BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘give birth’

Argument frame: X (give birth) to Y
Stimulus sentence: M. gave birth to a son .
Predicate label Ru: рожать
Argument frame Ru: X (рожать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: М. родила сына .

Abaza ʕa-rə-j

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatíma č’ḳʷən–χʷə́c d-ʕa-l-rə́-j-d
pn boy-little 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . f . erg - caus -come( aor )- dcl
‘Fatime gave birth to a son.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) qə-fe-χʷə

Valency pattern: BEN_ABS
X: BEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
bzəλfəʁe-xe-m č̣ʼale-xe-r q-a-fe-χʷə-ʁe-x
woman- pl - obl guy- pl - abs csl -3 pl . io - ben -become- pst - pl
‘The women gave birth to sons.’

Aghul ruχ.u-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fat’im.i-s gada ruχ.u-ne
pn - dat son be.born. pf - aor
‘Fatima gave birth to a son.’

Alik Kryz xuyic

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
leyla-r sar gada xuy-id
pn - erg one. m boy give_birth. pfv - aor . m
‘Leyla gave birth to a son.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
marin-ni-s wišdu uw
pn - obl - dat son 1.do. pfv
‘Marina gave birth to a son.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic barə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
xat-i bri-la bruna
sister( f )- p .1 sg create. pst - ls .3 f son( m )
‘My sister gave birth to a son.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar habize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
marjam-ica was ha-w-una
pn - erg boy do- m - aor
‘Marjam gave birth to a son.’

Azerbaijani doğmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Leyla bir oğul doğ-du
pn one son give_birth- pst (3)
‘Leyla gave birth to a son.’

Bambara wólo

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Fántà wólo-la dén` ná
pn give.birth- pfv . intr child\ art in
‘Fanta gave birth to a child.’

Brazilian Portuguese dar à luz

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Maria deu à luz um filho
pn ( f ) give.3 sg . pst to+ def . f light( f ) indf son( m )
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
leyla'-ri sar dix xeye-ci
pn - erg one. h son m .give_birth. pf - nar
‘Leyla gave birth to a son.’

Catalan donar a llum

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
la Maria va don-ar a llum un fill
def . sg . f pn ( f ) go.3 sg . prs . ind give- inf to light( f ) indf . sg . m son( m )
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Chirag ʡa̰qi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
madina-le gale ʡa̰q-ṵn
pn - erg boy( abs ) give.birth: pf - aor .3
‘Madina gave birth to a boy/son.’

Czech porodit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Michael-a porodi-l-a syn-a
pn ( f )- nom . sg give_birth( pfv )- pst - f . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Michaela gave birth to a son.’

Danish føde

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Marie fød-te en søn
pn give_birth- pst indf . sg son( c )
‘Marie gave birth to a son.’

Dutch baren

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Marie heeft een zoon ge-baar-d
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . indf son( c ) ptcp -give.birth- ptcp
‘Marie gave birth to a son.’

Eastern Maninka sɔ̀rɔn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Fántà bára dénkɛ` sɔ̀rɔn.
pn prf son\ art get
‘Fanta has given birth to a son.’

English give birth

Valency pattern: SBJ_to
X: SBJ
Y: to
Locus: Y
Mary gave birth to a son.

Estonian sünnitama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Maret sünnita-s poja
pn . sg . nom bear- pst .3 sg son. sg . gen
‘Maret gave birth to a son.’

Finnish synnyttää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Lotta synnytt-i poja-n
pn . nom give.birth- pst .3 sg son- gen
‘Lotta gave birth to a son.’

Forest Enets sɔja

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi nʲe-jʔ kasa nʲe-za sɔja-ʃ
i woman child- nom . sg .1 sg man child- nom . sg .3 sg be_born( pfv )-3 sg . s . pst
‘My daughter gave birth to a son’.

French avoir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Marie a eu un garçon
pn ( f ) have. prs .3 sg have. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m boy( m )
‘Marie gave birth to a son.’

Georgian ga-Ø-a-čen-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
mašo-m bič'-i ga-Ø-a-čin-a
pn - erg boy- nom prv :outward- do 3- fact -bear- s 3 sg . pst
‘Masho gave birth to a son.’

German gebären

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Marie gebar ein Kind
pn [ nom . sg ] give_birth. pst .3 sg indf [ n . acc . sg ] child[ acc . sg ]
‘Marie gave birth to a child.’

Guinean Kpelle káa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àá gàa
3 sg . prf 3 sg /give_birth
‘She gave birth to him .’

