BivalTyp

‘encounter’

Argument frame: X (encounter) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. encountered M. (accidentally, on the street). = P. _x ran into M .
Predicate label Ru: встречаться
Argument frame Ru: X (встречаться) с Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. встретился с М. (случайно, на улице).

Abaza [p-]č̣a-ŝá

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCpca
X: ABS
Y: LOCp
Locus: Y
rasúl murád d-ʕa-j-p.č̣a-ŝá-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . m . io - loc -fall( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul ran into Murad.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʔʷə-č̣ʼe

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.FRONT
X: ABS
Y: LOC.FRONT
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-r policejske-m ʔʷə-č̣ʼa-ʁ
girl- abs policeman- obl loc : front -encounter- pst
‘This girl encountered the policeman.’

Aghul alčarx.u-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s meʜemed alčarx.u-ne
pn - dat pn meet. pf - aor
‘Aslan ran into Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz rast xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
terlan rasul-uğ rast xhiy-id
pn pn - super encounter be. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan encountered Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patimat-li-s moħommad χu
pn - obl - dat pn 1.find. pfv
‘Patimat encountered Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic tapək

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
yala tpək-lə mən švava
boy( m ) meet. pst - ls .3 m from neighbour( m )
‘The boy ran into his neughbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

Avar dandč’waze

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da aħmad dandč’wa-la rak’-alda-go heč’o-go
pn - loc pn meet- ipf heart- obl . loc -self neg . cop - cv
‘Ali ran into Ahmad by chance.’

Azerbaijani rastlaşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la rastlaş-dı
pn pn -with meet- pst (3)
‘Aslan encountered Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

Bafut jə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ jə́ sùù
pn sm p 2 see pn
‘Ambe encountered Suh’

Bambara bɛ̀n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye Fántà bɛ̀n
pn pfv . tr pn meet
‘Seku encountered Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese encontrar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro encontr-ou com Miguel
pn ( m ) meet-3 sg . pst with pn ( m )
‘Pedro encountered Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-uzun ra'stla'şmi saxha-ci
pn pn -with meeting ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan encountered Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan trobar-se

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere es va trob-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind meet- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere ran into Marc.’

Chirag sa-pː-arχːi

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i dustː-re sa-pː-arχː-ib
pn - obl - super friend- pl ( abs ) ante - h . pl -stumble: pf - aor .3
‘Ali ran into his friends.’

Czech potkat se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se potka-l s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc meet( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr encountered Michal.’

Danish støde ind

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Peter stød-te ind i Marie
pn collide- pst into in pn
‘Peter ran into Marie.’

Dutch tegenkomen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet kwam Marie tegen
pn (С) come. pst pn (С) against
‘Piet encountered Marie.’

Eastern Maninka bɛ̀n

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Sékù bɛ̀n-da Fónbà dí.
pn meet- aor . intr pn with
‘Seku met Fomba.’

English encounter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter encountered Mary.

Estonian kohtama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter kohta-s Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom encounter- pst .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter encountered Maret.’

Finnish tavata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tapa-si Mati-n
pn . nom encounter- pst .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka encountered Matti’

Forest Enets dʲazuta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da dʲazuta
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg come_across( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend met Vasja’.

French rencontrer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a rencontré Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg meet. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul encountered Marie.’

Georgian še-Ø-xvd-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s še-Ø-xvd-a
pn - nom pn - dat prv :inward- io 3-meet- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre encountered Masho.’

German treffen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl traf Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] encounter. pst .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl encountered Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle kìêŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá kìéŋ̀ Nɔ̌wai
pn 3 sg . pfv meet with pn
‘Pepee encountered Nowai.’

Icari Dargwa sːukː-sa=w=ik-araj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_ABS
X: SUPLAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-lij Nadir sːukː-sa=w=ič-ib
pn - suplat pn . abs encounter- ante = m = lv - aor
‘Islam encountered Nadir.’

Irish buail

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Do=bhuail Pól le Mícheal.
pst =meet pn with pn
‘Pól encountered Mícheal.’

Italian incontrare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha incontrato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs meet. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo encountered Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa ʁarši-CL-ik-es / ʁarši-CL-irk-es

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-i-s ʡaˤšura ʁarši-r-ik-ib
pn - obl - dat pn opposite- f -fall. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad encountered Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani dikhəlpe

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a dikh-ľ-a-pe la Marijk-asa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg encounter- pst -3 sg - refl art . f . obl . sg pn - ins . sg
‘Murša encountered Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.DIR
X: ABS
Y: POST.DIR
Locus: Y
fatima maˁhaˁmed.a-q-ǯi alaq-nu
pn ( abs ) pn - post - dir ( h . sg )encounter- pst
‘Fatima encountered Mahamad.’

