BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘govern’

Argument frame: X (govern) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. runs our town .
Predicate label Ru: руководить
Argument frame Ru: X (руководить) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. руководит нашим поселком .

Abaza n(a)q̇ʷə-ga

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
arəj a-qáca h-kə́t j-nq̇ʷə-j-g-əj-d
prox def -man 1 pl . io -village 3 sg . n . abs - loc -3 sg . m . erg -carry- prs - dcl
‘This man runs our village.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) jə-themat

Valency pattern: ABS_POSS
X: ABS
Y: POSS
Locus: Y
χʷəλfəʁe-r t-jə-čʼəle jə-themat
this man- abs 1 pl . pr - poss -village( obl ) 3 sg . pr + poss -boss
‘The man runs our village.’

Aghul aʜa-f + COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan če ʜür.i-n aʜa-f e
pn we: gen village- gen big- nmlz cop
‘Aslan runs our town’ (lit. ‘Aslan is our town’s chief’).
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Alik Kryz buʔutuval aric

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan-ir kum-uz buʔutuval yi-re
pn - erg village- dat leadership do. ipfv - prs . n
‘Terlan runs our village.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
paša olo duχːul-li-n doːˁzu
pn 4.we. gen village- obl - gen be.big. attr
‘Pasha runs our village.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic avə +gura

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE
X: SBJ
Y: BARE
Locus: Y
+avvo naša +gur=ət mat=əl
dem 3. m person( m ) big= rel village( f )=3 m
‘This man runs our village.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. Non-verbal predicate, avə is 'to be'.

Avar nuχmaɬi habize

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca nižer rosda-e nuχmaɬi hab-ula
pn - erg 1 pl . excl . gen village. obl - dat leadership do. n - ipf
‘Ali runs our town.’

Azerbaijani rəhbərlik etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan qǝsǝbǝ-miz-ǝ rǝhbǝrlik ed-ir
pn area-1 pl - dat / lat guidance do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan runs our place.’

Bambara kùntigi yé

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù yé án ka dùgu` kùntigi yé
pn equ 1 pl poss village\ art chief as
‘Seku governs our village.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Brazilian Portuguese comandar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro comand-a nossa vila
pn ( m ) rule-3 sg . prs poss .1 pl . f city( f )
‘Pedro runs our town.’

Catalan dirigir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere dirigeix la nostra ciutat
def . sg . m pn ( m ) command.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f poss .1 pl . f . sg city( f )
‘Pere runs our town.’

Chirag *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Czech řídit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr řidí naš-i vesnic-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drive( ipfv ). prs .3 sg our- f . acc . sg village( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr runs our village.’

Danish styre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter styre-r vores by
pn control- prs our town( c ). sg
‘Peter runs our town.’

Dutch leiden

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet leid-t ons dorp
pn ( c ) lead-3 sg poss .1 pl village( n )
‘Piet governs our village.’

Eastern Maninka be

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Só-ko-latɛɛ` yé Sékù lè dí.
village-matter-decide\ art be pn foc with
‘Seku governs the village.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as part of a nominal compound. Non-verbal predication

English run

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter runs our town.

Estonian juhtima

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter juhi-b meie linna
pn . sg . nom lead- prs .3 sg 1 pl . gen town. sg . part
‘Peeter runs our town.’

Finnish johtaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka joht-aa kaupunki-a-mme
pn . nom govern- prs .3 sg town- part - poss .1 pl
‘Pekka runs our town.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French diriger

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul dirige notre ville
pn ( m ) rule. prs .3 sg our. sg town( m )
‘Paul runs our town.’

Georgian Ø-mart-av-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-Ø čven-s sopel-s Ø-mart-av-s
pn - nom our- dat village- dat do 3-rule- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre runs our village.’

German regieren

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl regier-t die Stadt
pn [ nom . sg ] govern- prs .3 sg def . f . acc . sg city[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl runs the town.’

Icari Dargwa χːula-ci w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN
X: ABS
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Islam ni-šːa-la šːi-la χːula-ci ca=w
pn . abs we- pl - gen village- gen older- atr cop = m
‘Islam runs our village.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent, cf. “hana χːula-ci Islam ca=w ni-šːa-la šːi-la" [now older-ATR PN.ABS COP=M we-PL-GEN village-GEN] ‘Now Islam runs our village’.

Irish rith

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Rith-eann Peter an monarcha.
govern- prs pn def factory
‘Pól runs the factory.’

