BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘forget’

Argument frame: X (forget) (about) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. had already visited this town and knew that there is a shorter road. When he went there once again this time, however, he chose the longer road.) P. forgot (about) the other road .
Predicate label Ru: забывать
Argument frame Ru: X (забывать) об Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. однажды уже ездил в этот город и знал, что туда есть более короткая дорога. Но сейчас он поехал туда снова и выбрал более длинную). П. забыл о другой дороге .

Abaza [q-]aštəl

Valency pattern: LOCq_ABS
X: LOCq
Y: ABS
Locus: X
murád jəʕʷbaχəwz a-mʕʷa j-q-áštəl-(χ-)ṭ
pn second def -road 3 sg . m . io - loc -forget( aor )-( re )- dcl
‘Murad forgot about the other road.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) šʼə-ʁʷəpše

Valency pattern: LOC_ABS
X: LOC
Y: ABS
Locus: X
č̣ʼale-m adre–ʁʷegʷə-r šʼə-ʁʷəpša-ʁ
guy- obl other–road- abs loc -forget- pst
‘The guy forgot about the other road.’

Aghul k’ʷal-as š.u-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s saje reqː k’ʷal-as š.u-ne
pn - dat other road in.memory- elat leave. pf - aor
‘Aslan forgot about the other road.’

Alik Kryz saxana aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir la sab rix sauxvana var-cu
pn - erg that one. f . nom road( f ) f .forget. cvb f .do. pfv - perf . f
‘Terlan forgot the other road.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s osːu-b deqʼˁ e<b>χni-li
pn - dat other-3 way <3>forget. pfv - cvb ( evid )
‘Pasha forgot about the other road.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic manšə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala munšiyy-o=l crita urxa
boy( m ) forget. res . m - p .3 f =3 m short. f way( f )
‘The boy forgot about the other road.’

Avar k’očeze

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da k’očo-n t-ana cogida-b nuχ
pn - loc forget- seq leave- aor other- n way
‘Ali forgot the other road.’

Azerbaijani unutmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan digǝr yol-u unud-ub
pn other road- acc forget- perf (3)
‘Aslan forgot about the other road.’

Bambara ɲìnɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_ko
X: SBJ
Y: ko
Locus: Y
Sékù ɲìnɛ-na síra surun` kɔ́
pn forget- pfv . intr road short\ art behind
‘Seku forgot the short road.’

Brazilian Portuguese esquecer-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se esquec-eu do outr-o caminho
pn ( m ) refl forget-3 sg . pst of+ def . m other- m way( m )
‘Pedro forgot about the other way.’

Catalan oblidar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va oblid-ar l'altre camí
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind forget- inf def . sg . m -other. sg . m road( m )
‘Pere forgot (about) the other road.’

Chirag ʁalat’ b-uχi

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ma̰ħmad ʁalat’ uχ-ub-le nixːi
pn ( abs ) forget ( m . sg )become: pf - aor - res . prs .3 we. incl ( super )
‘We forgot about Mahamad!’

Czech zapomenout

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr zapomně-l na tu druh-ou cest-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] forget( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on that. f . acc . sg other- f . acc . sg road( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr forgot about that other road.’

Danish glemme

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter arbejde-de og glem-te tid-en
pn work- pst and forget- pst time( c )- def . sg
‘Peter worked and forgot about the time.’

Dutch vergeten

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet is de ander-e weg verget-en
pn (С) cop .3 sg art . def . c other- c road( c ) forget- ptcp
‘Piet forgot (about) the other road.’

Eastern Maninka ɲìna

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
̀Sékù bára ɲìna síla sudun` ná.
pn prf forget road short\ art at
‘Seku has forgotten the short road.’

English forget

Valency pattern: SBJ_about
X: SBJ
Y: about
Locus: Y
Peter forgot about the other road.

Estonian unustama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter unusta-s teise tee
pn . sg . nom forget- pst .3 sg other. sg . gen road. sg . gen
‘Peeter forgot the other road.’

Finnish unohtaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka unoht-i toisen tie-n
pn . nom forget- pst .3 sg second. gen road- gen
‘Pekka forgot about the other road.’