Karata dande woxaɬa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja aħmat’ dande w-okk-u
pn . dat pn across m -fall- pf
‘Ali encountered Ahmat.’
Note: dande functions as an adverb here.

Kaytag Dargwa inkvaˁqaˁra

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-j miša inkvaˁq-iv
pn - datlat pn meet. pf - aor
‘Petja encountered Misha.’

Kazakh kezdes

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-men kezde-s-tі
pn pn - ins encounter- rec - pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya encountered Masha.’

Kazym Khanty wǫjtantti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpila
X: NOM
Y: NOMpila
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-əλ piλ-a wǫjtantə-s
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg with- dat meet- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja encountered Vasja.’

Khoekhoe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Sara-s ge ǂâiǂamoǃnâse Maria-s-a go
pn -3 f . sg decl accidentally pn -3 f . sg - obl rpst see
‘Sara accidentally encountered Maria.’

Khwarshi j/ukkaja

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
šamile-l dandi ukkaj-ja di-ja es
pn - dat against encounter- pst . w 1 sg . o - gen 1 brother( i )
‘Shamil encountered my brother.’

Kina Rutul giˁχɨˁr

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ramazan giˁ-χɨˁ-r
pn - obl - dat pn ( nom ) pv -1.meet. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul ran into Ramazan.’

Kumyk joluqmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir musa-ʁa joluq-d-u
pn pn - dat meet- pst -3 sg
‘Basir encountered Musa.’

Latin incurro

Valency pattern: NOM_inACC
X: NOM
Y: inACC
Locus: Y
in me incurr-it Rom-a veni-ens Curio me-us
in i . acc encounter[ prf ]- ind . act .3 sg r ome( f )- abl . sg come- prs . ptcp . act . nom . sg pn ( m ). nom . sg my- nom . sg . m
‘My Curio, coming from Rome, ran into me.’
Note: ( Cic. Ep. ad Att. 2, 12, 2)

Laz o-nag-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s Fatma-Ø Ø-nag-u
pn - b - dat pn - nom io 3-meet- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim ran into Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese yùjiàn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān yùjiàn le Lǐsì
pn meet pfv pn
‘Zhangsan encountered Lisi.’

Mano ɓɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
ŋ̄ ɓɔ̄ Pèé mɔ̀ lɔ́ɔ́ yí
1 sg . pst leave pn on market in
‘I encountered Pe at the market.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.LAT_NOM
X: CONT.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pajzula-ze huneče w-ik-ib Musa
pn - cont ( lat ) road. super ( lat ) m -happen: pfv - pst pn
‘Pajzula encountered Musa on the way.’

Mingrelian še-Ø-xvad-un-Ø (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s ke-še-Ø-xvad-(u)
pn - erg pn - dat aff - prv - io 3-meet-( s 3 sg . pst )
‘Chelo met Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew nitkal

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Pinχas nitkal be Menaχem
pn bump.into[ pst .3 sg . m ] in pn
‘Pinchas encountered Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul haˤsil jišin

Valency pattern: SUPER_NOM
X: SUPER
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ıı q’urban haˁsil jiširi
pn - super pn meeting m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad encountered Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai baači-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-ǯi baače-la-xa-ni
pn pn - ins meet- pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia encountered Masha.’

Nivkh vord

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + оr-d
pn pn + encounter- ind
‘Kaskazik encountered Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh dandi buxuruƛa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patħudi-ƛa dandi w-ux-ari musa
pn - dat in_front m -fall- aor pn
‘Pathudi encountered Musa.’

Northern Mansi kasalaxtas

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMjot
X: NOM
Y: NOMjot
Locus: Y
ēkwa kāsal-axt-as āji-te jot
woman see- refl - pst .3 sg daughter- poss .3 sg with
‘The woman encountered her daughter (accidently).’

Northern Yukaghir nˈinū=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-nˈǝŋ nˈi-nū-ŋi
pn pn - com recp -find- tr .3 pl
‘Semien encountered Akulina.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a single comitative NP .

Norwegian Bokmål å møte

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per møt-te Ola
pn meet- pst pn
‘Per encountered Ola.’

