BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘fall behind’

Argument frame: X (fall behind) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. and M. started out to school together, but) P. fell behind M .
Predicate label Ru: отстать
Argument frame Ru: X (отставать) от Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. и М. вместе пошли в школу, но) П. отстал от М .

Abaza ʕa-[χ’ə-]ŝa

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCxe
X: ABS
Y: LOCxe
Locus: Y
rasúl zaréma d-ʕá-l-χ’-ŝa-d
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . f . io - loc -fall( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul fell behind Zarema.’

Aghul qatːarx.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan qatːarx.u-ne meʜemed.i-q-as
pn { post . elat }get. pf - aor pn - post - elat
‘Aslan fell behind Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic payəš +baray

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
urza pəš-lə +baray mən baxta
man( m ) remain. pst - ls .3 m behind from woman( f )
‘The man fell behind the woman.’

Brazilian Portuguese ficar para trás

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro fic-ou para trás de Miguel
pn ( m ) get-3 sg . pst towards behind of pn ( m )
‘Pedro fell behind Miguel.’

Catalan quedar enrere

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va qued-ar enrere del Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf behind of. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere fell behind Marc.’

Czech zpozdit se

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Petr se zpozdí-l za Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fall_behind( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] behind pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr fell behind Michal.’

Danish komme bagefter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter kom bagefter Marie
pn come. pst behind pn
‘Peter fell behind Marie.’

Dutch achteropraken

Valency pattern: SBJ_bij
X: SBJ
Y: bij
Locus: Y
Piet raak-te bij Marie achterop
pn ( c ) walk-3 sg at pn ( c ) behind
‘Piet fell behind Marie.’

Estonian maha jääma

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Peeter jä-i Mareti-st maha
pn . sg . nom stay- pst .3 sg pn - ela down
‘Peeter fell behind Maret.’
Note: Phrasal verb (maha is not a flagging device).

Finnish jäädä jälkeen

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka jä-i jälkeen Mati-sta
pn . nom stay- pst .3 sg behind pn - ela
‘Pekka fell behind Matti.’

Forest Enets kaji

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
vasʲa kasa-xazo-da kaji-bi
pn man- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg stay_behind( pfv )- prf .3 sg . s
‘Vasja fell behind his friend’.

Italian rimanere indietro

Valency pattern: SBJ_rispetto.a
X: SBJ
Y: rispetto.a
Locus: Y
Leo è rimast-o indietro rispetto a Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs stay. pst . ptcp - sg . m behind compared to pn ( f )
‘Leo fell behind Maria.’

Kazakh qal-ïp qoy

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-dan qal-ïp qoy-dï
pn pn - abl remain- cvb put- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya fell behind Masha.’

Kazym Khanty jǒχi χǎśti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMewelt
X: NOM
Y: NOMewelt
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-ǝλ ewǝλt jǒχi χǎś-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg from home remain- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja fell behind Maša.’

Latin decedo

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
si quis agmin-e decess-isse-t, pro desertor-e fore clamita-ns
if who. nom . sg rank( n )- abl . sg fall_behind- plup . sbjv - act .3 sg for deserter( m )- abl . sg be. fut . inf . act call- prs . ptcp . act . nom . sg
‘... yelling that whoever departs from the rank will be held for a deserter.’
Note: (Tac. Ann. I, 38)

Modern Hebrew piger

Valency pattern: SBJ_axarej
X: SBJ
Y: axarej
Locus: Y
Pinχas piger aχarej Menaχem
pn lag[ pst .3 sg . m ] after pn
‘Pinchas fell behind Menachem.’

Nanai xamila dərəǯi-

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-ǯea xame-la-ni dərəǯi-xə-ni
pn pn - abl back- loc - p .3 sg remain- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia fell behind Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å ligge etter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per etter Ola
pn lie. pst after pn
‘Per fell behind Ola.’
Note: Phrasal verb (etter is not a flagging device).

Polish zostać

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Ann-a zosta-ł-a w tyl-e
pn - nom . sg remain: pfv - pst - f .3 sg in back- loc . sg
‘Anna fell behind.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is not overtly expressed.

Russian otstatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_otGEN
X: NOM
Y: otGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja otsta-l ot Maš-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg fall_behind( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja fell behind Maša.’

Rutul quɁ qargɨr

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
ramazan quɁ q-argɨ-r rasul-u-la
pn ( nom ) back. lat re - lv . pfv - cvb pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Ramazan fell behind Rasul.’

Skolt Saami kuâđđjed

Valency pattern: NOM_GENtuakka
X: NOM
Y: GENtuakka
Locus: Y
Peâtt kuâđđj-i Määʹrj tuâkka
pn . sg . nom remain- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen behind
‘Pete fell behind Maria’

Slovenian zaostati

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
An-a je zaosta-l-a za Pavl-om
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt - f . sg behind pn - ins . sg
‘Ana fell behind Pavel.’

Spanish quedarse atrás

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se qued-ó atrás de María
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg remain- aor .3 sg behind from pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro fell behind Maria.’

Swedish att hamna efter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn hamna-de efter Maja
pn end_up- pst after pn
‘Björn fell behind Maja.’

Turkish geri kalmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan geri kal-dı
pn pn - abl behind remain- pst
‘Mehmet fell behind Orhan.’

Ulcha dərəǯu-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
tam=də əktə piktə dərə-ǯu-xə-ni
then= emph female child remain- rep - pst -3 sg
‘But then the girl fell behind.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

Zilo Andi <j>-eχːudu <j>-ekː.u-j

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
pat’imati marjam-tʃ’u j-eχːudu j-ekː.u-j
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn - cont f -after f -stay. pst - pf
‘Patimat fell behind Mariam.’