BivalTyp

‘forfeit’

Argument frame: X (lose) Y
Stimulus sentence: (There was a fire in the village. As a result) P. lost his house .
Predicate label Ru: лишаться
Argument frame Ru: X (лишаться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (В деревне был пожар. В результате) П. лишился дома .

Abaza [l-]qʷdaχa

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCl
X: ABS
Y: LOCl
Locus: Y
murád j-tʒə́ d-á-l-qʷdaχa-d
pn 3 sg . m . io -house 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -lose( aor )- dcl
‘Murad lost his house.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) č̣e-ne

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
t-jə-wəne-xe-r č̣e-tə-na-ʁe-x
1 pl . pr - poss -house- pl - abs loc : under -1 pl . erg -leave- pst - pl
‘We lost our houses.’

Aghul x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan χul.a-k-as x.u-ne
pn house- sub / cont - elat become. pf - aor
‘Aslan lost his house.’

Alik Kryz xabaʕar ğatfic

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan k'ul ug xab-aʕar ğap-du
pn ( gen ) house( f ) refl . m ( gen ) hand- inel f .go_out. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan lost his house.’
Note: The structure is tentatively classified as involving a clause-level genitive (by analogy with other languages). To be checked.

Archi

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
paša noʟʼ i-tʼuw i<w>χːu
pn house 4.be- cvb . neg <1>remain. pfv
‘Pasha lost his house.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic payəš

Valency pattern: SBJ_lab
X: SBJ
Y: la_b
Locus: Y
sava pəš-lə la b bet-u
old. m remain. pst - ls .3 m neg with house( m )- p .3 m
‘The oldman lost his house.’

Avar maħrumɬize

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
ʕali maħrumɬ-ana ruq’-al-dasa
pn be_deprived- aor house- obl - el
‘Ali lost his house.’

Azerbaijani mǝhrum olmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan ev-i-ndǝn mǝhrum ol-ub
pn house- poss 3- abl deprived be(come)- perf (3)
‘Aslan lost his house.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Bafut mbwé

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ mbwé ǹdâ jì
pn sm p 2 lose house his
‘Ambe lost his house.’

Bambara bɔ̀nɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bɔ̀nɛ-na ka só` lá
pn deprive- pfv . intr 3 sg poss house\ art in
‘Seku lost his house.’

Brazilian Portuguese perder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro perd-eu sua casa
pn ( m ) lose-3 sg . pst poss .3. f house( f )
‘Pedro lost his house.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan ug-o k'ul-ca-kir maħrım saxha-ci
pn refl - gen house- obl - part deprived ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan lost his house.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va perdre la seva casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind loose. inf def . sg . f . poss .3. f . sg house( f )
‘Pere lost his house.’

Chirag b-uqi

Valency pattern: ABS_INTER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: INTER.ELAT
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le qal-li-cːi-rka uq-un-ne
pn ( abs ) house- obl - inter - elat ( m . sg )move: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali lost his house.’

Czech přijít

Valency pattern: NOM_oACC
X: NOM
Y: oACC
Locus: Y
Petr přiše-l o dům
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] come( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] about house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr lost his house.’

Danish miste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter miste-de sit hus
pn lose- pst poss . refl . n . sg house( n )
‘Peter lost his house.’

Dutch geen meer hebben

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft geen huis meer
pn ( c ) have.3 sg no house( n ) more
‘Piet lost his house.’

Eastern Maninka fɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bára fɔ́ lá bón` ná.
pn prf miss 3 sg poss house\ art at
‘Seku has lost his house.’

English lose

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter lost his house.

Estonian ilma jääma

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Peeter jä-i oma maja-st ilma
pn . sg . nom stay- pst .3 sg poss . refl house- ela without
‘Peeter lost his house.’
Note: Phrasal verb (ilma is not a flagging device).

Finnish menettää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka menett-i talo-nsa
pn . nom lose- pst .3 sg house- gen . poss .3 sg
‘Pekka lost his house.’

Forest Enets kaja

Valency pattern: NOM_CAR
X: NOM
Y: CAR
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ mɛ-tʃuz kaja
man- nom . sg .1 sg chum- car stay_behind( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend remained homeless’.

French perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a perdu sa maison
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg lose. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f house( f )
‘Paul lost his house.’

Georgian da-Ø-k'arg-av-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m saxl-k'ar-i da-Ø-k'arg-a
pn - erg house-door- nom prv :downward- do 3-lose- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre lost his house.’

German verlieren

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl verlor sein Haus
pn [ nom . sg ] lose. pst .3 sg his[ n . acc . sg ] house[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl lost his house.’

Guinean Kpelle hwɛ̀ɣɛ̌

Valency pattern: SBJ_hu
X: SBJ
Y: hu
Locus: Y
Tòkpa àá hwɛ̀ɣɛ́ ŋwɔ̀ pɛ́lɛ-í hù
pn 3 sg . prf lose 3 sg . poss house- def in
‘Tokpa lost his house.’

