BivalTyp

‘fry’

Argument frame: X (fry) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. fried the fish .
Predicate label Ru: жарить
Argument frame Ru: X (жарить) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. пожарил рыбу .

Abaza rə.ʒə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-qác̣a a-pslaĉá j-rə́-ʒ-ṭ
def -man def -fish 3 sg . m . erg - caus -fry- dcl
‘The man fried the fish.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʁe-ẑe

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m pagʷe-r ə-ʁe-ẑa-ʁ
guy- obl fish- abs 3 sg . erg - caus -fry(intr.)- pst
‘The guy fried the fish.’

Aghul žarit’ q’.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a baluʁ žarit’ q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) fish <fry> do. pf - aor
‘Aslan fried the fish.’

Alik Kryz ğizartmiş aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir baluğ ğizartmiş var-du
pn - erg fish( f ) fry f .do. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan fried the fish.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu χˁabχˁi čʼarqʼas a<b>u
pn - obl ( erg ) fish fry <3>do. pfv
‘Pasha fried the fish.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic kalə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava kuli-lə nuyna
old. m fry(tr). pst - ls .3 m fish( f )
‘The oldman fried the fish.’

Avar bežize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca ččuʕa b-ež-ana
pn - erg fish n -fry- aor
‘Ali fried the fish.’

Azerbaijani qızartmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan balığı qızar-t-dı
pn fish. acc fry- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan fried the fish.’

Bafut nkàŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nkàŋə̂ fɨ̀bwè wá
pn sm p 2 fry fish def
‘Ambe fried the fish.’

Bambara jíran

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye jɛ́gɛ` jíran
pn pfv . tr fish\ art fry
‘Seku fried a fish.’

Brazilian Portuguese cozinhar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro cozinh-ou o peixe
pn ( m ) cook-3 sg . pst def . m fish( m )
‘Pedro cooked the fish.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ba'luğ sebʕir-ci
pn - erg fish a .cook. pf - nar
‘Aslan fried the fish.’

Catalan fregir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va freg-ir peix
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind fry- inf fish( m )
‘Pere fried the fish.’

Chirag b-erc’i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
babaj-le k’asː b-erc’-ib
mother- erg fish( abs ) n . sg -fry: pf - aor .3
‘Mom fried the fish.’

Czech osmažit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr osmaži-l ryb-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] fry( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fish( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr fried the fish.’

Danish stege

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter steg-te fisk-en
pn fry- pst fish( c )- def . sg
‘Peter fried the fish.’

Dutch bakken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de vis ge-bakk-en
pn (С) have.3 sg art . def . c fish( c ) ptcp -fry- ptcp
‘Piet fried the fish.’

Eastern Maninka jèni

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà jɛ́ɛ` jèni túlu` lá.
pn aor . tr fish\ art burn oil\ art at
‘Seku fried a fish.’

English fry

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter fried the fish.

Estonian küpsetama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter küpseta-s kala
pn . sg . nom fry- pst .3 sg fish. sg . part
‘Peeter fried the fish.’

Finnish paistaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka paist-oi kala-n
pn . nom fry- pst .3 sg fish- gen
‘Pekka fried the fish.’

Forest Enets dʲasi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kare dʲasie
i man- nom . sg .1 sg fish fry_on_stick( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend fried fish’.

French faire frire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a fait frire le poisson
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m fry. inf def . sg . m fish( m )
‘Paul fried the fish.’

Georgian še-Ø-c'v-av-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m tevz-i še-Ø-c'v-a
pn - erg fish- nom prv :inward- do 3-burn- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre fried the fish.’

German braten

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl brät den Fisch
pn [ nom . sg ] fry. prs .3 sg def . m . acc . sg fish[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is frying the fish.’

Guinean Kpelle yélîŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá hɔ̀ɣɔlee yélíŋ̀
pn 3 sg . prf fish fry
‘Pepee fried a fish.’

Icari Dargwa b=erc'-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il baliqː b=erc'-ib
pn - erg fish. abs n =fry: pf - aor
‘Islam fried the fish.’

