BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘encounter’

Argument frame: X (encounter) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. encountered M. (accidentally, on the street). = P. ran into M .
Predicate label Ru: встречаться
Argument frame Ru: X (встречаться) с Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. встретился с М. (случайно, на улице).

Abaza [p-]č̣a-ŝá

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCpca
X: ABS
Y: LOCp
Locus: Y
rasúl murád d-ʕa-j-p.č̣a-ŝá-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . m . io - loc -fall( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul ran into Murad.’

Aghul alčarx.u-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s meʜemed alčarx.u-ne
pn - dat pn meet. pf - aor
‘Aslan ran into Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic tapək

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
yala tpək-lə mən švava
boy( m ) meet. pst - ls .3 m from neighbour( m )
‘The boy ran into his neughbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro encontrou com Miguel
‘Педру встретился с Мигелом.’

Czech potkat se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se potka-l s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc meet( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr encountered Michal.’

Finnish tavata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tapa-si Mati-n
pn . nom encounter- pst .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka encountered Matti’

Forest Enets dʲazuta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da dʲazuta
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg come_across( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend met Vasja’.

Latin incurro

Valency pattern: NOM_inACC
X: NOM
Y: inACC
Locus: Y
in me incurr-it Rom-a veni-ens Curio me-us
in i . acc encounter[ prf ]- ind . act .3 sg r ome( f )- abl . sg come- prs . ptcp . act . nom . sg pn ( m ). nom . sg my- nom . sg . m
‘My Curio, coming from Rome, ran into me.’
Note: ( Cic. Ep. ad Att. 2, 12, 2)

Modern Hebrew nitkal

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Pinχas nitkal be Menaχem
pn bump.into[ pst .3 sg . m ] in pn
‘Pinchas encountered Menachem.’

Nanai baači-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-ǯi baače-la-xa-ni
pn pn - ins meet- pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia encountered Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å møte

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per møt-te Ola
pn meet- pst pn
‘Per encountered Ola.’

Polish spotkać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Paweł spotka-ł Mart-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] encounter: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Paweł encountered Marta.’

Russian vstretitʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vstreti-l-sja s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg meet( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja encountered Maša.’

Rutul giˁχɨˁr

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ramazan giˁ-χɨˁ-r
pn - obl - dat pn ( nom ) pv -1.meet. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul ran into Ramazan.’

Skolt Saami teeivõõttâd

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt teeivõõđ-i Määʹrja-in
pn . sg . nom encounter- pst .3 sg pn - sg . com
‘Pete encountered Maria’

Slovenian srečati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je sreča-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg meet: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel ran into Ana.’

Swedish att träffa på

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn träffa-de Maja
pn meet- pst on pn
‘Björn encountered Maja.’
Note: Phrasal verb ( is not a flagging device).

Turkish rastlamak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e rastla-dı
pn pn - dat come_across- pst
‘Mehmet encountered Filiz’.

Ulcha ačala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
um ńī-wə ačal-xa
one human- acc meet- pst
‘[This boy] encountered a person.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Zilo Andi badi <w>-ukː.u

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<w>o badi aliħadʒi w-ukː.u
pn - aff < m > forth pn [ m ][ nom ] m -fall. pst ( aor )
‘Ali met Aligaji’