BivalTyp

‘eat’

Argument frame: X (eat) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. ate an apple .
Predicate label Ru: есть
Argument frame Ru: X (есть) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. съел яблоко .

Abaza fa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa a-ĉ̣á l-fa-ṭ
def -girl def -apple 3 sg . f . erg -eat( aor )- dcl
‘The girl ate the apple.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) šxə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
pŝaŝe-m məʔerəse-r ə-šxə-ʁ
girl- obl apple- abs 3 sg . erg -eat- pst
‘The girl ate the apple.’

Aghul ʡut’.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a ʜač ʡut’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) apple eat. pf - aor
‘Aslan ate an apple.’

Alik Kryz ulayc

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir yeç ula-du
pn - erg apple( f ) eat. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan ate an apple.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu aˁnš kunne
pn - obl ( erg ) apple 4.eat. pfv
‘Pasha ate an apple.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +axəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala +xəl-lə xabuyša
boy( m ) eat. pst - ls .3 m apple( m )
‘The boy ate an apple.’

Avar kwine

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca ʕeč kwana
pn - erg apple eat( aor )
‘Ali ate an apple.’

Azerbaijani yemək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan alma ye-di
pn apple eat- pst (3)
‘Aslan ate an apple.’

Bafut nkwúrə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nkwúrə̂ m̀báŋə̀
pn sm p 2 eat palm_fruit
‘Ambe ate a palm fruit.’

Bambara dún

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye nàmasa` dún
pn pfv . tr banana eat
‘Seku ate a banana.’

Brazilian Portuguese comer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro com-eu um-a maçã
pn ( m ) eat-3 sg . pst indf - f apple( f )
‘Pedro ate an apple.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır yeç söʔül-cü.
pn - erg apple a .eat. pf - nar
‘Aslan ate an apple.’

Catalan menjar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va menj-ar un-a poma
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind eat- inf indf - sg . f apple( f )
‘Pere ate an apple.’

Chirag b-erčʷi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le qa̰r b-erk-un
pn - erg apple( abs ) n . sg -eat: pf - aor .3
‘Ali ate an apple.’

Czech sníst

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr sněd-l jablk-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] eat( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] apple( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr ate an apple.’

Danish spise

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter spis-te et æble
pn eat- pst indf . sg apple( n )
‘Peter ate an apple.’

Dutch eten

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft een appel op-ge-get-en
pn (С) have.3 sg art . indf apple( c ) pvb - ptcp -eat- ptcp
‘Piet ate an apple.’

Eastern Maninka dámu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà nàmansa` dó dámu.
pn aor . tr banana\ art indf eat
‘Seku ate a banana.’

English eat

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter ate an apple.

Estonian sööma

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter sõi õuna
pn . sg . nom eat. pst .3 sg apple. sg . part
‘Peeter ate an apple.’

Finnish syödä

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka söi omena-n
pn . nom eat. pst .3 sg apple- gen
‘Pekka ate an apple.’

Forest Enets ɔ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ ŋaʔu ɔma
i man- nom . sg .1 sg duck eat( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend ate a duck’.

French manger

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a mangé une pomme
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg eat. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f apple( f )
‘Paul ate an apple.’

Georgian še-Ø-č'am-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m vašl-i še-Ø-č'am-a
pn - erg apple- nom prv :inward- do 3-eat- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre ate an apple.’

German essen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl isst den Apfel
pn [ nom . sg ] eat. prs .3 sg def . m . acc . sg apple[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is eating the apple.’

Guinean Kpelle mɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá gwìî mɛ̌ɛ
pn 3 sg . prf def \banana eat
‘Pepee ate a banana.’

Icari Dargwa b=erk-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il hinci b=erk-un
pn - erg apple. abs n =eat: pf - aor
‘Islam ate an apple.’

Irish ith

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
D’=ith Pól úll.
pst =eat pn apple
‘Pól ate an apple.’