Icari Dargwa w=arq'-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Madina-l durħuˤ w=aˤrq'-ib
pn - erg son. abs m =give_birth: pf - aor
‘Madina gave birth to a son.’

Irish beir

Valency pattern: do(PREP)_SBJ
X: do(PREP)
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Do=rug-adh leanbh mic do Mháire.
pst =take- pst . pass child son/ gs for pn
‘Máire gave birth to a son.’

Italian avere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Maria ha avuto un figli-o
pn ( f ) aux .3 sg . prs have. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m son- sg . m
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-ar-es / CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʡašura-li urši w-ar-ib
pn - erg boy m -do. pfv - pret
‘Ashura gave birth to a son.’

Kalderash Romani arakhavel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ə Marijk-a arakha-ď-a le śav-es
art . f . dir . sg pn - nom . sg give_birth- pst -3 sg art . m . obl son- obl . sg
‘Marijka gave birth to a son.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatima-ji baž ʁ-ap’-nu
pn - erg boy( abs ) pf -do- pst
‘Fatima gave birth to a son.’

Karata gahaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
marjam-i-l waša geh-e
pn - obl - erg boy do- pf
‘Marjam gave birth to a son.’

Kaytag Dargwa warara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maša-l urši v-ar-iv
pn - erg son m -do. pf - aor
‘Masha gave birth to a son.’

Kazakh tap

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Maša ul tap-tï
pn son give_birth- pst 1.3 sg
‘Masha gave birth to a son.’

Kazym Khanty tăjti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
maša-j-en pǒχ tăj-əs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg son have- pst [3 sg ]
‘Maša gave birth to a son.’

Khoekhoe ǁora

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Maria-s ge aore axa-b-a go ǁora
pn -3 f . sg decl male boy-3 m . sg - obl rpst give_birth_to
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Khwarshi j/uwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatima uj-ja uža
pn \ erg [ i ]give.birth- pst . w son
‘Fatima gave birth to a son.’

Kina Rutul jišɨra

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
madina-s duχ jišɨ-r=a
pn - dat son( nom ) 1.become. pfv - cbv =be
‘Madina gave birth to a son.’

Kumyk tapmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat ulan tap-d-ɨ
pn son find- pst -3 sg
‘Miriam gave birth to a son.’

Latin pario

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
peper-erunt ov-es agn-os human-o capit-e
give_birth[ prf . ind ]- act .3 pl sheep( f )- nom . pl lamb( m )- acc . pl human- abl . sg . n head( n )- abl . sg
‘Sheep gave birth to lambs with a human head.’
Note: (Ter. Ph. 3, 3, 4)

Laz o-Ɂ-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Fatma-s be(r)e-Ø Ø-a-[ʔ]-u
pn - dat child- nom io 3- ver : r -[have]- s 3 sg . pst
‘Fatma gave birth to a child.’

Mandarin Chinese shēng-xià

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Lǐsì shēng-xià le yí-gè háizi
pn give_birth-down pfv one- clf son
‘Lisi gave birth to a son.’

Mano yē

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ká
Locus: Y
āà yē nɛ́ pèèlɛ̄ ká
3 sg . pst give.birth child two with
‘S/he gave birth to two children.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Madina-jni urši w-aq'-ib
pn - erg son m -do: pfv - pst
‘Madina gave birth to a son.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-rčkin-u-an-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
anučia-k boš-(i) g-Ø-a-rčkin-(u)
pn - erg boy-( nom ) prv - do 3- fact -beget- s 3 sg . pst
‘Anuchia gave birth to a son.’

Modern Hebrew jald-a

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Mirjam jald-a ben
pn give.birth[ pst ]-3 sg . f son
‘Miriam gave birth to a son.’

Mukhad Rutul huχun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
majram-a duχ huχu-ri
pn - erg son m .be_born. pf - aor
‘Majram gave birth to a son.’

Nanai baa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Maša Petia-wa baa-xa-ni
pn pn - obl find- pst - p .3 sg
‘Masha gave birth to a son.’

Nivkh pand

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Ajsana azməc + eʁlŋ pan-d
pn man + child give.birth- ind
‘Ajsana gave birth to a son.’

Northern Akhvakh guruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
madina-de waša gw-eri
pn - erg boy do- uwpst
‘Madina gave birth to a son.’

Northern Mansi on’ɕas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mārja mōlxōtal on’ɕ-as āji
pn yesterday have- pst [3 sg ] daughter
‘Yesterday Mary gave birth to a daughter.’

