BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘fall in love’

Argument frame: X (fall in love) with Y
Stimulus sentence: P. fell in love with M .
Predicate label Ru: влюбляться
Argument frame Ru: X (влюбляться) в Y -a
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. влюбился в М .

Abaza aj.hʷapsa

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
rasúl fatíma d-l-áj.hʷapsa-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -fall_in_love( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul fell in love with Fatima.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ṣ̂ʷə λeʁʷə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m pŝaŝe-r ṣ̂ʷə ə-λeʁʷə-ʁ
guy- obl girl- abs good 3 sg . erg -see- pst
‘The guy fell in love with the girl.’

Aghul kːan-x.u-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s fat’ima kːan-x.u-ne
pn - dat pn love-become. pf - aor
‘Aslan fell in love with Fatima.’

Alik Kryz aşuğ xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
terlan leyla-ğ aşuğ xhiy-id
pn pn - super lover be. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan fell in love with Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s marin ʟʼan e<r>tːi-li
pn - dat pn want <2>become. pfv - cvb ( evid )
‘Pasha fell in love with Marina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative" + 'become').

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic xoš atə

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
+Ašur xoš-u bitay=əla mən švot-u
pn happiness( f )- p .3 m come. prog =3 f from neighbour( f )- p .3 m
‘Ashur fell in love with his neighbor.’

Avar roƛ’i kkeze

Valency pattern: GEN_APUD
X: GEN
Y: APUD
Locus: XY
ʕali-l marjam-i-q roƛ’i kkun b-ugo
pn - gen pn - obl - apud love catch. seq n - cop
‘Ali fell in love with Marjam.’

Azerbaijani vurulmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya vur-ul-du
pn pn - dat / lat strike- pass - pst (3)
‘Aslan fell in love with Leyla.’

Bambara jàrabi

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù jàrabi-ra Fántà lá
pn love- pfv . intf pn in
‘Seku has fallen in love with Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese apaixonar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_por
X: SBJ
Y: por
Locus: Y
Pedro se apaixon-ou por Maria
pn ( m ) refl fall_in_love-3 sg . pst by pn ( f )
‘Pedro fell in love with Maria.’

Catalan enamorar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere es va enamor-ar de la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind fall_in_love- inf of def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere fell in love with Maria.’

Chirag b-ikːej

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i madina r-ikːag-ur
pn - obl - super pn ( abs ) f . sg -fall.in.love: pf - aor .3
‘Ali fell in love with Madina.’

Czech zamilovat se

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Petr se zamilova-l do Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fall_in_love( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in pn ( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr fell in love with Michal.’

Danish blive forelsket

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Peter blev forelske-t i Marie
pn become. pst be_in_love- ptcp . pst . sg in pn
‘Peter fall in love with Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Dutch verliefd zijn

Valency pattern: SBJ_op
X: SBJ
Y: op
Locus: Y
Piet is verlief-d op Marie
pn ( c ) cop .3 sg fall.in.love- ptcp on pn ( c )
‘Piet fell in love with Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Eastern Maninka yàrabi

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bára yàrabi Fántà lá.
pn prf love pn at
‘Seku has fallen in love with Fanta.’

English fall in love

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter fell in love with Mary.

Estonian armuma

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peeter armu-s Mareti-sse
pn . sg . nom fall_in_love- pst .3 sg pn - ill
‘Peeter fell in love with Maret.’

Finnish rakastua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka rakastu-i Matti-in
pn . nom fall.in.love- pst .3 sg pn - ill
‘Pekka fell in love with Matti.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French tomber amoureux

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul est tombé amoureux de Marie
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg fall. pst . ptcp . m enamoured. sg . m of pn ( f )
‘Paul fell in love with Marie.’

Georgian še-Ø-u-q'var-d-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s mašo-Ø še-Ø-u-q'var-d-a
pn - dat pn - nom prv :inward- io 3- ver : o -love- inch - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre fell in love with Masho.’

German sich verlieben

Valency pattern: NOM_inACC
X: NOM
Y: inACC
Locus: Y
Karl verlieb-te sich in Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] fall_in_love- pst .3 sg refl in pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl fell in love with Marie.’

Icari Dargwa dikːa=d=ixː-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam-il Madina-lij dikːa=d=išː-ib-ca=d
pn - erg pn - suplat love= npl = lv : pf - aor - cop = npl
‘Islam fell in love with Madina.’

Irish tit i ngrá

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Do=thit Pól i ngrá le Máire.
pst =fall pn in love with pn
‘Pól fell in love with Máire.’

