BivalTyp

‘fall behind’

Argument frame: X (fall behind) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. and M. started out to school together, but) P. fell behind M .
Predicate label Ru: отстать
Argument frame Ru: X (отставать) от Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. и М. вместе пошли в школу, но) П. отстал от М .

Abaza ʕa-[χ’ə-]ŝa

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCxe
X: ABS
Y: LOCxe
Locus: Y
rasúl zaréma d-ʕá-l-χ’-ŝa-d
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . f . io - loc -fall( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul fell behind Zarema.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) q-jə-ne

Valency pattern: ABS_POweze
X: ABS
Y: POweze
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r pŝaŝe-m ə-wəž q-jə-na-ʁ
guy- abs girl- obl 3 sg . po -trace csl - loc : cont -remain- pst
‘The guy fell behind the girl.’

Aghul qatːarx.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan qatːarx.u-ne meʜemed.i-q-as
pn { post . elat }get. pf - aor pn - post - elat
‘Aslan fell behind Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz yiq'can irkinic

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
terlan rasul-kar yiq'-can irkin-id
pn pn - part back- adv m .remain. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan fell behind Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_COMP
X: NOM
Y: COMP
Locus: Y
paša marin-ni-χur χir i<w>χːu
pn pn - obl - comp behind <1>remain. pfv
‘Pasha fell behind Marina.’
Note: χir is part of the predicate (an adverbial element). The NP in the dative case can be omitted.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic payəš +baray

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
urza pəš-lə +baray mən baxta
man( m ) remain. pst - ls .3 m behind from woman( f )
‘The man fell behind the woman.’

Avar naqa χut’ize

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmad-i-dasa naqa χut’-ana
pn pn - obl - el back. el remain- aor
‘Ali fell behind Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani geri qalmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan geri qal-dı
pn pn - abl back remain- pst (3)
‘Aslan fell behind Rasul.’

Bafut tᵼ̀gᵼ̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.ndim
X: SBJ
Y: ndim
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ lᵼ́ tᵼ̀gᵼ̀ ǹdᵼ̀m sùù
pn sm p 1 delay at back/ prep pn
‘Ambe fell behind Suh.’

Bambara tó

Valency pattern: SBJ_ko
X: SBJ
Y: ko
Locus: Y
Sékù tó-ra Fántà kɔ́
pn remain- pfv . intr pn behind
‘Seku fell behind Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese ficar para trás

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro fic-ou para trás de Miguel
pn ( m ) get-3 sg . pst towards behind of pn ( m )
‘Pedro fell behind Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_ABLxan
X: NOM
Y: ABLxan
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-a'r xan irkin-ci
pn pn - abl after h .remain. pf - nar
‘Aslan fell behind Rasul.’

Catalan quedar enrere

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va qued-ar enrere del Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf behind of. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere fell behind Marc.’

Chirag hara-b-elgi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-l-i-rka hara-j-elg-un-ne
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - super - elat post- m . sg -stay: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali fell behind Rasul.’

Czech zpozdit se

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Petr se zpozdí-l za Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fall_behind( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] behind pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr fell behind Michal.’

Danish komme bagefter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter kom bagefter Marie
pn come. pst behind pn
‘Peter fell behind Marie.’

Dutch achteropraken

Valency pattern: SBJ_bij
X: SBJ
Y: bij
Locus: Y
Piet raak-te bij Marie achterop
pn ( c ) walk-3 sg at pn ( c ) behind
‘Piet fell behind Marie.’

Eastern Maninka tó

Valency pattern: SBJ_ko
X: SBJ
Y: ko
Locus: Y
Fónbà tó-da Sékù kɔ́.
pn remain- aor . intr pn behind
‘Fomba fell behind Seku.’

English fall

Valency pattern: SBJ_behind
X: SBJ
Y: behind
Locus: Y
Peter fell behind Mary.

Estonian maha jääma

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Peeter jä-i Mareti-st maha
pn . sg . nom stay- pst .3 sg pn - ela down
‘Peeter fell behind Maret.’
Note: Phrasal verb (maha is not a flagging device).