Northern Yukaghir mǝdˈuorī=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Əkulˈǝ kuodˈǝ-d-uo-k mǝdˈuo-rī-mǝ-lǝ
pn male- gen -child- foc be_born- appl - tr - of .3 sg
‘Akulina gave birth to a son.’

Norwegian Bokmål å føde

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kari fød-te en sønn
pn give_birth- pst indf . m . sg son
‘Kari gave birth to a son.’

Polish urodzić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mariol-a urodzi-ł-a syn-a
pn - nom . sg give_birth- pst - f .3 sg son- acc . sg
‘Mariola gave birth to a son.’

Russian roditʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Maš-a rodi-l-a syn-a
pn ( f )- nom . sg give_birth( pfv )- pst - f . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Maša gave birth to a son.’

Serbian roditi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Marij-a je rodi-la sin-a
pn - nom . sg be. prs .3 sg give.birth- part . perf . f . sg son- acc . sg
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Shinaz Rutul huχu-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
peri-s huχu-r duχ
pn - dat m .bear. pf - aor son
‘Peri gave birth to a son.’

Shughni vīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola=yi puc vūd
pn =3 sg son bring. pst
‘Lola gave birth to a son.’

Skolt Saami šõddeed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mäʹrjj šõddi-i pääʹrn
pn . sg . nom give.birth- pst .3 sg child. sg . acc
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Slovak porodiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mári-a porodi-l-a syn-a
pn ( f )- nom . sg give_birth( pfv )- pst - f . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Slovenian roditi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je rodi-l-a sin-a
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg give_birth- lpt - f . sg son- acc . sg
‘Ana gave birth to a son.’

Sorani Kurdish bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_SBJ
X: EXT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Sirwe kur̂-êk=î bû-Ø
pn boy- indf =3 sg . pc be. pst -3 sg
‘Sirwe gave birth to a son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ayten-ra sa dix hıʔı-r
pn - erg one son m .do. pf - aor
‘Ayten gave birth to a son.’

Spanish tener

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
María ha teni-do un hijo
pn [ sg . f ] aux .3 sg have- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . m son[ sg . m ]
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

Standard Arabic walada

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Maryam-u waladat Ɂibn-a-n
pn - nom give_birth. pf .3 f son- acc - indef
‘Maryam gave birth to a son.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
lile-d č'q'int'-Ø an-Ø-taw-e
pn - erg boy- nom prv : prox - do 3-beget- pst
‘Lile begot a boy.’

Swedish att föda

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Maja föd-de en son
pn give_birth- pst indf . c . sg son
‘Maja gave birth to a son.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-nganak ng anak na lalaki si Maria
av . pfv -give_birth gen child lin male pers . subj pn
‘Maria gave birth to a son’

Telugu puṭṭu

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
madhuri-ki koḍuku puṭṭāḍu
pn ( f ). sg . obl - dat son( m ). sg . nom be_born. pst .3 sg . m
‘Madhuri gave birth to a son.’

Tsakhur uхoхiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
sonee diх uхu
pn . erg son ( m )give_birth. pf
‘Sona gave birth to a son.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-arq'-iz/b-irq'-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
unra-le uršːi w-arq'-ib
neighbor- erg / loc ( lat ) boy m -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor gave birth to a son.’

Tsugni Dargwa h-ak'-i / h-alk'-i

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
zumra-la durħaˤ h-ak'-ub
neighbor- gen boy up -be_born. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor gave birth to a son.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

Turkish doğurmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Filiz erkek çocuğ-u doğur-du
pn male child- p .3 give_birth- pst
‘Filiz gave birth to a baby boy.’

Turoyo howe

Valency pattern: OBJAGR_BARE
X: OBJAGR
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
Maryam hawi-la abro
pn become. pfv .3 m - ls .3 f son
‘Maryam gave birth to a son.’

Ulcha baqa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əj əktə xusə piktə-wə baqa-xa-ni
this female male child- acc find- pst -3 sg
‘This woman gave birth to a son.’

Uzbek tuɣmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Maša o’ɣil tuɣ-di
pn son give_birth- pst .3 sg
‘Maša gave birth to a son.’

West Central Oromo daʔa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
boontuu-n ilma deesse
pn - nom son. abs give_birth.3 sg . f . pfv
‘Bontu gave birth to a son.’

Zilo Andi dʒid.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
marjam-di woʃo dʒid.i
pn - erg boy[ m ][ nom ] make. pst ( aor )
‘Mariam gave birth to a boy.’