Italian dirigere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo dirig-e l’ aziend-a
pn ( m ) rule-3 sg . prs def . sg . f company- sg . f
‘Leo runs our company.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
meħamad nuš-i-ja poselok-la ħakim ca-j
pn we- obl - pl village- gen leader cop - m
‘Muhammad runs our village.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Kalderash Romani rukavadil

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a rukavadi-l amar-ə kyrd-osa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg govern- prs .3 sg our- m . obl village- ins . sg
‘Murša runs our village.’

Karata

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l š:urab han-ja hadoʔa-ɬer ge-da idja
pn - erg whole village. obl - dat head- nmlz do- ipf cop
‘Ali runs the whole village.’

Kaytag Dargwa буццахара

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l ši b-uc:uχ-ulca
pn - erg village n -work. caus . ipf - prs
‘Petja runs our village.’

Kazakh basqar

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya bіz-dіŋ awïl-men basqar-adï
pn we- gen village- ins lead- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya runs our village.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pet’a-j-en mŭŋ wɔš kǫśa-ew
pn - ep - poss .2 sg we village boss- poss .1 pl
‘Petja runs our village.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Khoekhoe ǂgaeǂgui

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge sida ǃā-s-a ra ǂgaeǂgui
pn -3 m . sg decl 1 excl . c . pl town-3 f . sg - obl ipfv lead
‘Peter runs our town.’

Khwarshi ʕallu j/uwa

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN1
X: ERG
Y: GEN1
Locus: Y
il-lo (ʕ)anƛ'a-s ʕallu b-uwa šamil-i
1 pl - gen 2 village- gen 1 order( iii ) iii -make\ gnt pn - erg
‘Shamil runs our village.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul q’ɨxʲwaldɨ waɁara

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a q’ɨxʲ-waldɨ w-aɁa-r=a ix-dɨ muˀɢ-uˀ-s
pn - erg elder- abstr 3-do. ipfv - cvb -be we. obl - attr village- obl - dat
‘Rasul runs our village.’

Kumyk bašlɨq etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
mahammat gent-biz-de baš-lɨq et-e
pn village-1 pl - loc head- subst do-3 sg
‘Muhammad runs our village.’

Latin administro

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
nec legitime tutel-am administra-t
and_not legally tutelage( f )- acc . sg administer[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘She doesn’t administer the tutelage legally.’
Note: (Iust. Digesta. XXXVIII, 17, 2)

Laz o-dg-im-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i fabrika-s ji-Ø-o-dg-in-Ø.
pn - nom factory- dat prv - do 3- fact -stand- r . ext - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim is in charge of the factory.’

Mandarin Chinese guǎnlǐ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān guǎnlǐ zhe wǒmen-de chéngzhèn
pn run dur we- de town
‘Zhangsan runs our town.’

Mano yí wè gèē

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ pɛ̄ séŋ́ yí wè gèē
3 sg . ipfv thing all inside speech say: ipfv
‘S/he governs everything.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Islam-ini beč'-deš d-iq'-an pоselоk-is
pn - erg head- nmlz npl -do: ipfv - hab village- dat
‘Islam runs our village.’

Mingrelian Ø-nǯγver-un-s

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-Ø čkin oput'e-s Ø-nǯγver-un-s
pn - nom our village- dat do 3-drive- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo runs our town.’

Modern Hebrew menahel

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas menahel et ha ir ʃel-anu
pn manage[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def city poss -1 pl
‘Pinchas runs our town.’

Mukhad Rutul reχbervaldı vıʔın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a ix-dı muˤq-uˤ-d reχber-valdı vaʔa-ra a
pn - erg 1 pl . obl - attr village- obl - gen guide- nmlz ( a ) a .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad runs our town.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Nanai dala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia buə exo-mba dala-j-ni
pn 1 pl encampment- obl govern- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia runs our village.’

Nivkh əzŋ mud

Valency pattern: SBJ_LOC/ABL
X: SBJ
Y: LOC/ABL
Locus: Y
Kaskazik mеn + vо-ux əzŋ + mu-d
pn 1 pl . incl + village- loc / abl boss + become- ind
‘Kaskazik runs our village.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pataħi-de es:e poselok-ɬ:a nuχmaɬ:i gw-ere gwede
pn - erg our. excl town- obl . dat leadership do- simul n . cop
‘Patahi runs our town.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir lǝmlˈǝ-gi (ŋol=)

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn mit posjelok lǝmlˈǝ-gi
pn 1 pl . poss village boss- poss .3
‘Semien runs our village.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Norwegian Bokmål å lede

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per lede-r bygd-a vår
pn lead- prs village- def . f . sg our
‘Per runs our town.’