Italian mangiare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha mangiato un-a mel-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs eat. pst . ptcp indf . sg - f apple- sg . f
‘Leo ate an apple.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-erkʷ-as / CL-uk-as

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li ʡinc b-erk-un
pn - erg apple n -eat. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad ate an apple.’

Kalderash Romani xal

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a xa-ľ-a ə phabaj
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg eat- pst -3 sg art . f . dir . sg apple[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša ate an apple.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi ʁ-ip’-nu
pn - erg porridge( abs ) pf -eat- pst
‘Mahamad ate porridge.’

Karata q’amaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l ʕeče q’am-e
pn - erg apple eat- pf
‘Ali ate an apple.’

Kaytag Dargwa berkvana

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l b-erk-un hinci
pn - erg n -eat. pf - aor apple
‘Petja ate an apple.’

Kazakh že

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya alma že-dі
pn apple eat- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya ate an apple.’

Kazym Khanty λԑti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en ńań λԑ-λ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg bread eat- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is eating bread.’

Khoekhoe ǂû

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge apel-s-a ge ǂû
pn -3 m . sg decl apple-3 f . sg - obl pst eat
‘Peter ate an apple.’

Khwarshi j/ac'a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obut'-i b-ajc'а čuʕа
father. o - erg iii -eat\ pst . w fish( iii )
‘Father ate the fish.’

Kina Rutul liwir

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a Ɂeč li<w>i-r
pn - erg apple( nom ) <3>eat. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul ate an apple.’

Kumyk ašamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir alma aša-d-ɨ
pn apple eat- pst -3 sg
‘Basir ate an apple.’

Latin edo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
bolet-um qual-em Claudi-us ed-it, ed-a-s
mushroom( m )- acc . sg which- acc . sg pn ( m )- nom . sg eat[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg eat- prs . sbjv - act .2 sg
‘You would eat a mushroom such as Claudis ate.’
Note: (Mart. Epigr. I, 20, 4)

Laz o-č'k'om-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k ušk'u(r)-i o-Ø-č'k'om-u
pn - b - erg apple- nom prf - do 3-eat- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim ate an apple.’

Mandarin Chinese chī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān chī le yí-gè píngguǒ
pn eat pfv one- clf apple
‘Zhangsan ate an apple.’

Mano ɓèlè

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé āà ɓū ɓèlè
pn 3 sg . prf rice eat
‘Pe has eaten rice.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Patimat-li-ni b-erkun inc
pn - obl - erg n -eat: pfv - aor apple
‘Patimat ate an apple.’

Mingrelian Ø-č'k'om-un-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k ušk'ur-(i) o-Ø-č'k'om-u
pn - erg apple- nom pfv - do 3-eat- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo ate an apple.’

Modern Hebrew aχal

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas aχal tapuaχ
pn eat[ pst .3 sg . m ] apple
‘Pinchas ate an apple.’

Mukhad Rutul lüʔun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a lüvʔu-ri
pn - erg apple a .eat. pf - aor
‘Murad ate an apple.’

Nanai sea-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia jabloka-wa sea-xa-ni
pn apple- obl eat- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia ate an apple.’

Nivkh ivd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik alr̥ + ɲi-d
pn berry + eat- ind
‘Kaskazik ate a berry.’

Northern Akhvakh q’q’oonuƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patħudi-de ʕeče q’q’a-ani
pn - erg apple eat- aor
‘Pathudi ate an apple.’

Northern Mansi tājapaste

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pājel tāj-ap-as-t-e xūl
pn eat- pfv - pst -3 sg . o -3 sg . s fish
‘Pasha ate the fish.’

Northern Yukaghir lǝw=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn čū-n kojlǝ-k lǝw-mǝ-lǝ
pn meat- gen piece- foc eat- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien ate a piece of meat.’

Norwegian Bokmål å spise

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per spis-te et eple
pn eat- pst indf . n . sg apple
‘Per ate an apple.’

