BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘follow’

Argument frame: X (follow) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. follows M .
Predicate label Ru: следовать
Argument frame Ru: X (следовать) за Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. следует за М .

Abaza [c̣əqʷa] ta-gəla

Valency pattern: ABS_jceqwa
X: ABS
Y: jceqwa
Locus: Y
rasúl j-aš’á j-c̣ə́qʷa d-ta-gəla-b
pn 3 sg . m . io -brother 3 sg . m . io -tail 3 sg . h . abs - loc -stand- npst . dcl
‘Rasul follows his brother.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ə-wəžə jə-tə

Valency pattern: ABS_POweze
X: ABS
Y: POweze
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-m ə-wəžə jə-t
guy- abs teacher- obl 3 sg . po -after loc : cont -stand
‘The guy follows the teacher.’

Aghul ʕʷ.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_GENxupaqas
X: ABS
Y: GENxupaqas
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-n χupːaq-as ʕʷ.a-a
pn pn - gen behind- elat go. ipf - prs
‘Aslan follows Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz yixhic

Valency pattern: NOM_cixe7
X: NOM
Y: cixe7
Locus: Y
terlan rasul çixeʕ çe-re
pn pn behind go. ipfv - prs
‘Terlan follows Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
paša marin-ni-s χir su<w>kːa-r-ši w-i
pn pn - obl - dat behind <1>look- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha follows Marina.’
Note: χir is part of the predicate (an adverbial element). The NP in the dative case can be separated from the “χir” element.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic azəl

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
ayya baxta bəšš=əla +bar +gor-o
dem 2. f woman( f ) go. prog =3 f after man( m )- p .3 f
‘This woman follows her husband.’

Avar χadub buk’ine

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCxaduAGR
X: NOM
Y: LOCxaduAGR
Locus: Y
ʕali marjam-i-da χadu-w w-ugo
pn pn - obl - loc behind- m m - cop
‘Ali follows Marjam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Azerbaijani getmək

Valency pattern: NOM_GENarxaPOSSca
X: NOM
Y: GENarxaPOSSca
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-un arxa-sı-nca ged-ir
pn pn - gen behind- poss 3- adv go- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan follows Rasul.’

Bambara tùgu

Valency pattern: SBJ_ko
X: SBJ
Y: ko
Locus: Y
Sékù tùgu Fántà kɔ́
pn ipfv follow pn behind
‘Seku follows Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese seguir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro segu-e Miguel
pn ( m ) follow-3 sg . prs pn ( m )
‘Pedro follows Miguel.’

Catalan seguir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere segueix en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) follow.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere follows Marc.’

Chirag ej

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPERhitille
X: ABS
Y: SUPERhitille
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-l-i hitːille ag-ur
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - super following go: pf - aor .3
‘Ali followed Rasul.’
Note: Here, «hitːille» can be viewed as a postposition.

Czech jít

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Petr jde za Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] go( ipfv ). prs .3 sg behind pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr follows Michal.’

Danish følge

Valency pattern: SBJ_efter
X: SBJ
Y: efter
Locus: Y
Peter følge-r efter Marie
pn follow- prs after pn
‘Peter follows Marie.’

Dutch volgen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet volg-t Marie
pn ( c ) follow-3 sg pn ( c )
‘Piet follows Marie.’

Eastern Maninka bìla

Valency pattern: SBJ_ko
X: SBJ
Y: ko
Locus: Y
Sékù bìla-nɛn Fántà kɔ́.
pn put- ptcp . res pn behind
‘Seku follows Fanta.’

English follow

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter follows Mary.

Estonian jälitama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter jälita-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom follow- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter follows Maret.’

Finnish seurata

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka seura-a Matti-a
pn . nom follow- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka follows Matti’

Forest Enets dʲazu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLpoon
X: NOM
Y: OBLpon
Locus: Y
vasʲa kasa-da pɔɔn dʲaza
pn man- obl . sg .3 sg behind go( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘Vasja is following his friend’.

French suivre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul suit Marie
pn ( m ) follow. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul follows Marie.’

Georgian mi-h-q'v-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s mi-h-q'v-eb-a
pn - nom pn - dat prv : dist - io 3-follow- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre follows Masho.’

German folgen

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl folg-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] follow- prs .3 sg m arie[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl follows Marie.’

Icari Dargwa tːi=w=ax-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-reh tːi=w=ax-a-ca=w
pn . abs pn - post post = m =go: ipf - prs - cop = m
‘Islam follows Nadir.’

