BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘fight’

Argument frame: X (fight) with Y
Stimulus sentence: (‘Look out of the window!’ ‘What’s happening?’) ‘ P. is fighting with M.
Predicate label Ru: драться
Argument frame Ru: X (драться) с Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (— Посмотри во двор. — А что там?). П. дерется с М .

Abaza [aba-]ḳə

Valency pattern: ABS_SOC
X: ABS
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
rasúl murád d-j-ába-ḳ-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - soc -fight- prs - dcl
‘Rasul is fighting with Murad.’

Aghul uqː.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-qaj uqː.a-a
pn pn - com fight. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is fighting with Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṗaləš

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+Ašur +ṗlaš=əl mən švav-u
pn fight. prog =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur is fighting with his neighbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro está brigando com Miguel
‘Педру дерется с Мигелом.’

Czech prát se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se pere s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fight( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is fighting with Michal.’

Finnish tapella

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkanssa
X: NOM
Y: GENkanssa
Locus: Y
Pekka tappel-ee Mati-n kanssa
pn . nom fight- prs .3 sg pn - gen with
‘Pekka is fighting with Matti’

Forest Enets tarur

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xane-da taruŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg fight( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is fighting with Vasja’.

Latin luctor

Valency pattern: NOM_cumABL
X: NOM
Y: cumABL
Locus: Y
cum mortu-is non nisi larv-as lucta-ri
with dead- abl . pl not if_not evil_ghost( f )- acc . pl fight[ prs ]- inf . mid
‘Nobody fights the dead but ghosts.’
Note: (Plin. NH Pr, 31, 5)

Modern Hebrew rav

Valency pattern: SBJ_im
X: SBJ
Y: im
Locus: Y
Pinχas rav im Menaχem
pn fight[ ptcp . sg . m ] with pn
‘Pinchas is fighting with Menachem.’

Nanai sorimači-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia Vasia-ǯi sore-mači-či
pn pn - ins fight- recp . npst - p .3 pl
‘Petia is fighting with Vasia.’

Norwegian Bokmål å slåss

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Per slåss med Ola
pn fight. prs with pn
‘Per is fighting with Ola.’

Polish bić się

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Marek bije się z Tomasz-em
pn [ nom . sg ] fight: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Maciek is fighting with Tomasz.’

Russian dratʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja der-et-sja s Miš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg fight( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja is fighting with Miša.’

Rutul kičilqara

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-kan kičilqa-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com <1>fight. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is fighting with Ramazan.’

Skolt Saami tuärrad

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij tuärr-men Määʹrja-in
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg fight- prog . ptcp pn - sg . com
‘Pete is fighting with Maria’

Slovenian tepsti se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se tepe s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl beat: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is fighting with Pavel.’

Swedish att slåss

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Björn slåss med Maja
pn fight. prs with pn
‘Björn is fighting with Maja.’

Turkish dövüşmek

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet çocuk-la dövüş-üyor
pn boy- com fight- prs
‘Mehmet is fighting with a boy.’

Ulcha sormači-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
xusə piktə əktə piktə-ǯi sor-mač-i-ni
male child female child- ins fight- rec - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is fighting with the girl.’

Zilo Andi <w>-aχː.o-j

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ali aħmadi=lojɡu w-aχː.o-j
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn = com m -fight. pst - pf
‘Ali and Ahmad are fighting.’