Polish spotkać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Paweł spotka-ł Mart-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] encounter: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Paweł encountered Marta.’

Russian vstretitʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vstreti-l-sja s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg meet( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja encountered Maša.’

Serbian sresti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je sre-o Marij-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg meet. part . perf . m . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar encountered Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul salat' h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir salat' h-iši-r karam-ɨ
pn meeting m -be. pf - aor pn - super
‘Basir encountered Karam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni wīntow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmat=i Azim půnd-ti wīn-t
pn =3 sg pn road- sup see- pst
‘Ahmat encountered Azim on the road.’

Skolt Saami teeivõõttâd

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt teeivõõđ-i Määrja-in
pn . sg . nom encounter- pst .3 sg pn - sg . com
‘Pete encountered Maria’

Slovak stretnúť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter streto-l Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] meet( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter encountered Marek.’

Slovenian srečati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je sreča-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg meet: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel ran into Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish tûʂ bûn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa le bazar-ê lepir̂da tûʂ-î Zanko-î bû-Ø
pn from market- loc accidentally encounter- izf pn - obl be. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa accidentally encounterd Zanko on the street.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul tüş yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad natig-aa tüş yişi-r
pn pn - super meet m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad encountered Natig.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish encontrarse

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Pedro se ha encontra-do con María
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg aux . 3 sg encounter- ptcp : prf with pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro encountered Maria.’

Standard Arabic Ɂiltaqā

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un Ɂiltaqā bi=Maryam-a
pn - nom meet. pf .3 m by= pn - gen
‘Badr encountered Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-s la-xː-wiːdː-a
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -resemble
‘Maizer encountered Lile.’

Swedish att träffa på

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn träffa-de Maja
pn meet- pst on pn
‘Björn encountered Maja.’
Note: Phrasal verb ( is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
na-ka-salubong ni Pedro si Miguel
pot - com -encounter[ pv ] pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro encountered Miguel.’

Telugu kaliyu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni anukōkuṁḍā kalisāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc accidentally unite. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen accidentally met Mahesh.’

Tsakhur qhaˁllqhamıšхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERLAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPERLAT
Locus: Y
murad rasul-u-lqha qhaˁllqhamıš-хha-y-na
pn pn - obl - superlat encounter- aux . pf - ptcp - h
‘Murad encountered Rasul.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa qːaršːi b-ič-iz/b-irč-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-cːila qːaršːi ič-ib
boy friend- obl - com opposite m .get. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy encountered a friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa qːaršːi b-ič-i / b-irč-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j zumra qːarši r-ič-ib
boy- dat neighbor opposite f -get. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy encountered his neighbor.’

Turkish rastlamak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e rastla-dı
pn pn - dat come_across- pst
‘Mehmet encountered Filiz’.

Turoyo loqe

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_b
X: SBJ.SS
Y: b
Locus: Y
Gabriyel laqi b Mixoyel dlo waʕdo b-u=darbo
pn meet. pfv .3 m in pn without agreement in- art . m =road( m )
‘Gabriyel unexpectedly ran into Mixoyel on the way.’

Twi hyia

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi hyia-a nanabarima
pn encounter- pst grandfather
‘Kofi encountered grandfather.’

Ulcha ačala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
um ńī-wə ačal-xa
one human- acc meet- pst
‘[This boy] encountered a person.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek ko’rib qolmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni ko’r-ib qol-di
pn pn - acc see- cvb leave- pst .3 sg
‘Petja encountered Maša.’

West Central Oromo ɗufa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
obsaa-n tolaa-tti ɗuf-e
pn - nom pn - loc come-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa encountered Tolaa.’

Wolof tase

Valency pattern: SBJ_ak
X: SBJ
Y: ak
Locus: Y
tase naa ak moom mu jëm marse
meet prf .s i :1 sg with 3 sg s i :3 sg head.towards market( b )
‘I met him/her (accidentally), s/he was heading towards the market.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-l halt-na
pn pn - obl - sup meet- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib encountered Eldar.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ɛz rast-e ajɛ amɛ-ja
1 sg . abs encounter- ez . m 3 sg . f . obl come. pst -1 sg
‘I encountered her.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Zilo Andi badi <w>-ukː.u

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<w>o badi aliħadʒi w-ukː.u
pn - aff < m > forth pn [ m ][ nom ] m -fall. pst ( aor )
‘Ali met Aligaji’