Italian innamorarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo si è innamorat-o di Maria
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs fall_in_love. pst . ptcp - sg . m of pn ( f )
‘Leo fell in love with Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad-li ʡašura-ke digi-d-ix-ib
pn - erg pn - super love- npl -put. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad fell in love with Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani vľubilpe

Valency pattern: NOM_ande
X: NOM
Y: ande
Locus: Y
o Murš-a vľubi-sajl-o ande Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg fall_in_love- pst -3 sg . m because_of pn - nom . sg
‘Murša fell in love with Marijka.’

Karata

Valency pattern: POSS_POST
X: POSS
Y: POST
Locus: XY
ʕali-b marjam-i-q roƛ’:i b-ekku
pn - n pn - obl - post love n -fall. pf
‘Ali fell in love with Marjam.’

Kaytag Dargwa диккадихьара

Valency pattern: GEN_INTER
X: GEN
Y: INTER
Locus: XY
petja-la maša-c:i dik:a-d-išš-ivca
pn - gen pn - inter love( npl )- npl -put. pf - perf
‘Petja fell in love with Masha.’

Kazakh ɣašïq bol

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa ɣašïq bol-dï
pn pn - dat enamoured be- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya fell in love with Masha.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe ǀnam

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a kerk-b ǃnâ ǁari go tsî ǁnātimîsi a ǁî-s-a go ǀnam
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg . obl church-3 m . sg in yesterday rpst see and immediately aux 3-3 f . sg - obl rpst love
‘Peter saw Maria in the church yesterday and immediately fell in love with her.’

Khwarshi goqa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
šamile-l goq-qa is-a maduʁal
pn - dat fall.in.love- pst . w dem . an . o . i - gen 1 neighbor
‘Shamil fell in love with his neighbor.’

Kina Rutul jik’ik kirxura

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s jik’i-k k-irxu-r=a asijet
pn - obl - dat heart. obl - inter pv -get.in. pfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul fell in love with Asijat.’

Kumyk süjmek

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
musa patimat-nɨ süj-e
pn pn - acc want-3 sg
‘Patimat loves Musa.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Latin adamo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Masiniss-a Sophonib-am, uxor-em Syphac-is, fili-am Hasdrubal-is, capt-am statim adama-v-it et nupti-is fact-is uxor-em habu-it
pn ( m )- nom . sg pn ( f )- acc . sg wife( f )- acc . sg pn ( m )- gen . sg daughter( f )- acc . sg pn ( m )- gen . sg capture. prf . ptcp . pass - acc . sg . f instantly fall_in_love- prf - ind . act .3 sg and wedding( f )- abl . pl make. prf . ptcp . pass - abl . pl . f wife( f )- acc . sg have[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘Masinissa fell instantly in love with the captured Sophonis, the wife of Syphacus, daughter of Hasdrubal, and, having thrown a wedding, married her.’
Note: (Liv. Periochae. XXX, 7)

Laz o-Ɂor-op-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-s da-Ø-o(r)-op-u
pn - nom pn - dat prv - do 3-love- msd - s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim fell in love with Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese ài-shàng

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān ài-shàng le Lǐsì
pn love-up pfv pn
‘Zhangsan fell in love with Lisi.’

Mano lɔ̀ɔ̀ dà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
lɔ̀ɔ̀ dà ŋ̄ mɔ̀
2 sg love 3 sg . pst fall 1 sg on
‘I fell in love with you.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is d-ig-es d-aʔ-ib Madina
pn - dat f -want: ipfv - inf f -arrive: pfv - pst pn
‘Islam fell in love with Madina.’

Mingrelian Ø-e-ʔor-op-eb-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_ERG
X: DAT
Y: ERG
Locus: X
čelo-s anučia-k k-Ø-e-ʔor-op-u
pn - dat pn - erg aff - io 3- ver : r -love- r . ext - s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo fell in love with Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew hitahev

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Pinχas hitahev be Menaχem
pn fall.in.love[ pst .3 sg . m ] in pn
‘Pinchas fell in love with Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul jıgara jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s majram rıga-ra riši-ri
pn - obl - dat pn f .want. ipf - simul f .be. pf - aor
‘Murad fell in love with Majram.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai uləsilu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa uləsi-lu-xə-ni
pn pn - obl love. ipfv - inch 1- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia fell in love with Masha.’

Nivkh maʁod

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + maʁo-d
pn pn + love- ind
‘Kaskazik fell in love with Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: POSS_AD
X: POSS
Y: AD
Locus: XY
pataħi-ƛ:i madina-q:e roƛ’ b-ux-e godi
pn - gen pn - ad love n -fall- pf n . cop
‘Patahi fell in love with Madina.’