Polish rządzić

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Eliz-a rządzi nasz-ą wsi-ą
pn - nom . sg govern: ipfv . prs .3 sg our- f . ins . sg village- ins . sg
‘Eliza runs our village.’

Russian rukovoditʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja rukovod-it naš-im poselk-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg govern( ipfv )- prs .3 sg our- m . ins . sg town( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja runs our town.’

Serbian upravljati

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petar upravlja naš-im sel-om
pn . nom . sg govern. prs .3 sg our- ins . sg . m village- ins . sg
‘Petar runs our town.’

Shinaz Rutul q'ɨxvaldɨ havʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_ATTR
X: ERG
Y: ATTR
Locus: Y
basir iš-dɨ kur-di-d hamıʔ q'ɨxvaldɨ vaʔa-v
pn ( erg ) our- attr village- obl - attr now chiefery( a ) a .do. ipf - a
‘Basir runs our village.’

Shughni čīx̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim māš x̌ār čos-t
pn 1 pl city look-3 sg
‘Azim runs our town.’

Skolt Saami vaaldšed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vaaldaš mij siid
pn . sg . nom govern. prs .3 sg 1 pl . gen village. sg . acc
‘Pete runs our village.’

Slovak vládnuť

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter vládne náš-mu mest-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] govern( ipfv ). prs .3 sg our- n . dat . sg city( n )- dat . sg
‘Peter runs our village.’

Slovenian upravljati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a upravlja naš-o vas
pn - nom . sg govern. prs .3 sg our- acc . sg . f village[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana runs our village.’

Sorani Kurdish ber̂êwe birdin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa ʂare-ke=man be-r̂ê-we de-b-a
pn city- def =1 pl . pc to-road-to ind -take. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa runs our town.’

Southern Rutul q'vaxhvaldı havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a muˤqh-uˤ-s q'vaxh-valdı vaʔa-r
pn - erg village- obl - dat leadership a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad runs our village.’

Spanish gobernar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro gobiern-a nuestr-o pueblo
pn [ sg . m ] govern- prs .3 sg our- sg . m village[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro runs our town.’

Standard Arabic dāra

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n yudīru balad-a-nā
pn - nom - indef direct. ipf .3 m settlement- acc - p .1 pl
‘Badr runs our settlement.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gušgwej sopel-s Ø-a-mǝrtäːw-i
pn - nom poss 1 pl . incl village- dat do 3- fact -govern- prs
‘Maizer governs our village.’

Swedish att styra

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn styr vår stad
pn lead. prs our town
‘Björn runs our town.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
P<in>a-mu~munu-an ni Pedro ang amin-g bayan
caus < pv > ipfv ~run- lv pers . gen pn subj 1. pl . ex . dat - lin town
‘Pedro runs our town.’
Note: The GEN encoding of Y is possible in the AV construction, hence ACT_UND.

Telugu naḍupu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ paṭṭaṇānni naḍuputāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom 1 pl . excl . obl town( n ). sg . acc make_walk. npst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen runs our town.’

Tsakhur хaˁbvalla havʔıy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee yišdi gaˁsaˁbaˁ-ys хaˁbvalla haaʔa
pn - erg our. obl village- dat leadership( a ) a .do. ipf
‘Murad runs our village.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
unra-le nišːala šːi b-ucː-aq-ule=saj
neighbor- erg / loc ( lat ) 1 pl . gen village n -operate- caus - prog . cnv = cop . m
‘The neighbor runs the village.’

Tsugni Dargwa χʷal-il + COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zumra šːi-la χʷal-il=(caj)
neighbor village- gen big- atr . cntrs =( cop . m )
‘The neighbor runs the village.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Turkish yönetmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet fabrıka-yı yönet-iyor
pn factory- acc manage- prs
‘Mehmet runs the factory.’

Turoyo ḥokəm

Valency pattern: SBJ_7al
X: SBJ
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-ḥokəm ʕal i walaye
pn prs -rule. ipfv .3 m on art . f city( f )
‘Gabriyel rules over the city.’

Ulcha dālači-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əńə detsad-ba dālač-i-ni
mother kindergarten- acc manage- prs -3 sg
‘Mother runs the kindergarten.’

Uzbek bošqarmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya bizarniŋ qišlok bilan bošqar-a-di
pn our village with run- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja runs our town.’

West Central Oromo geggeessa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n magaalaa keeɲɲa geggeess-a
pn - nom town. abs 3 pl . poss run-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa runs/governs our town.’

Zilo Andi <w>-etʃ’uχa

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
ali hon-tɬi w-etʃ’uχa
pn [ m ][ nom ] village- inter m -big
‘Ali leads our village.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.