Forest Enets dʲurota

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛko nɔi-ta sɛxɛri-da dʲurota-bi-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg other be_straight( ipfv )- ptcp . sim road- obl . sg .3 sg forget( pfv )- prf -3 sg . so sg
‘My friend forgot about another, straight road’.

French oublier

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul a oublié qu’ il existe un autre chemin
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg forget. pst . ptcp . m that it exist. prs .3 sg indf . sg . m other. sg . m road( m )
‘Paul forgot that there was another road.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed in a dependent clause. The transitive construction ("Paul a oublié l'autre chemin, plus proche") would have a differenr meaning (he forgot the specific way and was unable to follow the shorter road).

Georgian Ø-a-vic'q'-d-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s sxva-Ø gza-Ø da-Ø-a-vic'q'-d-a
pn - dat other- nom way- nom prv :downward- io 3- ver : sup -forget- intr - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre forgot the other road.’

German vergessen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl vergaß den ander-en Weg
pn [ nom . sg ] forget. pst .3 sg def . m . acc . sg another- m . acc . sg road[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl forgot about the other road.’

Icari Dargwa qum-eːrt-araj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_SUPLAT.CONT
X: SUPLAT
Y: SUPLAT.CONT
Locus: XY
Islam-lij cara xːun-nij-čilla qum-eːrt-ur
pn - suplat other road- suplat - cont forget- lv - aor
‘Islam forgot about the other road.’

Irish déan dearúd

Valency pattern: SBJ_ar
X: SBJ
Y: ar
Locus: Y
Dhein Pól dearúd air an mbóthar eile.
pst /make pn oblivion on def road other
‘Pól forgot (about) the other road.’

Italian dimenticarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo si è dimenticat-o dell’ altr-a strad-a
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs forget. pst . ptcp - sg . m of. def . sg . f other- sg . f road- sg . f
‘Leo forgot about the other road.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li qum-art-un cerħ-il huni
pn - erg forget- lv . pfv - pret another- atr way
‘Muhammad forgot about the other road.’

Kalderash Romani bystrəl

Valency pattern: NOM_pa
X: NOM
Y: pa
Locus: Y
o Murš-a bystər-ď-a pa kod-o drom
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg forget- pst -3 sg with that- m . dir . sg road[ nom . sg ]
‘Murša forgot about the other road.’

Karata

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja cebal miq’e b-ečeč-a b-iχχu idja
pn . dat other. n road n -forget- pf n -remain. pf cop
‘Ali forgot about the other road.’

Kaytag Dargwa хъумуртара

Valency pattern: NOM_GENcevtar
X: NOM
Y: GENcevtar
Locus: Y
petja-l itlil xune-la č:evt:ar qumert-ur
pn - erg other road. obl - gen about forget. pf - aor
‘Petja forgot about the other road.’

Kazakh umït

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya basqa žol-dï umït-tï
pn other way- acc forget- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya forgot about the other road.’

Kazym Khanty jŏrԑmǝti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en wan jǫš-ǝλ jŏrԑmǝ-s-λe
pn - ep - poss .2 sg short road- poss .3 sg forget- pst -3 sg . so
‘Petja forgot about the short road.’

Khoekhoe ǀuru

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge nau dao-b-a ge ǀuru
pn -3 m . sg decl dist . contr road-3 m . sg - obl pst forget
‘Peter forgot about the other road.’

Khwarshi šuƛ'a

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ilu-l bit'ura-l huni šuƛ'a-na
1 pl - dat correct- iv road( iv ) forget- pst . u
‘We forgot the right way.’

Kina Rutul jik’ijla upχur

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasulɨ-s tin-baj-dɨ raˀq jik’ij-la u<p>χu-r
pn . obl - dat that- contr - attr road( nom ) heart. obl ( sup )- el <3> lv . pfv - cvb
‘Rasul forgot about the other road.’

Kumyk unutmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir birisi jol-nu unut-ʁan
pn other road- acc forget- pf
‘Basir forgot the other road.’