Finnish jäädä jälkeen

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka jä-i jälkeen Mati-sta
pn . nom stay- pst .3 sg behind pn - ela
‘Pekka fell behind Matti.’

Forest Enets kaji

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
vasʲa kasa-xazo-da kaji-bi
pn man- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg stay_behind( pfv )- prf .3 sg . s
‘Vasja fell behind his friend’.

French être distancé

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul a été distancé par Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg be. pst . ptcp . m outrun. pst . ptcp . m by pn ( f )
‘Paul fell behind Marie.’
Note: Passive construction.

Georgian ča-mo-Ø-rč-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
magram p'et're-Ø mašo-s ča-mo-Ø-rč-a
but pn - nom pn - dat prv :downward+inward- prv : prox - io 3-stay- s 3 sg . pst
‘But Petre fell behind Masho.’

German zurückfallen

Valency pattern: NOM_hinterACC
X: NOM
Y: hinterACC
Locus: Y
Karl fiel hinter Marie zurück
pn [ nom . sg ] fall. pst .3 sg behind pn [ acc . sg ] back
‘Karl fell behind Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle lɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_pulu
X: SBJ
Y: pulu
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá lɛ̀ɛ Hɛ́ni púlû
pn 3 sg . prf remain pn back
‘Pepee fell behind Heni.’

Icari Dargwa helga-ik-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_ELAT
X: ABS
Y: ELAT
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-ri-r helga-ič-ib
pn . abs pn - obl - elat fall_behind-( m ) lv : pf - aor
‘Islam fell behind Nadir.’

Irish tit siar

Valency pattern: SBJ_o
X: SBJ
Y: o
Locus: Y
Thit Peter siar ó Mary.
pst /fall.behind pn back from pn
‘Pól fell behind Máire.’

Italian rimanere indietro

Valency pattern: SBJ_rispetto.a
X: SBJ
Y: rispetto.a
Locus: Y
Leo è rimast-o indietro rispetto a Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs stay. pst . ptcp - sg . m behind compared to pn ( f )
‘Leo fell behind Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa k-alʔ-es / k-ulʔ-es

Valency pattern: NOM_COMP
X: NOM
Y: COMP
Locus: Y
meħamad rasu-j-kem araʁa k-alʔ-un
pn pn - obl - comp behind down -stay. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad fell behind Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani aśel

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
o Murš-a aš-il-o kata Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg fall_behind- pst -3 sg . m from pn - nom . sg
‘Murša fell behind Marijka.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the ablative case (ABL) would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasul maˁhaˁmad.a-n qaˁl.aˁ-q qaq-nu
pn ( abs ) pn - gen back- post ( h . sg )fall.on- pst
‘Rasul fell behind Mahamad’.
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Karata xigi biχχwaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTEL
X: NOM
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmat’-i-č’ogal biƛ’e χigi w-uχχu
pn pn - obl - contel strongly behind m -remain
‘Ali fell way behind Ahmat.’
Note: Here, “χigi” arguably functions as part of the predicate.

Kaytag Dargwa maˁʁlavikara

Valency pattern: NOM_ANTEL
X: NOM
Y: ANTEL
Locus: Y
petja miša-sar maˁʁlavič:-iv
pn pn - antel m .lag. pf - aor
‘Petja fell behind Misha.’

Kazakh qal-ïp qoy

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-dan qal-ïp qoy-dï
pn pn - abl remain- cvb put- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya fell behind Masha.’

Kazym Khanty jǒχi χǎśti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMewelt
X: NOM
Y: NOMewelt
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-ǝλ ewǝλt jǒχi χǎś-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg from home remain- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja fell behind Maša.’

Khoekhoe ǁnā

Valency pattern: SBJ_!gab.ai
X: SBJ
Y: !gab.ai
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s ǃgâb_ai ge ǁnā
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg behind pst fall
‘Peter fell behind Maria.’

Khwarshi žohol ƛiχa

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.EL
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
šamil ƛiχ-χa hamaʁe-za-ƛ'o-žo žohol
pn remain- pst . w friend- pl . o - super - el behind
‘Shamil fell behind his friends.’

Kina Rutul quɁ qargɨr

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
ramazan quɁ q-argɨ-r rasul-u-la
pn ( nom ) back. lat re - lv . pfv - cvb pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Ramazan fell behind Rasul.’

