BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘enter’

Argument frame: X (enter) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. entered the house .
Predicate label Ru: входить
Argument frame Ru: X (входить) в Y (дом)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. вошел в дом .

Abaza šəl

Valency pattern: ABS_NONARG
X: ABS
Y: NONARG
Locus: Y
a-phʷə́spa a-tʒə́ d-na-šə́l-ṭ
def -girl def -house 3 sg . h . abs - tral -enter( aor )- dcl
‘The girl entered the house.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) jə-he

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.CONT
X: ABS
Y: LOC.CONT
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-r wəne-m jə-ha-ʁ
girl- abs house- obl loc : cont -enter- pst
‘The girl entered the house.’

Aghul ačaj-

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan χul.a-s ačaj-ne
pn house- dat { in . lat }come: pf - aor
‘Aslan entered the house.’

Alik Kryz ʕaç'ic

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
terlan k'ul-ca ʕaç'-id
pn house( f )- obl . in go_in. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan entered the house.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_IN.LAT
X: NOM
Y: IN.LAT
Locus: Y
moħommad noʟʼ-a-k čʼutːe
pn house- in - lat 1.enter. pfv
‘Muhammad entered the house.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +avər

Valency pattern: SBJ_gu
X: SBJ
Y: gu
Locus: Y
brata +vər-ra gu beta
girl( f ) enter. pst - ls .3 f in house( m )
‘The girl entered the house.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar žaniwe ɬuhine

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
ʕali roq’o-w-e žani-w-e ɬuh-una
pn house. loc - m - lat inside- m - lat enter- ipf
‘Ali enters the house.’

Azerbaijani girmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan ev-ǝ gir-di
pn house- dat / lat enter- pst (3)
‘Aslan entered the house.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_mum
X: SBJ
Y: mum
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ kúû múm ǹdâ
pn sm p 2 enter inside house
‘Ambe entered the house.’

Bambara dòn

Valency pattern: SBJ_kono
X: SBJ
Y: kono
Locus: Y
Sékù dòn-na só` kɔ́nɔ
pn enter- pfv . intr house\ art into
‘Seku entered a house.’

Brazilian Portuguese entrar

Valency pattern: SBJ_em
X: SBJ
Y: em
Locus: Y
Pedro entr-ou em casa
pn ( m ) enter-3 sg . pst in house( f )
‘Pedro entered a house.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan k'ul-ca ʕaç'u-ci
pn house- loc go_in. pf - nar
‘Aslan entered the house.’

Catalan entrar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere va entr-ar a la casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind enter- inf to def . sg . f house( f )
‘Pere entered the house.’
Note: Cf. "en Pere hi va entrar"

Chirag b-učːasatːej

Valency pattern: ABS_IN
X: ABS
Y: IN
Locus: Y
qal-l-aˤne č'ʷal xade b-učːa-satː-ag-ur
house- obl - in two woman( abs ) h . pl - in -hither-go: pf - aor .3
‘Two women went into the room.’

Czech vejít

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Petr veše-l do dom-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] enter( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in house( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr entered the house.’

Danish gå ind

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Peter gik ind i hus-et
pn enter. pst into in house( n )- def . sg
‘Peter entered the house.’

Dutch binnengehen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet ging het huis binnen
pn (С) go. pst art . def . n house( n ) inside
‘Piet entered the house.’

Eastern Maninka dòn

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bára dòn bón` ná.
pn prf enter house\ art at
‘Seku entered the house.’

English enter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter entered the house.

Estonian sisenema

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peeter sisene-s majja.
pn . sg . nom enter- pst .3 sg house. sg . ill
‘Peeter entered the house.’

Finnish astua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka astu-i talo-on
pn . nom enter- pst .3 sg house- ill
‘Pekka entered the house.’

Forest Enets tʃu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLmi
X: NOM
Y: OBLmi
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ mɛ-ta mi-ʔ tʃuɔ
man- nom . sg .1 sg chum- obl . sg .3 sg inside- dat enter( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend entered his house’.

French entrer

Valency pattern: SBJ_dans
X: SBJ
Y: dans
Locus: Y
Paul est entré dans la maison
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg enter. pst . ptcp . m inside def . sg . f house( f )
‘Paul entered the house.’

Georgian še-Ø-di-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.INESS
X: ERG
Y: DAT.INESS
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø saxl-ši še-Ø-vid-a
pn - nom house- pstp : iness prv :inward- s 3-go. pst - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre entered the house.’

German hineingehen

Valency pattern: NOM_inACC
X: NOM
Y: inACC
Locus: Y
Karl ging in-s Haus hin-ein
pn [ nom . sg ] go. pst .3 sg in- def . n . acc . sg house[ acc . sg ] there.to-inside
‘Karl entered the house.’

Guinean Kpelle lɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_mu
X: SBJ
Y: mu
Locus: Y
Pépèe àa lɔ́ bɛ̀lɛ́-í ɲɛ́i mû
pn 3 sg . pfv enter def \house- art dem under
‘Pepee entered the house.’