Irish lean

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Lean-aíonn Pól Máire.
follow- prs pn pn
‘Pól follows Máire.’

Italian seguire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo segu-e Maria
pn ( m ) follow-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo follows Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad araʁa-ka w-at-0-ix-ib ʡašura-ke
pn behind- el m -leave. pfv - m -put. pfv - pret pn - super
‘Muhammad follows Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani źal

Valency pattern: NOM_pala
X: NOM
Y: pala
Locus: Y
o Murš-a źa-l pala Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg go- prs .3 sg behind pn - nom . sg
‘Murša follows Marijka.’

Karata

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali marjam-ja χirχi-r idja
pn pn - dat behind- lat cop
‘Ali follows Marjam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. Here, “χirχir” arguably functions as part of the predicate.

Kaytag Dargwa гьереъвахьара

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja maša-j hereğvax-ulca
pn pn - datlat m .follow. ipf - prs
‘Petja follows Misha.’

Kazakh žür

Valency pattern: NOM_GENartynan
X: NOM
Y: GENartynan
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-nïŋ artïnan žür-edі
pn pn - gen after go- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya follows Masha.’

Kazym Khanty šǫtši

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMjupijen
X: NOM
Y: NOMjupijen
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-ǝλ jŭpijǝn šǫt-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg behind go- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja follows Maša.’

Khoekhoe sao

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ra sao
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl ipfv follow
‘Peter follows Maria’

Khwarshi žoho n/ak'a

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN2
X: ABS
Y: GEN2
Locus: Y
beƛ'q'u-ba n-ak'a-ha iho-lo žoho
sheep- pl . abs nhpl -go- prs shepherd- gen 2 behind
‘The sheep follow the shepherd.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul xale ana jiɁi

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRzibra
X: NOM
Y: ATTRzibra
Locus: Y
rasul xal-e a-na jiɁi asijet-dɨ ǯibra
pn ( nom ) trail- in be- cvb 1. cop pn - attr behind
‘Rasul follows Asijat.’

Kumyk barmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_GENartPOSS.bulan
X: NOM
Y: GENartPOSS.bulan
Locus: Y
patimat musa-nɨ art-ɨ bulan bar-a
pn pn - gen back-3 sg with leave-3 sg
‘Patimat follows Musa.’

Latin sequor

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
parv-us Iul-us sequi-tur patr-em non pass-ibus aequ-is
little- nom . sg . m pn ( m )- nom . sg follow[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg father( m )- acc . sg not step( m )- abl . pl equal- abl . pl . m
‘Little Iulus followed, with unequal step, his sire.’
Note: (Verg. Aen. II, 723)

Laz o-Ɂ-on-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-s ek'o-Ø-[ʔ]-um-s
pn - nom pn - dat prv - io 3-[follow]- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim follows Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese gēn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān gēn zhe Lǐsì zǒu
pn follow dur pn walk
‘Zhangsan follows Lisi and walks.’

Mano lúó

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ lùò
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg chase: ipfv
‘S/he follows me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Islam ʡaˤ-la le-w Nadir-li-s
pn behind- el be- m pn - obl - dat
‘Islam follows Nadir.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian ge-Ø-ʔ-un-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s ge-Ø-ʔ-un-s
pn - nom pn - dat prv - io 3-follow- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo follows Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew okev

Valency pattern: SBJ_axarej
X: SBJ
Y: axarej
Locus: Y
Pinχas okev aχarej Menaχem
pn follow[ ptcp . sg . m ] after pn
‘Pinchas follows Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul qhuna jıxın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-χda qhu-na jiʔi
pn pn - obl - apud be_behind- adv m .go
‘Murad follows Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai ənə-

Valency pattern: NOM_xamila
X: NOM
Y: xamila
Locus: Y
Petia Maša xame-la-ni ənə-j-ni
pn pn back- loc - p .3 sg go- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia follows Masha.’

Nivkh jarid

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + ari-d
pn pn + fall.behind- ind
‘Kaskazik follows Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: NOM_qedo
X: NOM
Y: qedo
Locus: Y
pataħi musa qedo gudi
pn pn behind m . cop
‘Patahi follows Musa.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Mansi n’awlaxti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMjuji.palt
X: NOM
Y: NOMjuji.palt
Locus: Y
kati am juji pal-um akwaj ta n’awl-axt-i
cat 1 sg back half- poss .1 sg always ptcl follow- refl - npst [3 sg ]
‘The cat follows me everywhere.’