Latin obliviscor

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
est enim propri-um stultiti-ae ali-orum viti-a cernere, oblivisc-i su-orum
be. prs . ind . act .3 sg indeed own- nom . sg . n foolishness( f )- dat . sg other- gen . pl . m vice( n )- acc . pl notice[ prs ]- inf . act forget[ prs ]- inf . act one’s_own- gen . pl . n
‘For it is characteristic to foolishness to notice the vices of others and to forget its own.’
Note: (Cic. Tusc. 3, 73)

Laz o-č'k'on-d-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s hem gza-Ø g-Ø-o-č'k'on-d-u
pn - b - dat dem . dist way- nom prv - io 3- ver : sup -forget- intr - s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim forgot that road.’

Mandarin Chinese wàngjì

Valency pattern: SUB_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān lìng yì-tiáo wàngjì le
pn ba another one- clf road forget pfv
‘Zhangsan forgot (about) the other road.’
Note: The status of the "bǎ"-construction is controversial.

Mano lèmā

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
lèmā ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . pst forget 1 sg on
‘S/he forgot about me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.LAT_NOM
X: CONT.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pajzula-li-ze ittili huni qum-art-ul-le le-b
pn - obl - cont ( lat ) other road forget- lv : pfv - aor - cvb be- n
‘Pakzula forgot about the other road.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-č'q'or-d-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_ERG
X: DAT
Y: ERG
Locus: X
čelo-s šxva šara-k ga-Ø-a-č'q'or-d-(u)
pn - dat other road- erg prv - io 3- ver : sup -forget- intr - s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo forgot the other road.’

Modern Hebrew ʃaχaχ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ʃaχaχ et ha dereχ ha aχeret
pn forget[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def road def other
‘Pinchas forgot (about) the other road.’

Mukhad Rutul jik'ııla utχun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s mad-dı raˤqh jik'-ııla upχu-ri
pn - obl - dat other- attr road. nom ( a ) heart- superel a .forget. pf - aor
‘Murad forgot about the other road.’

Nanai oŋbo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia goj-ǯema pokto-wa oŋbo-xa-ni
pn other- restr road- obl forget- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia forgot about the other road.’

Nivkh tχar̥pəd

Valency pattern: SBJ_INS
X: SBJ
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Kaskazik hu cif-kir̥ tχar̥pə-d
pn close . dem road- ins forget- ind
‘Kaskazik forgot about the other road.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patħudi-ƛa hudu čes:e miq’:i hidičeχ:w-ewi
pn - dat prox another road forget- perf
‘Pathudi forgot the other road.’

Northern Mansi xotjoruwlaslum

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am l’ōŋx-um xot-joruwl-as-l-um
i road- poss .1 sg pfv -forget- pst -3 sg . o -1 sg . s
‘I forgot the road.’

Northern Yukaghir janaspǝjrǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn wiǝ-n jаwul-ǝ jаnаspǝ-j-rǝ-m
pn other- gen road- acc aff forget- pf - caus - tr .3 sg
‘Semien forgot the other road.’

Norwegian Bokmål å glemme

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per hadde glem-t snarvei-en
pn have. pst forget- ptcp shortcut- def . m . sg
‘Per forgot about the shortcut.’

Polish zapomnieć

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Basi-a zapomnia-ł-a o t-ej drodz-e
pn - nom . sg forget: pfv - pst - f .3 sg about this- f . loc . sg road- loc . sg
‘Basia forgot about that road.’

Russian zabytʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja zaby-l o drug-oj dorog-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg forget( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] about other- f . loc . sg road( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja forgot about the other road.’

Serbian zaboraviti

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petar je zaboravi-o na drug-i put
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg forget- part . perf . m . sg on other- acc . sg . m road. acc . sg
‘Petar forgot about the other road.’

Shinaz Rutul hik'i-j upχu-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs hik'i-j upχu-r tinbij-dɨ raˁqh
pn - dat heart. obl - super a (drop). pf - aor other- attr road( a )
‘Basir forgot (about) the other road.’

Shughni rinīx̌tow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Azim=i as wi yiga půnd rinūx̌-t
pn =3 sg el d 3. m . sg . obl another road forget- pst
‘Azim forgot about the other road.’

Skolt Saami väjldõõvvâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt väjldõõʹv-i tõn nuuʹbb čuõkku
pn . sg . nom forget- pst .3 sg dist . sg . acc other. sg . acc road. sg . acc
‘Pete forgot (about) the other road.’

