BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘fight’

Argument frame: X (fight) with Y
Stimulus sentence: (‘Look out of the window!’ ‘What’s happening?’) ‘ P. is fighting with M.
Predicate label Ru: драться
Argument frame Ru: X (драться) с Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (— Посмотри во двор. — А что там?). П. дерется с М .

Abaza [aba-]ḳə

Valency pattern: ABS_SOC
X: ABS
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
rasúl murád d-j-ába-ḳ-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - soc -fight- prs - dcl
‘Rasul is fighting with Murad.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-zewe

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r bzeǯʼaṣ̂e-me ja-zawe
guy- abs hooligan- obl . pl 3 pl . io + dat -fight
‘The guy is fighting with the hooligans.’

Aghul uqː.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-qaj uqː.a-a
pn pn - com fight. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is fighting with Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz davʕa varic

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
terlan-ir rasul-zina davʕa yi-raʕacu
pn - erg pn - ins quarrel( f ) do. ipfv - prog . f
‘Terlan is fighting with Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
paša anχːa-r-ši w-i  moħommad-li-ɬːu
pn fight- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be pn - obl - com
‘Pasha is fighting with Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṗaləš

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+Ašur +ṗlaš=əl mən švav-u
pn fight. prog =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur is fighting with his neighbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

Avar baʁize

Valency pattern: NOM_gun
X: NOM
Y: gun
Locus: Y
ʕali w-aʁ-ule-w w-ugo aħmad gun
pn m -fight- ipf . ptcp - m m - cop pn with
‘Ali is fighting with Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani dalaşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la dalaş-ır
pn pn -with fight- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is fighting with Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

Bambara kɛ̀lɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bɛ́_kà Fùséni kɛ̀lɛ
pn prog pn fight
‘Seku fights Fuseyni.’

Brazilian Portuguese brigar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro está brig-ando com Miguel
pn ( m ) cop _ prog .3 sg . prs fight- prog with pn ( m )
‘Pedro is fighting with Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_zin
X: ERG
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uzun da'vʕa süʔü-ra'vi
pn - erg pn -with fight( a ) a .do. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is fighting with Rasul.’

Catalan barallar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere s'està barall-ant amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg -be.3 sg . prs . ind fight- ger with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is fighting with Marc.’

Chirag b-italsːi

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-li-cːille italsː-le
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - com ( m . sg )fight- prs . dur .3
‘Ali is fighting with Rasul.’

Czech prát se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se pere s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fight( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is fighting with Michal.’

Danish slås

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Peter er oppe at slås med Marie
pn be. prs up to fight. inf with pn
‘Peter is up to fight with Marie.’

Dutch vechten

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet vecht met Marie
pn (С) fight.3 sg with pn (С)
‘Piet is fighting with Marie.’

Eastern Maninka kɛ̀lɛ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù ní Fónbà yé kɛ̀lɛ` lá.
pn and pn be fight\ art at
‘Seku and Fomba are fighting.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

English fight

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter is fighting with Mary.

Estonian tülitsema

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peeter tülitse-b Mareti-ga
pn . sg . nom fight- prs .3 sg pn - com
‘Peeter is fighting with Maret.’

Finnish tapella

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkanssa
X: NOM
Y: GENkanssa
Locus: Y
Pekka tappel-ee Mati-n kanssa
pn . nom fight- prs .3 sg pn - gen with
‘Pekka is fighting with Matti’

Forest Enets tarur

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xane-da taruŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg fight( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is fighting with Vasja’.

French se battre

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul s’ est battu contre Michel
pn ( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg fight. pst . ptcp . m against pn ( m )
‘Paul fought with Michel.’

Georgian Ø-čxub-ob-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.SOC
X: ERG
Y: DAT.SOC
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s-tan Ø-čxub-ob-s
pn - nom pn - dat - pstp : soc s 3-fight- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is fighting with Masho.’

German sich prügeln

Valency pattern: NOM_mitDAT
X: NOM
Y: mitDAT
Locus: Y
Karl prügel-t sich mit Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] thrash- prs .3 sg refl with pn [ dat .3 sg ]
‘Karl is fighting with Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle kpìlêŋ kɔ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe dà Hèhee dàá kpìléŋ̀ gɔ́
pn 3.and pn 3 pl . prf battle fight
‘Pepee has fought with Hehee.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Icari Dargwa he=j=k-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_ILL.COM
X: ABS
Y: ILL.COM
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-ri-cːi-lli he=j=č-ib-ca=w
pn . abs pn - obl - ill - com up = m =fight: pf - aor - cop = m
‘Islam is fighting with Nadir.’