Kumyk artda qalmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
basir musa-dan art-da qal-d-ɨ
pn pn - abl back- loc remain- pst -3 sg
‘Basir fell behind Musa.’

Latin decedo

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
si quis agmin-e decess-isse-t, pro desertor-e fore clamita-ns
if who. nom . sg rank( n )- abl . sg fall_behind- plup . sbjv - act .3 sg for deserter( m )- abl . sg be. fut . inf . act call- prs . ptcp . act . nom . sg
‘... yelling that whoever departs from the rank will be held for a deserter.’
Note: (Tac. Ann. I, 38)

Laz o-skid-u

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-šen ek'-Ø-a-skid-u
pn - nom pn - abl prv - io 3- ver : r -remain- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim fell behind Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese luò-hòu

Valency pattern: SBJ_yu
X: SBJ
Y: yu
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān luò-hòu Lǐsì le
pn fall-behind to pn pfv
‘Zhangsan fell behind Lisi.’

Mano tó

Valency pattern: SBJ_pie
X: SBJ
Y: pie
Locus: Y
āà tó ŋ̄ píé
3 sg . prf stay 1 sg behind
‘S/he has fallen behind me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
Islam ʡa-w kalʔ-un Nadir-li-če-w
pn behind- m remain: pfv - aor pn - obl - super - m ( ess )
‘Islam fell behind Nadir.’

Mingrelian ek'-Ø-a-sk'id-un-Ø (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s k-ek'-Ø-a-sk'id-u
pn - erg pn - dat aff - prv - io 3- ver : r -stay- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo fell behind Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew piger

Valency pattern: SBJ_axarej
X: SBJ
Y: axarej
Locus: Y
Pinχas piger aχarej Menaχem
pn lag[ pst .3 sg . m ] after pn
‘Pinchas fell behind Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul qhuʔ qhargın

Valency pattern: NOM_COMPAR
X: NOM
Y: COMPAR
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-qhaʔ qhuʔ qhargı-ri
pn pn - obl - compar after m .remain_behind. pf - aor
‘Murad fell behind Kurban.’

Nanai xamila dərəǯi-

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-ǯea xame-la-ni dərəǯi-xə-ni
pn pn - abl back- loc - p .3 sg remain- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia fell behind Masha.’

Nivkh jarid

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + ari-d
pn pn + fall.behind- ind
‘Kaskazik fell behind Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh qedi biχχuruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
pataħi qedi w-uχχ-ari musa-gune
pn behind m -remain- aor pn - el
‘Patahi fell behind Musa.’

Northern Mansi juw xul’tǝs

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
am juw xul’t-s-um jurt-an-ǝl
i back stay- pst -1 sg friend- pl - el
‘I fell behind my friends.’

Northern Yukaghir ponˈuol=

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаt ponˈ-uol-dǝŋ ū-j
pn pn - abl leave- res - cnv go- intr .3 sg
‘Semien fell behind Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å ligge etter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per etter Ola
pn lie. pst after pn
‘Per fell behind Ola.’
Note: Phrasal verb (etter is not a flagging device).

Polish zostać

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Ann-a zosta-ł-a w tyl-e
pn - nom . sg remain: pfv - pst - f .3 sg in back- loc . sg
‘Anna fell behind.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is not overtly expressed.

Russian otstatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_otGEN
X: NOM
Y: otGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja otsta-l ot Maš-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg fall_behind( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja fell behind Maša.’

Serbian zaostati

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Petar je zaosta-o za Marij-om
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg fall.behind- part . perf . m . sg behind pn - ins . sg
‘Petar fell behind Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul qhuʔ qharkɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
basir qhuʔ qharkɨ-r karam-ɨla
pn behind re . m .remain. pf - aor pn - el
‘Basir fell behind Karam.’

Shughni zibo δêdow2

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Azim as Lola zibo δod
pn el pn behind fall. pst
‘Azim fell behind Lola.’