Northern Mansi ēruptite

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
jēn’a anum ērupt-i-t-e
pn 1 sg . obl love- npst - sg . o -3 sg . s
‘Zhenja loves me.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Northern Yukaghir jǝwligi=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ jǝwligiǝ-n-а̄-mǝ-lǝ
pn pn love- ipf - inch - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien fell in love with Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bli forelsket

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Per ble forelsket i Kari
pn become. pst enamoured in pn
‘Per fell in love with Kari.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Polish zakochać się

Valency pattern: NOM_wLOC
X: NOM
Y: wLOC
Locus: Y
Michał zakocha-ł się w Janc-e
pn [ nom . sg ] fall_in_love: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] refl in pn - loc . sg
‘Michał fell in love with Janka.’

Russian vljubitʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vljubi-l-sja v Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg fall_in_love( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl in pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja fell in love with Maša.’

Serbian zaljubiti se

Valency pattern: NOM_uACC
X: NOM
Y: uACC
Locus: Y
Petar se zaljubi-o u Marij-u
pn . nom . sg refl fall.in.love- part . perf . m . sg in pn - acc . sg
‘Petar fell in love with Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul rɨkar r-iši-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs rɨkar r-iši-r a peri
pn - dat f .love. co f -be. pf - seq exist pn
‘Basir fell in love with Peri.’

Shughni ošiq sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Ahmed Saida-ti ošiq suδǰ
pn pn - sup loving go. m . pf
‘Ahmed fell in love with Saida.’

Skolt Saami räʹǩstõõvvâd

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt räʹǩstõõv-i Määrja-in
pn . sg . nom fall.in.love- pst .3 sg pn - sg . com
‘Pete fell in love with Maria’

Slovak zamilovať sa

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Peter sa zamilova-l do Mári-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fall_in_love( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Peter fell in love with Maria.’

Slovenian zaljubiti se

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Peter se je zaljubi-l v An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg fall_in_love: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in pn - acc . sg
‘Peter fell in love with Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish äʂiq bûn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa äʂiq-î Perî-î bû-Ø
pn lover- izf pn - obl be. pst .3 sg
‘Hiwa fell in love with Pari.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul yıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ayten rıga-r
pn - obl - dat pn f .want. ipf - prs
‘Murad fell in love with Ayten.’

Spanish enamorarse

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se enamor-ó de María
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg fall_in_love- aor .3 sg from pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro fell in love with Maria.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaḥabba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n Ɂaḥabba Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef love. pf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr fell in love with Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s lile-Ø la-x-lat'-ǝn
pn - dat pn - nom prv : slightly - io 3-love- pst
‘Maizer fell in love with Lile.’

Swedish att förälska sig

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Björn förälska-de sig i Maja
pn fall_in_love- pst refl in pn
‘Björn fell in love with Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-pa-ibig si Pedro kay Maria
pot . pv . pfv - caus -fall_in_love pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro fell in love with Maria.’
Note: Ask Sergey. The GEN encoding of the Y is also possible with different NPs, hence ACT_UND.

Telugu prēmalō paḍu

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pravīṇ madhuri-tō prēma-lō paḍḍāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( f ). sg . obl - com love( n ). sg . obl - loc fall. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen fell in love with Madhuri.’

Tsakhur aˁšuˁq’хhay

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad leyla-ys aˁšuˁq’-хha
pn pn - dat lover-( m ) aux . pf
‘Murad fell in love with Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Tsugni Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Turkish âşık olmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e âşık ol-du
pn pn - dat enamoured be- pst
‘Mehmet fell in love with Filiz.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turoyo roḥəm

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel rḥəm-le Maryam
pn love. pfv - ls .3 m pn
‘Gabriyel fell in love with Maryam.’

Ulcha uləsulu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əj xusə piktə əj əktə piktə-wə uləsu-lu-xə-ni
this male child this female child- acc love- inch - pst -3 sg
‘This boy fell in love with the girl.’

Uzbek sevib qolmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni sev-ib qol-di
pn pn - acc love- cvb leave- pst .3 sg
‘Petja fell in love with Maša.’

West Central Oromo k'aba

Valency pattern: ABS_ABSirraa
X: ABS
Y: ABSirraa
Locus: XY
gurb-ittʃa boontuu irraa dʒaalalli isa k'ab-e
boy- def . abs pn . abs on- abl love- nom 3 sg . m . abs catch-3 sg . m . pfv
‘The boy fell in love with Bontu.’

Zilo Andi ruqχ’i <b>-ukː.u-j

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali rutɬ’i b-ukː.u-j marjam-ʔo
pn [ m ][ nom ] love[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-fall. pst - pf pn - super . lat
‘Ali fell in love with Mariam.’