Icari Dargwa katː-elg-anaj

Valency pattern: ABS_akkwal
X: ABS
Y: akkwal
Locus: Y
Islam qal akːʷa-l katː-elg-un
pn . abs house. abs be: neg - adv down -remain: pf - aor
‘Islam lost his house.’

Irish caill

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Chaill Pól a thig.
pst /lose pn poss .3 sg . m house
‘Pól lost his house.’

Italian perdere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha perso cas-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs lose. pst . ptcp house- sg . f
‘Leo lost his house.’

Kadar Dargwa k-alʔ-es / k-ulʔ-es

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
meħamad k-alʔ-un qali awga-le
pn down -stay. pfv - pret house be.absent- cvb
‘Muhammad lost his house.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed in a dependent clause.

Kalderash Romani xasarəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a xasar-ď-a o khər
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg lose- pst -3 sg art . m . dir . sg house[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša lost his house.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_APUD.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: APUD.ELAT
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad χl.a-x-an ʁa-x-nu
pn ( abs ) house- apud - elat pf -( h . sg )become- pst
‘Mahamad lost (his) house.’

Karata hač’e biχχwaɬa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʕali misa hač’e w-uχχu
pn house cop . neg m -remain
‘Ali lost his house.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause. At least historically, “hač’e” is a participle, which makes this structure biclausal.

Kaytag Dargwa uqana

Valency pattern: NOM_INTEREL
X: NOM
Y: INTEREL
Locus: Y
petja qilbal-c:ir uq-un
pn house. pl . obl - interel ( m )go. pf - aor
‘Petja lost his house.’

Kazakh ayïrïl-ïp qal

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya üy-і-nen ayïrïl-ïp qal-dï
pn house- poss 3- abl lose- cvb remain- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya lost his house.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe ǂoaǃnâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǁî-b om-s-a go ǂoaǃnâ
pn -3 m . sg decl 3-3 m . sg house-3 f . sg - obl rpst leave
‘Peter lost his house.’

Khwarshi bataɫa

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.EL
X: ABS
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
šamil batała-ja aq-qo-žo
pn part- pst . w house( iv )- cont - el
‘Shamil lost his house.’

Kina Rutul madiš

Valency pattern: ATTR_NOM
X: ATTR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-dɨ χal madiš
pn - attr house( nom ) remain.4. neg
‘Rasul lost his house.’

Kumyk qalmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_CAR
X: NOM
Y: CAR
Locus: Y
mahammat üj-süz qal-d-ɨ
pn house- car remain- pst -3 sg
‘Muhammad lost his house.’

Latin amitto

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Manli-us agr-os bon-a-que omni-a amis-eri-t
pn ( m )- nom . sg field( m )- acc . pl property( n )- acc . pl -and all- acc . pl . n lose- fut 2. ind - act .3 sg
‘Manlius lost hist fields and all his property.’
Note: (Sal. Cat. 28, 4)

Laz o-ndin-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k oxo(r)-i go-ndin-u
pn - b - erg house- nom prv -lose- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim lost (his) house.’

Mandarin Chinese shīqù

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān shīqù le tā-de fángzi
pn lose pfv he- de house
‘Zhangsan lost his house.’

Mano kɔ̰́

Valency pattern: SBJ_yi
X: SBJ
Y: yi
Locus: Y
kɔ̰́ ká yí
3 sg . pst be.deprived house in
‘S/he was deprived of a house.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
Islam qaj-ze-la w-az-ib
pn house- cont - el m -be.deprived: pfv - pst
‘Islam lost his house.’

Mingrelian Ø-u-din-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_ERG
X: DAT
Y: ERG
Locus: X
čelo-s ʔude-k me-Ø-u-din-(u)
pn - dat house- erg prv - io 3- ver : o -disappear-( s 3 sg . pst )
‘Chelo lost (his) house.’

Modern Hebrew ibed

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ibed et ha bajt ʃel-o
pn lose[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def house poss -3 sg . m
‘Pinchas lost his house.’

Mukhad Rutul jiʔi

Valency pattern: NOM_ADEL
X: NOM
Y: ADEL
Locus: Y
murad χal-daa jiši-ri
pn house- adel m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his house.’

Nanai xuədə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia ǯo-i xuədə-xə-ni
pn house- p . refl . sg lose- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia lost his house.’

Nivkh vəkzd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik taf + pəkz-d
pn house + lose- ind
‘Kaskazik lost his house.’

Northern Akhvakh biχχuruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_golo
X: NOM
Y: golo
Locus: Y
pataħi awa goƛo w-uχχ-ari
pn home without m -remain- aor
‘Patahi lost his house.’

Northern Mansi patəs

Valency pattern: NOM_CAR
X: NOM
Y: CAR
Locus: Y
ti ēkwa kol-tāl pat-əs
this woman house- car fall- pst .3 sg
‘This woman lost her house.’

Northern Yukaghir kurčī=

Valency pattern: NOM_NEG
X: NOM
Y: NEG
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn аwjа̄ ǝl nimǝ kurči-č
pn yesterday neg house become- intr .3 sg
‘Yesterday, Semien lost his house.’