Irish bruíon

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pól ag bruíon le Máire.
be. prs pn at fight. nmlz with pn
‘Pól is fighting with Máire.’
Note: The verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian litigare

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo sta litig-ando con Maria
pn ( m ) stay. prs .3 sg fight- ger with pn ( f )
‘Leo is fighting with Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa ask-es / usk-es

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
meħamad rasul-j-ču usk-u-le
pn pn - obl - ad fight- prs - cvb
‘Muhammad is fighting with Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani marəlpe

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a mar-əl-pe la Marijk-asa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg fight- prs .3 sg - refl art . f . obl . sg pn - ins . sg
‘Murša is fighting with Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.DIR
X: ABS
Y: POST.DIR
Locus: Y
fatima maˁhaˁmad.a-q-ǯi kič’i<r>χ-na
pn ( abs ) pn - post - dir < h . sg >fight- res
‘Fatima got into a fight with Mahamad.’

Karata torč’č’anɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmat’-i-k’el torč’č’-indja idja
pn pn - obl - com strike- ipf cop
‘Ali is fighting with Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa č:iwihara

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
petja č:ivih-aˁvca miša-c:i
pn m .fight. pf - perf pn - inter
‘Petja is fighting with Misha.’

Kazakh töbeles

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya Mixail-men töbele-s-іp žatïr
pn pn - ins fight- rec - cvb lie.3 sg
‘Petya is fighting with Michael.’

Kazym Khanty kŭlaśti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpila
X: NOM
Y: NOMpila
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-en piλ-a kŭlaś-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg with- dat fight- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is fighting with Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǃkham

Valency pattern: SBJ_kha
X: SBJ
Y: kha
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s ǀkha ra ǃkham
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg with ipfv fight
‘Peter is fighting with Maria.’

Khwarshi j/eheja

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
šamil ehe-he tušmale=ge
pn ( i ) [ i ]fight- prs enemy. o = com
‘Shamil is fighting with an enemy.’

Kina Rutul kičilqara

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-kan kičilqa-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com <1>fight. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is fighting with Ramazan.’

Kumyk tutušmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMbulan
X: NOM
Y: NOMbulan
Locus: Y
rasul mahammat bulan tut-uš-a
pn pn with fight- rec -3 sg
‘Rasul is fighting with Muhammad.’

Latin luctor

Valency pattern: NOM_cumABL
X: NOM
Y: cumABL
Locus: Y
cum mortu-is non nisi larv-as lucta-ri
with dead- abl . pl not if_not evil_ghost( f )- acc . pl fight[ prs ]- inf . mid
‘Nobody fights the dead but ghosts.’
Note: (Plin. NH Pr, 31, 5)

Laz o-k'red-u

Valency pattern: NOM_SOC
X: NOM
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Mehmet'-k'ala Ø-i-k'red-en-Ø
pn - nom pn - pstp : soc s 3- ver : s -fight- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim is fighting with Mehmet'.’

Mandarin Chinese dǎjià

Valency pattern: SBJ_he
X: SBJ
Y: he
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān zhèngzài Lǐsì dǎjià
pn prog with pn fight
‘Zhangsan is fighting with Lisi.’

Mano gèlè gɔ̰̄

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kò gbàlà mìà kóò gèlè gɔ̰̄
1 pl . ip k pelle person. pl : cstr 1 pl . ipfv war fight: ipfv
‘We and the Kpelle people fight.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Pajzula urʁ-uwe le-w Musa-li-ču
pn m .fight- cvb be- m pn - obl - com
‘Pajzula is fighting with Musa.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-čxup'-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-o-čxup'-u(n)-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -fight- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo is fighting with Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew rav

Valency pattern: SBJ_im
X: SBJ
Y: im
Locus: Y
Pinχas rav im Menaχem
pn fight[ ptcp . sg . m ] with pn
‘Pinchas is fighting with Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul kidžitqhın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-xvan kidžidılqha-ra a
pn pn - obl - com hpl . ipf .fight- simul be_in
‘Murad is fighting with Kurban.’

Nanai sorimači-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia Vasia-ǯi sore-mači-či
pn pn - ins fight- recp . npst - p .3 pl
‘Petia is fighting with Vasia.’

Nivkh vad

Valency pattern: SBJ_COM
X: SBJ
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Irgun-ɣin va-d
pn pn - com . sg fight- ind
‘Kaskazik is fighting with Irgun.’

Northern Akhvakh buqquruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
patħudi w-uqq-ero gudi musa-k’ena
pn m -hit- ipf . ptcp . m m . cop pn - com
‘Pathudi is fighting with Musa.’