Skolt Saami kuâđđjed

Valency pattern: NOM_GENtuakka
X: NOM
Y: GENtuakka
Locus: Y
Peâtt kuâđđj-i Määʹrj tuâkka
pn . sg . nom remain- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen behind
‘Pete fell behind Maria’

Slovak zaostať

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Peter zaosta-l za Mark-om
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] fall_behind( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] behind pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Peter fell behind Marek.’

Slovenian zaostati

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
An-a je zaosta-l-a za Pavl-om
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt - f . sg behind pn - ins . sg
‘Ana fell behind Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish becê man

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa le Diyako-î be cê ma-Ø
pn from pn - obl to place remain. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa fell behind Diako.’

Southern Rutul yıˤq'aˤde atkın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ııla yıˤq'aˤ-de arkı-r
pn pn - superel middle_back. obl - ad m .remain. pf - aor
‘Murad fell behind Aydin.’

Spanish quedarse atrás

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se qued-ó atrás de María
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg remain- aor .3 sg behind from pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro fell behind Maria.’

Standard Arabic taḫallafa

Valency pattern: NOM_anGEN
X: NOM
Y: anGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un taḫallafa ʕan Maryam-a
pn - nom fall_behind. pf .3 m off pn - gen
‘Badr fell behind Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-s č-o-x-säːd
pn - nom pn - dat prv : downward - ver : o - io 3-remain
‘Maizer fell behind Gegi.’

Swedish att hamna efter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn hamna-de efter Maja
pn end_up- pst after pn
‘Björn fell behind Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
na-huli si Pedro kay Miguel
< pfv > stem -be_last[ av ] pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro fell behind Miguel.’

Telugu venakapaḍu

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ-ki venakapaḍḍāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat lag. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen fell behind Mahesh.’

Tsakhur aˁvqhiyr aхviy

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
aˁli murad-ıle aˁvqhiyr aхu
pn pn - superel behind ( m )stay. pf
‘Murad fell behind Murad.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa ʡel b-ič-iz/b-irč-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL2
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL2
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-j-kar ʡel ha-jč-ib
boy friend- obl - super - abl 2 behind up -( m )fall. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy fell behind the girl.’

Tsugni Dargwa hela ka-b-ič-i / ka-b-irč-i

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rus:i-la hela ka-jč-ib
boy girl- gen behind down-fall. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy fell behind the girl.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

Turkish geri kalmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan geri kal-dı
pn pn - abl behind remain- pst
‘Mehmet fell behind Orhan.’

Turoyo foyəš

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_beter.m
X: SBJ.SS
Y: beter.m
Locus: Y
Šabo fayəš bəṯṯər m-i Maryam
pn remain. pfv .3 m behind from- art . f pn
‘Šabo fell behind Maryam.’

Twi ka

Valency pattern: SBJ_akyi
X: SBJ
Y: akyi
Locus: Y
Kofi ka-a nanabarima akyi
pn touch- pst grandfather behind
‘Kofi fell behind grandfather.’
Note: In the dictionary, the verb means 'to touch'.

Ulcha dərəǯu-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
tam=də əktə piktə dərə-ǯu-xə-ni
then= emph female child remain- rep - pst -3 sg
‘But then the girl fell behind.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

Uzbek orkada kolib ketmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-dan orkada kol-ib ket-ti
pn pn - abl behind remain- cvb go_away- pst .3 sg
‘Petja fell behind Maša.’

West Central Oromo hafa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSbiraa
X: NOM
Y: ABSbiraa
Locus: Y
obsaa-n kuf-ee tolaa biraa haf-e
pn - nom fall- conv pn . abs beside. abl remain-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa fell and remained behind Tola.’

Wolof *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-laa ccüǧvena amuqˈ-na
pn pn - obl - supel behind. in remain- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib fell behind Eldar.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.INTR_ra.PSTP
X: SBJ.INTR
Y: ra.PSTP
Locus: Y
oxɨr waj-a xo=ra tɛpija mɛnd
pn sister- ez . f refl =from behind stay. pst
‘Oxir fell behind his sister.’

Zilo Andi <j>-eχːudu <j>-ekː.u-j

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
pat’imati marjam-tʃ’u j-eχːudu j-ekː.u-j
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn - cont f -after f -stay. pst - pf
‘Patimat fell behind Mariam.’