BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘flatter’

Argument frame: X (flatter) Y
Stimulus sentence: ( P. tells M. that she is very beautiful.) P. is flattering M .
Predicate label Ru: льстить
Argument frame Ru: X (льстить) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. говорит М., что она очень красивая). П. льстит М .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) nepc̣əč̣ʼe šʼə-tχʷə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC
X: ABS
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r pŝaŝe-m ne.pc̣ə-č̣ʼe šʼ-e-tχʷə
guy- abs girl- obl false- ins loc - dyn -praise
‘The guy is flattering the girl.’

Aghul qːele-jar jarʜ.a-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a ruš.a-s qːele-jar jarʜ.a-a
pn ( erg ) girl- dat flattery- pl srike. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is flattering the girl.’

Alik Kryz yaltaxlanmiş xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan leyla-z yaltaxlanmiş şe-re
pn pn - dat flatter be. ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan is flattering Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic maxə məšxa

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
yala mxay=ələ məšxa ka d-e brata
boy( m ) beat. prog =3 m fat( m ) to obl - dem 4. f girl( f )
‘The boy is flattering this girl.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar reccinaldaɬun gukkize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca recc-in-al-da-ɬ-un gukk-ule-j j-igo marjam
pn - erg praise- msd - obl - loc - vblz - seq cheat- ipf . ptcp - f f - cop pn
‘Ali is flattering Marjam.’

Azerbaijani yaltaqlanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya yaltaqlan-ır
pn pn - dat / lat flatter- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is flattering Leyla.’

Bambara bálima

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bɛ́_kà Fántà bálima
pn prog pn flatter
‘Seku flatters Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese bajular

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro bajul-a Maria
pn ( m ) flatter-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Pedro is flattering Maria.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan leyla' yaltağlenmi yıxhar-a'vi
pn pn . loc flatter ( m )be. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is flattering Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan afalagar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere està afalag-ant amb la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind flatter- ger with def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere is flattering Maria.’

Chirag sa-pː-umʡi

Valency pattern: ABS_GENsamate
X: ABS
Y: GENsamate
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le madina-la samatːe sa-w-umʡ-le
pn ( abs ) pn - gen in.front ante - m . sg -( m . sg )play: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali is trying to please Madina.’
Note: This sentence is semantically slightly different from the stimulus.

Czech lichotit

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr Michal-ovi lichotí
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] pn ( m )- dat . sg flatter( ipfv ). prs .3 sg
‘Petr is flattering Michal.’

Danish smigre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter smigre-r Marie
pn flatter- prs pn
‘Peter is flattering Marie.’

Dutch vleien

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet vlei-t Marie
pn ( c ) flatter-3 sg pn ( c )
‘Piet is flattering Marie.’

Eastern Maninka mátɔɔ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé Fántà mátɔɔ` lá.
pn be pn flatter\ art at
‘Seku is flattering Fanta.’

English flatter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter is flattering Mary.

Estonian meelitama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter meelita-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom flatter- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter is flattering Maret.’

Finnish imarella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka imartel-ee Lotta-a
pn . nom flatter- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is flattering Lotta.’

Forest Enets naldur

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-xo-da nalduŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg fawn( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is fawning to his wife’.

French flatter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul flatte Marie
pn ( m ) flatter. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul is flattering Marie.’

Georgian Ø-e-p'irper-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s Ø-e-p'irper-eb-a
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -flatter- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre is flattering Masho.’

German schmeicheln

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl schmeichel-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] flatter- prs .3 sg pn [ dat . sg ]
‘Karl is flattering Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle ɲáa hɛ́ŋ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe àa Hɛ́ni ɲáa hɛ́ŋ
pn 3 sg . prf pn surface aim
‘Pepee cajoled Heni.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Icari Dargwa gap=r=irq'-uj

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Islam-il Madina gap=r=irq'-a-ca=r
pn - erg pn . abs praise= f =do: ipf - prs - cop = f
‘Islam is praising Madina.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Irish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Italian lusingare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo lusing-a Maria
pn ( m ) flatter-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo flatters Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa laˤw-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad laˤw-0-uk'-ar ʡašura-ke
pn flatter- m -say. ipfv - th pn - super
‘Muhammad is flattering Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
mahamad-ǯi fatima.ji-z uc̊ːur-dar gaf-ar ap’-ura
pn - erg pn - dat nice- pl word- pl do- prs
‘Mahamad is flattering Fatima.’

Karata recci-maħi gahaɬa

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l marjam-ja recci-maħi ge-da idja
pn - erg pn - dat flattery do- ipf cop
‘Ali is flattering Marjam.’

Kaytag Dargwa ʕaˁħzullahigara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja maša-j ʕaˁħzullahiž-ivca
pn pn - datlat flatter. pf - perf
‘Petja is flattering Masha.’

Kazakh žaɣïmpazdan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa žaɣïmpazdan-adï
pn pn - dat flatter- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya is flattering Masha.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe koa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ra koa
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl ipfv flatter
‘Peter is flattering Maria.’

Khwarshi ragłal l-uwa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasul-i ħakime-l ragłal l-uj-ja
pn - erg boss( i )- dat good( iv ) iv -make- pst . w
‘Rasul has placated his boss.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kina Rutul rirzara

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasul-a samira r-irz-a-r=a
pn - erg pn ( nom ) 2-praise. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is flattering Samira.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Kumyk jarewkelik etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat musa-ʁa jarewke-lik et-e
pn pn - dat flatterer- nmlz do-3 sg
‘Patimat is flattering Musa.’