Irish róst

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Róst Pól iasc.
fry( pst ) pn fish
‘Pól fried the fish.’

Italian friggere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha fritto il pesc-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs fry. pst . ptcp def . sg . m fish- sg . m
‘Leo fried the fish.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-erc'-es / uc'-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li baliq b-erc'-ib
pn - erg fish n -fry. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad fried the fish.’

Kalderash Romani pekəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a pek-ľ-a maś-o
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg fry- pst -3 sg fish- acc . sg
‘Murša fried the fish.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatima-ji jikː žarit’ ʁ-ap’-nu
pn - erg meat( abs ) roast pf -do- pst
‘Fatima fried meat.’

Karata bežaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l ččuʕa b-ež-a
pn - erg fish n -fry- aor
‘Ali fried the fish.’

Kaytag Dargwa berc’ara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l b-erc’-iv baˁliq
pn - erg n -fry. pf - aor fish
‘Petja fried the fish.’

Kazakh quwïr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya balïq quwïr-dï
pn fish fry- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya fried the fish.’

Kazym Khanty šarǝti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en χǔλ šarǝt-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg fish fry- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja fried the fish.’

Khoekhoe sâi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǁau-b-a ge sâi
pn -3 m . sg decl fish-3 m . sg - obl pst boil
‘Peter fried the fish.’

Khwarshi išana

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
išat'-i išajna čuʕa
mother. o - erg fry\ pst . w fish( iii )
‘Mother fried the fish.’

Kina Rutul wiǯira

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a baluʁ w-iǯi-r=a
pn - erg fish( nom ) 3-fry. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul fried the fish.’

Kumyk qɨzarmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat balɨq-nɨ qɨzar-t-d-ɨ
pn fish- acc fry- caus - pst -3 sg
‘Patimat fried the fish.’

Latin frigo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
horde-um poster-o di-e frig-unt
barley( n )- acc . sg next- abl . sg . m day( m )- abl . sg fry[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘They roast the barley the day after.’
Note: (Plin. NH 18, 72)

Laz o-daγan-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k čxom-i do-Ø-daγan-u
pn - b - erg fish- nom prv - do 3-fry- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim fried the fish.’

Mandarin Chinese zhà

Valency pattern: SUB_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān zhà le
pn ba fish fry pfv
‘Zhangsan fried the fish.’
Note: The status of the "bǎ"-construction is controversial.

Mano yìè

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé kpà̰á̰ yìè
pn 3 sg . pst fish fry
‘Pe fried the fish.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Patimat-li-ni b-erc'-ib k'as
pn - obl - erg n -fry: pfv - pst fish
‘Patimat fried the fish.’

Mingrelian do-Ø-č'-un-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k čxom-(i) do-Ø-č'-u
pn - erg fish- nom prv - do 3-fry- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo fried the fish.’

Modern Hebrew tigen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas tigen et ha dag
pn fry[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def fish
‘Pinchas fried the fish.’

Mukhad Rutul džirdžin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a baluʁ vi-džirdži-ri
pn - erg fish a -fry. pf - aor
‘Murad fried the fish.’

Nanai čero-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia sogdata-wa čero-xa-ni
pn fish- obl fry- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia fried the fish.’

Nivkh r̥ad

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik cʰо + r̥a-d
pn fish + fry- ind
‘Kaskazik fried the fish.’

Northern Akhvakh bižuruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patħudi-de č:uʕa b-iž-ari
pn - erg fish n -fry- aor
‘Pathudi fried the fish.’

Northern Mansi pōnslas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pājel xūl pōnsl-as
pn fish fry- pst .3 sg
‘Pasha fried the fish.’

Northern Yukaghir hа̄lˈǝs=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn аlˈɣа-lǝ hа̄lˈǝ-s-mǝ-lǝ
pn fish- acc burn- caus - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien fried the fish.’

Norwegian Bokmål å steke

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per stek-te fisk-en
pn fry- pst fish- def . m . sg
‘Per fried the fish.’

Polish usmażyć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Adam usmaży-ł ryb-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] fry: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] fish- acc . sg
‘Adam fried the fish.’