Icari Dargwa kːʷi-ha=w=q-anaj

Valency pattern: ABS_ILL
X: ABS
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Islam qil kːʷi-ha=w=q-un
pn . abs house. ill inside - up = m =go: pf - aor
‘Islam entered the house.’

Irish téigh

Valency pattern: SBJ_isteach
X: SBJ
Y: isteach
Locus: Y
Chuaigh Pól isteach an tigh.
go. pst pn inside def house. gs
‘Pól entered the house.’

Italian entrare

Valency pattern: SBJ_in
X: SBJ
Y: in
Locus: Y
Leo è entrat-o nella cas-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs enter. pst . ptcp - sg . m in. def . sg . f house- sg . f
‘Leo entered the house.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-erχ-es / CL-urχ-es

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
meħamad qa-j-ze 0-erχ-un
pn home- obl - in m -enter. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad entered the house.’

Kalderash Romani śolpe

Valency pattern: NOM_ande
X: NOM
Y: ande
Locus: Y
o Murš-a śu-ť-a-pe man-de arati and-o khər
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg enter- pst -3 sg - refl i - loc yesterday in- art . m . dir . sg house. nom . sg
‘Murša came into my house yesterday.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_IN
X: ABS
Y: IN
Locus: Y
ma’ha’mad χla-ʔ uc̊’-nu
pn ( abs ) house- in ( h . sg )enter- pst
‘Mahamad entered the house.’

Karata boƛaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
ʕali eši-r w-oƛ-e
pn room. in - lat m -go- pf
‘Ali entered the room.’

Kaytag Dargwa waknihaˁna

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
petja v-aknihaˁʔ-un uškul-c:i
pn m -enter. pf - aor school. obl - inter
‘Petja entered the school.’

Kazakh kir

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya üy-ge kіr-dі
pn house- dat enter- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya entered the house.’

Kazym Khanty λŏŋti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en χɔt-a λŏŋ-əs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg house- dat enter- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja entered the house.’

Khoekhoe ǂgâ

Valency pattern: SBJ_!na
X: SBJ
Y: !na
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge om-s ǃnâ go ǂgâ
pn -3 m . sg decl house-3 f . sg in rpst enter
‘Peter entered the house.’

Khwarshi j/eqʷa

Valency pattern: ABS_IN.DIR
X: ABS
Y: IN.DIR
Locus: Y
šamil eq-qa idu-ʁol
pn enter- pst . w house. in - dir
‘Shamil entered the house.’

Kina Rutul eč’ura

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
rasul χal-a eč’u-r=a
pn ( nom ) house- in pv .1.enter. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul entered the house.’

Kumyk girmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
musa üj-ge gir-d-i
pn house- dat enter- pst -3 sg
‘Musa entered the house.’

Latin intro

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Ann-a) dom-um intra-v-it Tyri-os indut-a parat-us
pn ( f )- nom . sg house( f )- acc . sg enter- prf - ind . act .3 sg t yrian- acc . pl . m put_on. prf . ptcp . pass - nom . sg . f garment( m )- acc . pl
‘(Anna) entered the house, dressed in Tyrian clothes.’
Note: (Ov. Fasti. III, 627)

Laz o-xt'-im-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i oxo(r)-i-s ama-Ø-xt'-u
pn - nom house- b - dat prv - s 3-go- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim entered the house.’

Mandarin Chinese jìn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān jìn le
pn enter house pfv
‘Zhangsan entered the house.’

Mano wàà

Valency pattern: SBJ_LOC
X: SBJ
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kō wàà kɛ́ì
1 pl . pst enter house. loc
‘We entered a house.’
Note: LOC is a special form of (some) nouns. It goes back to the postposition "yí" but is not synchronically interchangeable with it.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_IN.LAT
X: NOM
Y: IN.LAT
Locus: Y
Pajzula qulle-ħe w-erχ-ur
pn house. obl - in ( lat ) m -walk: pfv - aor
‘Pajzula entered the house.’

Mingrelian min-Ø-i-l-en-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_ALL
X: ERG
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
čelo-k ʔude-ša min-Ø-i-l-(u)
pn - erg house- all prv - s 3- ver : s -go-( s 3 sg . pst )
‘Chelo entered the house.’

Modern Hebrew niχnas

Valency pattern: SBJ_el
X: SBJ
Y: el
Locus: Y
Pinχas niχnas el ha bajt
pn enter[ pst .3 sg . m ] towards def house
‘Pinchas entered the house.’

Mukhad Rutul aˤč'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
murad χala aˤč'uˤ-ri
pn house. in ( m )enter. pf - aor
‘Murad entered the house.’

Nanai iigu-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Petia ǯook-či ii-gu-xə-ni
pn house- dir enter- rep - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia entered the house.’

Nivkh juɣd

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik taf-tоχ j-uɣ-d
pn house- dat / add 3 sg -enter- ind
‘Kaskzik entered the house.’

Northern Akhvakh beq’uruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
patħudi č’ila-ga woq’-ari
pn house. pl . nom - lat m .come- aor
‘Pathudi entered the house.’

Northern Mansi ɕaltəs

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMkiwern
X: NOM
Y: NOMkiwern
Locus: Y
ōjka ɕalt-əs kol kīwər-n
man enter- pst .3 sg house inside- lat
‘The man entered the house.’