Norwegian Bokmål å miste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per miste-t hus-et sitt
pn lose- pst house- def . n . sg poss . refl . n . sg
‘Per lost his house.’

Polish stracić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Paweł straci-ł dom
pn [ nom . sg ] lose: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] house[ acc . sg ]
‘Paweł lost his house.’

Russian lišitʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja liši-l-sja dom-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg deprive( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl house( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja lost hist house.’

Serbian ostati

Valency pattern: NOM_bezGEN
X: NOM
Y: bezGEN
Locus: Y
Petar je osta-o bez kuć-e
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg remain- part . perf . m . sg without house- gen . sg
‘Petar lost his house.’

Shinaz Rutul h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTEL
X: NOM
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
basir χal-ɨkla h-iši-r
pn house- contel m -be. pf - aor
‘Basir lost his house.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni redow

Valency pattern: NOM_beOBL
X: NOM
Y: beOBL
Locus: Y
Ahmed be-malā red
pn without-dwelling remain. pst
‘Ahmed lost hist house.’

Skolt Saami mõõnted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt mõõnt-i põõrt-âs
pn . sg . nom make.go- pst .3 sg house. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete lost his house.’

Slovak prísť

Valency pattern: NOM_oACC
X: NOM
Y: oACC
Locus: Y
Peter prišie-l o svoj dom
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] come( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] about one's[ m . acc . sg ] house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter lost his house.’

Slovenian ostati

Valency pattern: NOM_brezGEN
X: NOM
Y: brezGEN
Locus: Y
Pavel je osta-l brez dom-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] without house- gen . sg
‘Pavel lost his house.’

Sorani Kurdish le dest dan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa maɫ-eke=î de awir-eke-da le dest da-Ø
pn house- def =3 sg . pc in fire- def -in from hand give. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa lost his house in the fire.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTEL
X: NOM
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad xal-ıkla yişi-r
pn house- contel m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his house.’

Spanish perder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha perdi-do su casa
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg lose- ptcp : prf one’s[ sg . f ] house[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro lost his house.’

Standard Arabic faqada

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un faqada bayt-a-n
pn - nom lose. pf .3 m house- acc - indef
‘Badr lost his house.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d larda-lazga ad-Ø-karw-e
pn - erg room-house- nom prv : dist - do 3-lose- pst
‘Maizer lost (his) house.’

Swedish att förlora

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn förlora-de sitt hus
pn lose- pst poss . refl . n . sg house
‘Björn lost his house.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: LOC_ACT
X: LOC
Y: ACT
Locus: X
na-wala-n ng bahay si Pedro
pot . pfv -lose- lv gen house pers . subj pn
‘Pedro lost his house.’

Telugu pōgoṭṭukōnu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ tana iṁṭi-ni pōgoṭṭukunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom own house( n ). sg . obl - acc lose. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen lost his house.’

Tsakhur ıхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_CAR
X: NOM
Y: CAR
Locus: Y
murad хav-ı-kena ıхha
pn house- obl - car . h ( m )be. pf
‘Murad lost his house.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa ka-b-iχ-iz/ka-b-irχ-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_akwar
X: NOM
Y: akwar
Locus: Y
unra qali akːʷar ka-jχ-ub
neighbor home cop . neg (3) down-( m )be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor remained homeless.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-uq-i / b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: INTER.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
zumra qali-cːe-rka uq-un
neighbor home- inter - abl . down ( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor lost his house.’

Turkish kaybetmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ev-i-ni kaybet-ti
pn house- p .3- acc lose- pst
‘Mehmet lost his house.’

Turoyo mṣakər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel mṣakar-le u bayt-ayḏe
pn lose. pfv - ls .3 m art . m house( m )- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel lost his house.’

Twi hwere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi hwere-e ne fie
pn lose- pst 3 sg ( poss ) house
‘Kofi lost his house.’

Ulcha očo-

Valency pattern: NOM_CARIT
X: NOM
Y: CARIT
Locus: Y
ama xagdu=ana očo-xa-ni
father house= carit become- pst -3 sg
‘Father lost his house.’

Uzbek qolmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_CAR
X: NOM
Y: CAR
Locus: Y
Petya uy-siz qol-di
pn house- car remain- pst .3 sg
‘Petja lost hist house.’

West Central Oromo ɗaba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n mana isaa ɗab-e
pn - nom house. abs 3 sg . m . poss lose-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa lost his house.’

Wolof ñàkk

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
ñàkk nga sa xaalis ci dara
lose prf .s i :2 sg poss :2 sg money( b ) loc nothing
‘You lost your money for nothing.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTEL
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib kˈval-i-kaa xha-na
pn house- obl - sub / postel become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib lost his house.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kɛjɛ dɛst-e ɛj=ra ʃi
house hand- ez . m 3 sg . m . obl =from go. pst . m
‘He lost his house,’ lit. ‘The house went off his hand.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Zilo Andi <w>-at’a-ɬ.i-j

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali milki-tʃ’u-kːu w-at’a-ɬ.i-j
pn [ m ][ nom ] house- cont - el m -separate- inch . pst - pf
‘Ali lost his house.’