Russian požaritʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja požari-l ryb-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg fry( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fish( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja fried the fish.’

Serbian ispržiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je isprži-o rib-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg fry- part . perf . m . sg fish- acc . sg
‘Petar fried the fish.’

Shinaz Rutul džirdž hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir vidžirdž havʔɨ-r baluʁ
pn ( erg ) a .cooking a .do. pf - aor fish( a )
‘Basir fried the fish.’

Shughni pêxtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i gūx̌t pêx-t
pn =3 sg meat cook- pst
‘Azim fried the meat.’

Skolt Saami päʹštted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt paaʹšt-i kueʹl
pn . sg . nom fry- pst .3 sg fish. sg . acc
‘Pete fried the fish.’

Slovak usmažiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter usmaži-l ryb-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] fry( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fish( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter fried the fish.’

Slovenian speči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je speke-l rib-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg fry: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fish- acc . sg
‘Peter fried the fish.’

Sorani Kurdish sûr kirdinewe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hemîn masî-eke=î sûr kird-Ø-ewe
pn fish- def =3 sg . pc red do. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hemin fried the fish.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul ire hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a baluğ ir-e havʔı-r
pn - erg fish red- predic a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad fried the fish.’

Spanish freír

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha frei-do pescado
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg fry- ptcp : prf fish[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro fried the fish.’

Standard Arabic qalā

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un qalā samak-a-n
pn - nom fry. pf .3 m fish- acc - indef
‘Badr fried a fish.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d k'almax-Ø an-Ø-t'q'ab-e
pn - erg trout- nom prv : dist - do 3-fry- pst
‘Maizer fried a fish.’

Swedish att steka

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn stek-te fisk-en
pn fry- pst fish- def . c . sg
‘Björn fried the fish.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
pr<in>ito ni Pedro ang isda
< pv > pfv .fry pers . gen pn subj fish
‘Pedro fried the fish.’
Note: Co-exists with the AV construction.

Telugu vēyiṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ cēpa-nu vēyiṁcāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom fish( n ). sg . obl - acc fry. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen fried the fish.’

Tsakhur qhedžiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee baluğ-ar qhedžu
pn - erg fish- pl ( n )fry. pf
‘Murad fried the fish.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-erc'-iz/b-uc'-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rursːi-le dig b-erc'-ib
girl- erg / loc ( lat ) meat n -roast. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl roasted the meat.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-erc'-i / b-uc'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rursːi-li dig b-erc'-ib
girl- erg meat n -roast. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl roasted the meat.’

Turkish kızartmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet balığ-ı kızart-tı
pn fish- acc fry- pst
‘Mehmet fried the fish.’

Turoyo mqale

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel mqale-le u nuno
pn fry. pfv - ls .3 m art . m fish( m )
‘Gabriyel fried the fish.’

Twi kye

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi kye-e nsuomnam no
pn fry- pst fish def
‘Kofi fried the fish.’

Ulcha ǯal'ǯači-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əniə sugdata-wa ǯal'ǯača-xa-n
mother fish- acc roast- pst -3 sg
‘Mother fried the fish.’

Uzbek qovurmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya baliq qovur-di
pn fish fry- pst .3 sg
‘Petja fried the fish.’

West Central Oromo biltʃeessa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
gurbaa-n k'urt'umm-ittʃa biltʃ-eess-e
boy- nom fish- def . abs fry- caus -3 sg . m . pfv
‘The boy fried the fish’

Wolof saaf

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
dama saaf yàpp w-i
f oc v .s i :1 sg fry meat( w ) cl w - def
‘I fried the meat.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a ǧed qavurmiș-na
pn - erg fish grill_ vn - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib grilled the fish.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ.TR
Y: DO
Locus: TR
fatə masɛ suːr kɛrd
f ate fish red do. pst
‘Fate fried the fish.’

Zilo Andi <b>-eʒ.a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di b-eʒ.a χʷammi
pn - erg inan 1-brown. pst ( aor ) fish[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat fried a fish.’