Latin blandior

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
(Falcidi-us) cur matr-i praeterea blandi-tur
pn ( m )- nom . sg why mother( f )- dat . sg besides flatter[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg
‘Besides, why does he (Falcidius) flatter his mother in this way?’
Note: (Cic. Pro Flacco, 92)

Laz o-mck-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k Fatma-Ø Ø-o-mckv-am-s
pn - b - erg pn - nom do 3- fact -praise- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is flattering Fatma.’
Note: ‘To flatter’ is one of possible contextual interpretations of this verb.

Mandarin Chinese tǎohǎo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zài tǎohǎo Lǐsì
pn prog flatter pn
‘Zhangsan is flattering Lisi.’

Mano tɛ̀nɛ̄

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pèé lɛ̄ nā tɛ̀nɛ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀
pn 3 sg . exi 3 sg . refl wife praise- inf
‘Pe is praising his wife.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pajzula le-w Madina-li-s žigʷa w-iz-es uʜaˤq'-uwe
pn be- m pn - obl - dat beautiful m -stand.up: pfv - inf m -talk: ipfv - cvb
‘Pajzula is flattering Madina.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Mingrelian Ø-o-kut-ol-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-o-kut-ol-un-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -flatter- r . ext - sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo is flattering Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew maχmi

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas maχmi le Menaχem
pn flatter[ ptcp . sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas is flattering Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul jirzin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a majram rirze-re a
pn - erg pn f . ipf .praise- simul be_in
‘Murad is flattering Majram.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Nanai ojban-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Petia Maša-ǯi ojban-ǯi-ni
pn pn - ins fawn- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is fawning on Masha.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh beccuruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de madina j-ecc-ere gidi
pn - erg pn f -flatter- simul f . cop
‘Patahi is flattering Madina.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir amučǝ ŋol=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ŋinˈ аm-u-čǝ ŋol-а̄-l-ŋinˈ tа̄t mon-i
pn pn - dat good- stat - ptcl be- trnsf - nlzr - dat so say- intr .3 sg
‘To be (appear to be) good, Semien tells Akulina so.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Norwegian Bokmål å smigre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per smigre-r Kari
pn flatter- prs pn
‘Per is flattering Kari.’

Polish pochlebiać

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sylwi-a pochlebia Anni-e
pn - nom . sg flatter: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Sylwia is flattering Anna.’

Russian lʹstitʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja lʹst-it Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg flatter( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja is flattering Maša.’

Serbian laskati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petar laska Marij-i
pn . nom . sg flatter. prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Petar is flattering Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul gaˁvχaˁj havʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir gaˁvχaˁj vaʔa-r a karam-ɨs
pn flattery. a a .do. ipf - simul exist pn - dat
‘Basir is flattering Karam.’

Shughni *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Skolt Saami kuärggted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kuärggat Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom flatter. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is flattering Maria’

Slovak lichotiť

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter lichotí Mári-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] flatter( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Peter is flattering Maria.’

Slovenian se dobrika

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Katarin-a se dobrika An-i
pn - nom . sg rfl flatter: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Katarina is flattering Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish sazkirdin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa xerîk-e Perî-î saz-de-k-a
pn busy-be. prs .3 sg pn - obl making- ind -do. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is flattering Pari.’

Southern Rutul kirtebı hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a natig-ı-s kirte-bı haʔa-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat flattery- pl . nom ( n )do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is flattering Natig.’

Spanish lisonjear

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro lisonje-a a María
pn [ sg . m ] flatter- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro is flattering Maria.’

Standard Arabic tamallaqa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yatamallaqu Maryam-a
pn - nom flatter. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr is flattering Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-s x-e-lmes-ieːl
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -praise- vpl
‘Maizer flatters Lile.’

Swedish att smickra

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn smickra-r Maja
pn flatter- prs pn
‘Björn is flattering Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
B<in>o~bola ni Pedro si Maria
< pv > ipfv ~flatter pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro is flattering Maria.’

Telugu poguḍu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ madhuri-ni poguḍutunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( f ). sg . obl - acc commend. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is flattering Madhuri.’

Tsakhur qhaˁpčiyvalla havʔıy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee leyla-ys qhaˁpčiyvalla haaʔa
pn - erg pn - dat flattery( a ) a .do. ipf
‘Murad is flattering Leyla.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Tsugni Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Turkish pohpohlamak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i pohpohlu-yor
pn pn - acc flatter- prs
Mehmet is flattering Filiz.

Turoyo mbasəm leb-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Šabo kə-mbasəm lebo d Maryam
pn prs -make_sweet. ipfv .3 m heart( m ) rel pn
‘Šabo is flattering Maryam.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Ulcha *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Uzbek xušomadgo’ylamoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni xušomadgo’yla-b tur-ib-ti
pn pn - acc flatter- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is flattering Maša.’

West Central Oromo dʒadʒa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu dʒadʒ-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom pn . abs flatter- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is flattering Bontu.’

Zilo Andi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pat’imati-di marjam j-etsːiqχ-o
pn - erg pn [ f ][ nom ] f -praise- hab
‘Patimat praises Mariam.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.