Slovak zabudnúť

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter zabudo-l na druh-ú cest-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] forget( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on other- f . acc . sg road( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter forgot about that other road.’

Slovenian pozabiti

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter je pozabi-l na pot
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg forget: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] on road[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter forgot about the road.’

Sorani Kurdish lebir̂ cûnewe

Valency pattern: EXT_SBJ
X: EXT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Hîwa rê kurt-eke=î le bîr çot-Ø-ewe
pn road short- def =3 sg . pc from thought go. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa forgot about the shorter road.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the non-canonical subject of a clausal expression of possession, emotion or cognition (in any tense). Lit. ≈ ‘The road is gone from my memory’.

Southern Rutul k'esqhuduxun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ma-b-dı raˤqh k'esqhubuxu-r
pn - obl - dat other- a - attr road( a ) re . a .forget. pf - aor
‘Murad forgot about the other road.’

Spanish olvidar

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Pedro se lo/le olvid-ó el otr-o camino
dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg he. dir . obj forget- aor .3 sg art . def . sg . m other- sg . m road[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro forgot about the other way.’

Standard Arabic nasiya

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n nasiya ṭarīq-a-n Ɂuḫrā
pn - nom - indef forget. pf .3 m road( f )- acc - indef other( f ). indef
‘Badr forgot about the other road.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s išgen šuk'w-Ø sga-la-x-äː-šdǝn
pn - dat other road- nom prv : inward - prv : slightly - io 3- ver : sup -forget
‘Maizer forgot the other road.’

Swedish att glömma bort

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn ha-de glöm-t bort den andr-a väg-en
pn have. pst forget- sup away def . c . sg other- weak way- def . c . sg
‘Björn had forgotten about the other road.’
Note: Phrasal verb (bort is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-ka-limut-an ni Pedro ang iba pa-ng daan
pot . pfv - stem -forget- pv pers . gen pn subj other clitic- lin way
‘Pedro forgot about the other road.’
Note: The GEN encoding of the Y is also possible with different NPs, hence ACT_UND.

Telugu māracipōvu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLgurinci
X: NOM
Y: OBLgurinci
Locus: Y
pravīṇ vērē rōḍḍu guriṁci māracipōyāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom other road( n ). sg . obl about forget. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen forgot about the other road.’

Tsakhur k’elıtхıniy

Valency pattern: ADEL_NOM
X: ADEL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-sse šenasa yaˁqh k’elipхın-na
pn - obl - adel other. a road( a ) a .forget. pf - a
‘Murad forgot about the other road.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z it-il xuni qum k-art-ur
boy- dat dem . dist - contrs road mind down -put- pret (3)
‘The boy forgot about the other road.’

Tsugni Dargwa qum k-art-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rursːi-j ca=ra x:uni leb-ni qum k-art-ur
girl- dat one- add road cop . exst . n - msd mind down -put- pret (3)
‘The girl forgot about the other road.’
Note: The argument in the nominative is a nominalization (masdar).

Turkish unutmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet diğer yol-u unut-tu
pn other way- acc forget- pst
‘Mehmet forgot about the other road’.

Turoyo ṭoʕe

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_DO.LS
X: SBJ.SS
Y: DO.LS
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ṭaʕi u darb-awo
pn forget. pfv .3 m art . m road- dem . m
‘Gabriyel forgot the road.’

Ulcha oŋbo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə goj pokto-wo oŋbo-xo-ni
male child other way- acc forget- pst -3 sg
‘The boy forgot about the other road.’

Uzbek esdan čiqarvolmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya bošqa yo’l-ni es-dan čiqarvol-di
pn another road- acc memory- abl go_out- pst .3 sg
‘Petja forgot about the other road.’

West Central Oromo irraanfata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n karaa isa kan biraa irraanfat-ee dʒir-a
pn - nom road. abs 3 sg . m . abs of other. gen forget- pfv . conv aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa forgot the other road.’

Zilo Andi retʃː.o-j

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<b>o se-b=lo miqχ’i retʃː.o-j
pn - aff < inan 1> one- inan 1= add road[ inan 1][ nom ] forget. pst - pf
‘Ali forgot about the other road.’