Northern Yukaghir sǝw=

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn nimǝ-ɣа sǝg-u-j
pn house- loc enter-0- intr .3 sg
‘Semien entered the house.’

Norwegian Bokmål å gå inn

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Per gikk inn i hus-et
pn go. pst inside in house- def . n . sg
‘Per entered the house.’

Polish wejść

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Paweł wszed-ł do dom-u
pn [ nom . sg ] go_in: pfv \ pst . m - pst [ m .3 sg ] at house- gen . sg
‘Paweł entered the house.’

Russian vojti

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja voše-l v dom
pn ( m )- nom . sg enter( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja entered the house.’

Serbian ući

Valency pattern: NOM_uACC
X: NOM
Y: uACC
Locus: Y
Petar je uša-o u kuć-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg enter- part . perf . m . sg in house- acc . sg
‘Petar entered the house.’

Shinaz Rutul aˁč’uˁ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
iz-dı duχ aˁč’uˁ-r mixteb
my- attr son ( m )enter. pf - aor school
‘My son entered the school.’

Shughni dedow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Ahmed tar čīd ded
pn eq house enter. pst
‘Ahmed entered the house.’

Skolt Saami pueʹtted

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt puõʹđ-i põʹrtt-e
pn . sg . nom come- pst .3 sg house- sg . ill
‘Pete entered the house.’

Slovak vojsť

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Peter vošie-l do dom-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] enter( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in house( m )- gen . sg
‘Peter entered the house.’

Slovenian vstopiti

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pavel je vstopi-l v hiš-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg enter: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in house- acc . sg
‘Pavel entered the house.’

Sorani Kurdish çûne

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa çûw-Ø-e maɫ-eke
pn go. pst -3 sg -to house- def
‘Hiwa entered the house.’
Note: The verbal marker –e is the result of the “migration” of the preposition "le", cf. "Hîwa le maɫ-eke çûw-Ø".

Southern Rutul aˤç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
murad xal-a aˤç'uˤ-r
pn house- in ( m )enter. pf - aor
‘Murad entered the house.’

Spanish entrar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
Pedro ha entra-do en la casa
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg enter- ptcp : prf in art . def . sg . f house[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro entered the house.’

Standard Arabic daḫala

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un daḫala l-bayt-a
pn - nom enter. pf .3 m def -house- acc
‘Badr entered the house.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL.INESS
X: NOM
Y: ALL.INESS
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø kor-te-isga aː-Ø-čäd
pn - nom house- all - iness
‘Maizer went into the house.’

Swedish att gå in

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Björn gick in i hus-et
pn go. pst inside in house- def . n . sg
‘Björn entered the house.’
Note: Phrasal verb (in is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_PATH
X: ACT
Y: PATH
Locus: Y
P<um>asok si Pedro sa bahay
< av > pfv .enter pers . subj pn dat house
‘Pedro entered the house.’
Note: The Y argument can also be signaled as "pa-loob ng bahay" [DIR-inside GEN house].

Telugu pravēšiṁcu

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCDAT
X: NOM
Y: LOCDAT
Locus: Y
pravīṇ iṁṭi-lō-ki pravēšiṁcāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom house( n ). sg . obl - loc - dat enter. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen entered the house.’

Tsakhur ič’iy

Valency pattern: NOM_INLAT
X: NOM
Y: INLAT
Locus: Y
murad хaa-qha ič’u
pn house. in - lat ( m )enter. pf
‘Murad entered the house.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa hа-b-ac'-iz/ha-b-ic'-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG/LOC(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi uškul-le h-ac'-ib
boy school- erg / loc ( lat ) up -( m )go. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy entered the school.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-urkːe ha-b-uq-i / ha-b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: LOC(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ uškul-le urkːe ha-wq-un
boy school- loc ( lat ) ( m )inside( lat ) up-( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy entered the school.’

Turkish girmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet ev-e gir-di
pn house- dat enter- pst
‘Mehmet entered the house.’

Turoyo ʕobər

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_IO
X: SBJ.SS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ʕabər l-u bayto
pn enter. pfv .3 m to- art . m house( m )
‘Gabriyel entered the house’

Ulcha ī-

Valency pattern: NOM_dooLAT
X: NOM
Y: dooLAT
Locus: Y
xusə piktə xagdu dō-ti-ni ī-xə-ni
male child house inside- lat -3 sg enter- pst -3 sg
‘The boy entered the house.’

Uzbek kirmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya uy-ga kir-yab-ti
pn house- dat enter- prs 1-3 sg
‘Petja entered the house.’

West Central Oromo seena

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n mana seen-e
pn - nom house. abs enter-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa entered the house.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib kˈval-i-z haxh-na
pn house- obl - dat enter- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib entered the house.’

Zilo Andi kab.i

Valency pattern: NOM_ILLAT
X: NOM
Y: ILLAT
Locus: Y
ali haqχ’u-di kab.i
pn [ m ][ nom ] room- illat enter. pst ( aor )
‘Ali entered the room.’