Northern Yukaghir ū=

Valency pattern: NOM_lajaat
X: NOM
Y: lajaat
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ lаjа̄-t ū-j
pn pn behind- abl go- intr .3 sg
‘Semien follows Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å følge etter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per følge-r etter Ola
pn follow- prs after pn
‘Per follows Kari.’
Note: Phrasal verb (etter is not a flagging device).

Polish iść

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Jacek idzie za Mark-iem
pn [ nom . sg ] go: ipfv . prs .3 sg behind pn - ins . sg
‘Jacek follows Marek.’

Russian idti

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja id-et za Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg go( ipfv )- prs .3 sg behind pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja follows Maša.’

Serbian slediti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar sledi Marij-u
pn . nom . sg follow. prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar follows Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul džubra h-ɨxɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTR
X: NOM
Y: ATTR
Locus: Y
basir džubra h-iʔi karam-dɨ
pn behind m - cop pn - attr
‘Basir follows Karam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni tīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdamti
X: NOM
Y: OBLdamti
Locus: Y
Azim Lola dām-ti tīz-d
pn pn back- sup go-3 sg
‘Azim follows Lola.’

Skolt Saami čuâvvad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuâvv Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom follow. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete follows Maria’

Slovak následovať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter následuje Mári-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] follow( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter follows Maria.’

Slovenian slediti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter sledi Pavl-u
pn [ nom . sg ] follow: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Peter follows Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish wediwa kewtin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kamr̂an we-diwa-î Mensour-î de-kew-ê
pn prev -back- izf pn - obl ind -falling-3 sg
‘Kamran follows Mansour.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul aˤqhaala yıxhın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad aydın-dı aˤqh-aala ruˤq'uˤ-r
pn pn - attr shade- superel ( m )go. ipf - prs
‘Murad follows Aydin.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Spanish seguir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro sigu-e a María
pn [ sg . m ] follow- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro follows Maria.’

Standard Arabic tabiʕa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n yatbaʕu Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef follow. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr follows Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-s es-Ø-qer-i
pn - nom pn - dat prv : dist - io 3-follow- prs
‘Maizer follows Lile.’

Swedish att följa efter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn följ-er efter Maja
pn follow- prs after pn
‘Björn follows Maja.’
Note: Phrasal verb (efter is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_PATH
X: ACT
Y: PATH
Locus: Y
S<um>u~sunod si Pedro kay Miguel
< av > ipfv ~follow pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro follows Miguel.’
Note: Ask Sergey

Telugu veṁbaḍiṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni veṁbaḍistunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc follow. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen follows Mahesh.’

Tsakhur ark’ıniy

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRqhehna
X: NOM
Y: ATTRqhehna
Locus: Y
murad rasul-ni qhehna aˁlhaaˁ
pn pn - attr . obl behind go. ipf
‘Murad follows Rasul.’
Note: rasul-ni qhehna forms a constituent here and qhehna is a postposition.

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-ja hitːi w-ax-ule=saj
boy friend- obl - super ( lat ) post (after) m -walk- prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy follows his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Turkish gitmek

Valency pattern: NOM_GENpesinden
X: NOM
Y: GENpesinden
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-ın peşinden gid-iyor
pn pn - gen after go- prs
‘Mehmet is following Orhan.’

Turoyo mḥaləq

Valency pattern: SBJ_beter
X: SBJ
Y: beter
Locus: Y
Gabriyel mḥalaq-le bəṯre Maryam
pn throw. pfv - ls .3 m after pn
‘Gabriyel followed Maryam.’

Ulcha pulsi-

Valency pattern: NOM_xamiPROL
X: NOM
Y: xamiPROL
Locus: Y
əj iŋda min xami-ki-je ti pul-s-i-ni
this dog my behind- prol -1 sg so walk- ipfv - prs -3 sg
‘This dog follows me like this.’

Uzbek ergašmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga ergaš-moqda
pn pn - dat follow- prs 3.3 sg
‘Petja follows Maša.’

West Central Oromo hordofa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu hordof-a
pn - nom pn . abs follow-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa follows Bontu.’

Zilo Andi <w>-eχːudu <w>-uʔ.inn-e

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-tʃ’u w-eχːudu w-uʔ.inn-e
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - cont m -after m -go. npst - hab
‘Ali is going after/following Muhammad.’