ipf - neg
‘Solmaz hates Ehmed.’

Spanish odiar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro odi-a a María
pn [ sg . m ] hate- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro hates Maria.’

Standard Arabic kariha

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n yakrahu Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef hate. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr hates Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s gegi-Ø x-ä-sisg
pn - dat pn - nom io 3- ver : sup -hate
‘Maizer hates Gegi.’

Swedish att hata

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn hata-r Maja
pn hate- prs pn
‘Björn hates Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_CAUSE
X: ACT
Y: CAUSE
Locus: Y
Na-ga~galit si Pedro kay Miguel
stat . pv - ipfv ~angry pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro hates Miguel.’
Note: The Y-argument i) can be introduced by an explicit causal marker and ii) can be promotoed to subject in the causal voice construction.

Telugu dvēṣiṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni dvēṣistunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc hate. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen hates Mahesh.’

Tsakhur zaˁhlayna ark’ıniy

Valency pattern: POSS_SUPEREL
X: POSS
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-na rasul-u-le zaˁhla-y-na aˁlhaaˁ
pn - a pn - obl - superel hate( a )- obl - h go. ipf
‘Murad hates Rasul.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z unra če-w-až-iz ʡaˤ-jkː-ule=saj
boy- dat neighbor on - m -see. pfv - inf neg - f -like/want- prog . cnv = cop . m (3)
‘The boy hates his neighbor.’

Tsugni Dargwa če-b-ag-i ʡaˤ-b-ičː-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j zumra če-r-ag-i=ra ʡaˤ-r-ikː-u
boy- dat neighbor on - f -see. pfv - inf = add neg - f -like- hab . prs 3
‘The boy hates his neighbor.’

Turkish nefret etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan nefret ed-ıyor
pn pn - abl hatred make- prs
‘Mehmet hates Orhan.’

Turoyo mʕanət

Valency pattern: SBJ_m
X: SBJ
Y: m
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-mʕanət me Maryam
pn prs -hate. ipfv .3 m from pn
‘Gabriyel hates Maryam.’

Ulcha gosi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama mə̄n ag-bi gos-i-ni
father self elder_brother- refl . sg hate- prs -3 sg
‘Father hates his elder brother.’

Uzbek nafrat qilmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-dan nafrat qil-a-di
pn pn - abl hatred do- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja hates Maša.’

West Central Oromo dʒibba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa ni dʒibb-a
pn - nom pn . abs foc hate-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa hates Tola.’

Zilo Andi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pat’imati-<j>o dʒiʔ.i-r-sːu marjam
pn - aff < f > like. pst - prog - neg pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat doesn’t like Mariam.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.