Northern Mansi alxati

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMjot
X: NOM
Y: NOMjot
Locus: Y
pājel alxat-i kol’a jot
pn fight- npst .3 sg pn with
‘Pasha fights with Kolja.’

Northern Yukaghir lajnu=

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-nˈǝŋ lаjnu-nu-j
pn pn - com fight- ipf - intr .3 sg
‘Semien is fighting with Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å slåss

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Per slåss med Ola
pn fight. prs with pn
‘Per is fighting with Ola.’

Polish bić się

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Marek bije się z Tomasz-em
pn [ nom . sg ] fight: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Maciek is fighting with Tomasz.’

Russian dratʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja der-et-sja s Miš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg fight( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja is fighting with Miša.’

Serbian tucati se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petar se tuče sa Mark-om
pn . nom . sg refl hit. prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Petar is fighting with Mark.’

Shinaz Rutul kičiqhɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
basir kičiqha-r a karam-ɨxvan
pn ( m )fight. ipf - simul exist pn - com
‘Basir is fighting with Karam.’

Shughni δêd čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Naǰiba Safina=qati δêd kix̌-t
pn pn = ins quarrel do-3 sg
‘Najiba is fighting with Safina.’

Skolt Saami tuärrad

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij tuärr-men Määrja-in
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg fight- prog . ptcp pn - sg . com
‘Pete is fighting with Maria’

Slovak biť sa

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Peter sa bije s Mark-om
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fight( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Peter is fighting with Marek.’

Slovenian tepsti se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se tepe s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl beat: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is fighting with Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish beʂer̂ hatin

Valency pattern: SBJ_legel
X: SBJ
Y: legel
Locus: Y
Hîwa legeɫ Arîwan-î be-ʂer̂ d-ê
pn with pn - obl to-fight come. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is fighting with Ariwan.’
Note: The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul kiç’itxhın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad natig-a-xhvan kiç'irxha-r
pn pn - obl - com ( m ). ipf .quarrel- prs
‘Murad is fighting with Natig.’

Spanish pegarse

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pedro y Maria se están pega-ndo
pn [ sg . m ] and pn [ sg . f ] refl .3 pl be_ prog . prs .3 pl stick- ger : prog
‘Pedro is fighting with Maria.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Standard Arabic tašāǧara

Valency pattern: NOM_maaGEN
X: NOM
Y: maaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un yatašāǧaru maʕa Maryam-a
pn - nom fight. ipf .3 m with pn - gen
‘Badr is fighting with Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_SOC
X: NOM
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-caxän Ø-i-q'aːr-iel
pn - nom pn - soc s 3- ver : s -fight- vpl
‘Maizer is fighting with Gegi.’

Swedish att slåss

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Björn slåss med Maja
pn fight. prs with pn
‘Björn is fighting with Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
<In>a~away ni Pedro si Miguel
< pv > ipfv ~fight pers . gen pn subj pn
‘Pedro is fighting Miguel.’

Telugu goḍavapaḍu

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ-tō goḍavapaḍutunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - com fight. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is fighting with Mahesh.’

Tsakhur saˁyхiy

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ı-kva vo-r siyхaˁ
pn pn - obl - com cop - h m .fight. ipf
‘Murad is fighting with Aydin.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-aˤħ-iz/b-irħ-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi rursːi-ja irħ-ule=saj
boy girl- super ( lat ) ( m )fight. pfv - prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is fighting with a girl.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-iħ-i / b-irħ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rursːi-cːala w-irħ-ule=caj
boy girl- com m -fight. pfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is fighting with a girl.’

Turkish dövüşmek

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet çocuk-la dövüş-üyor
pn boy- com fight- prs
‘Mehmet is fighting with a boy.’

Turoyo mqatəl

Valency pattern: SBJ_7am
X: SBJ
Y: 7am
Locus: Y
Gabriyel mqate-le ʕam Yuḥanən
pn fight. pfv - ls .3 m with pn
‘Gabriyel fought with Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha sormači-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
xusə piktə əktə piktə-ǯi sor-mač-i-ni
male child female child- ins fight- rec - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is fighting with the girl.’

Uzbek urašmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya Miša bilan ura-š-ti
pn pn with fight- recp - pst .3 sg
‘Petja is fighting with Miša.’

West Central Oromo wal lola

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSwaddzin
X: NOM
Y: ABSwaddzin
Locus: Y
obsaa-n tolaa waddʒin wal lol-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom pn . abs with each_other fight- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is fighting with Tola.’

Zilo Andi <w>-aχː.o-j

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ali aħmadi=lojɡu w-aχː.o-j
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn = com m -fight. pst - pf
‘Ali and Ahmad are fighting.’