Polish zjeść

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Adam zjad-ł jabłk-o
pn [ nom . sg ] eat: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] apple- acc . sg
‘Adam ate an apple.’

Russian sʺestʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sʺe-l jablok-o
pn ( m )- nom . sg eat( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] apple( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja ate an apple.’

Serbian pojesti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je poje-o jabuk-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg eat- part . perf . m . sg apple- acc . sg
‘Petar ate an apple.’

Shinaz Rutul ljɨvʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir ljɨvʔɨ-r aˁč
pn ( erg ) a .eat. pf - aor apple
‘Basir ate an apple.’

Shughni xīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i mūn xūd
pn =3 sg apple eat. pst
‘Ahmed ate an apple.’

Skolt Saami poorrâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt poor-i jaabl
pn . sg . nom eat- pst .3 sg apple. sg . acc
‘Pete ate an apple.’

Slovak zjesť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter zjedo-l jablk-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] eat( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] apple( n )- acc . sg
‘Peter ate an apple.’

Slovenian pojesti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je pojede-l jabolk-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg eat: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] apple- acc . sg
‘Peter ate an apple.’

Sorani Kurdish xiwardin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa sêw-êk=î xiward-Ø
pn apple- indf =3 sg . pc eat. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa ate an apple.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul lıˤʔıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aˤç lıˤvʔıˤ-r
pn - erg apple a .eat. pf - aor
‘Murad ate an apple.’

Spanish comerse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro se ha comi-do una manzana
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg aux .3 sg eat- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . f apple[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro ate an apple.’

Standard Arabic Ɂakala

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un Ɂakala tuffāḥ-a-n
pn - nom eat. pf .3 m apples- acc - indef
‘Badr ate an apple.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d lisgw-Ø la-l-eːm
pn - erg apple- nom prv : slightly - s 3-eat
‘Maizer ate an apple.’

Swedish att äta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn åt ett äpple
pn eat. pst indf . n . sg apple
‘Björn ate an apple.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
k<um>ain si Pedro ng mansanas
< av > pfv .eat pers . subj pn gen apple
‘Pedro ate an apple.’

Telugu tinu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ āpil tinnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom apple( n ). sg . nom eat. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen ate an apple.’

Tsakhur otхhuniy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee opхhun
pn - erg apple a .eat. pf
‘Murad ate an apple.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-erč-iz/b-uč-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le hinc b-erk-un
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) apple n -eat. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy ate an apple.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-erkʷ-i / b-ukʷ-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li hinci b-erk-un
boy- erg apple n -eat. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy ate an apple.’
Note: Co-exists with an antipassive (NOM_INST) pattern.

Turkish yemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet elma ye-di
pn apple eat- pst
‘Mehmet ate an apple.’

Turoyo oxəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel xil-e ḥabušo
pn eat. pfv - ls .3 m apple( m )
‘Gabriyel ate an apple.’

Twi di

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi di-i aprε bi
pn handle- pst apple indef
‘Kofi ate an apple.’

Ulcha ǯəp-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə uniktə-wə ǯək-pi-ni
male child wild_apple- acc eat- pst -3 sg
‘The boy ate a wild apple.’

Uzbek ep qoymoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya olma-ni e-p qoy-di
pn apple- acc eat- cvb put- pst .3 sg
‘Petja ate an apple.’

West Central Oromo ɲaata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n appilii ɲaat-e
pn - nom apple. abs eat-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa ate an apple.’

Wolof lekk

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
Omar a lekk ceeb b-i
pn f oc s eat rice( b ) cl b - def
‘It’s Omar who ate the rice.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a tˈü-na
pn - erg apple eat. pfv / mas - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib ate the apple.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ.TR
Y: DO
Locus: TR
oxɨr-i sajɛ wɛrd-ə
pn - m . obl apple eat. pst -3 sg . f
‘Oxir ate an apple.’

Zilo Andi k’amm.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di intʃi k’amm.i
pn - erg apple[ inan 1][ nom ] eat. pst ( aor )
‘Ali ate an apple.’