BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘drop’

Argument frame: X (drop) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. dropped the glass .
Predicate label Ru: ронять
Argument frame Ru: X (ронять) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. уронил стакан .

Abaza ḳa-rə.ŝ

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-stakán ḳa-j-rə́-ŝ-d
def -boy def -glass loc -3 sg . m . erg - caus -fall( aor )- dcl
‘The boy dropped the glass.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʔe.pə-zə

Valency pattern: LOC.HAND.LOC.TIP_ABS
X: LOC.HAND.LOC.TIP
Y: ABS
Locus: X
stekanə-r p-ʔa-pə-mə-zə-ʁa-ʁe-me, qʷəte-šʼt-ʁa-ʁ-ep
glass- abs 2 sg . io - loc : hand - loc : tip - neg -fall- pst - pst - cond break(intr.)- fut - pst - pst - neg
‘If you hadn't dropped the glass, it wouldn’t have broken.’

Aghul fatːarx.u-

Valency pattern: APUD.ELAT_ABS
X: APUD.ELAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-f-as istːik’an fatːarx.u-ne
pn - apud - elat glass { apud . elat }get. pf - aor
‘Aslan dropped the glass.’

Alik Kryz ʕaq'ala aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir iskan ʕaq'vala var-du
pn - erg glass( f ) f .fall. cvb f .do. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan dropped the glass.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu istəkan ek-as aw
pn - obl ( erg ) glass 4.fall- inf 4.do. pfv
‘Pasha dropped the glass.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic manpəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxt-u munpəl-la stacan
woman( f )- p .3 m drop. pst - ls .3 f glass( m )
‘The woman dropped the glass.’

Avar bortize

Valency pattern: APUDEL_NOM
X: APUDEL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-qa stakan b-ort-ana
pn - apudel glass n -rush- aor
‘Ali dropped the glass.’

Azerbaijani yerə salmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan stǝkan-ı yer-ǝ sal-dı
pn glass- acc place- dat / lat spread- pst (3)
‘Aslan dropped the glass.’

Bambara bɔ́ + bìn

Valency pattern: bolo_SBJ
X: bolo
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
mùru` bɔ́-ra kà bìn Sékù bólo
knife\ art go.out- pfv . intr inf fall pn cntrl
‘Seku dropped the knife.’
Note: This is a serial verb construction.

Brazilian Portuguese derrubar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro derrub-ou um copo
pn ( m ) topple-3 sg . pst indf glass( m )
‘Pedro toppled a glass.’

Catalan caure's

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere se li va cau-re el got
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg dat .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind fall- inf def . sg . m glass( m )
‘Pere dropped the glass.’

Chirag ke-b-iče b-aqi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le šuša ke-b-ič-e b-aq-ib
pn - erg bottle( abs ) down - n . sg -fall: pf - inf n . sg - caus : pf - aor .3
‘Ali dropped the bottle.’

Czech upustit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr upusti-l sklenic-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drop( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] glass( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr dropped the glass.’

Danish tabe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter tab-te glass-et
pn drop- pst glass( n )- def . sg
‘Peter dropped the glass.’

Dutch laten vallen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft een glas laten vallen
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . indf glass( n ) let fall
‘Piet dropped a glass.’

Eastern Maninka tála, bè

Valency pattern: bolo_SBJ
X: bolo
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Kóro` tála-ra Sékù bólo kà bè.
mug\ art divide- art . intr pn cntrl inf fall
‘Seku has dropped the mug.’

English drop

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter dropped the glass.

Estonian maha pillama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter pilla-s klaasi maha
pn drop- pst .3 sg glass. sg . gen down
‘Peeter dropped the glass.’
Note: Phrasal verb (maha is not a flagging device).

Finnish pudottaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka pudott-i lasi-n
pn . nom drop- pst .3 sg glass- gen
‘Pekka dropped the glass.’

Forest Enets sumuɔjta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ tʃaʃka-da sumuɔjta-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg cup- obl . sg .3 sg drop( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend dropped his cup’.

French faire tomber

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a fait tomber un verre
pn ( f ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m fall- inf indf . sg . m glass( m )
‘Paul dropped the glass.’

Georgian da-Ø-u-vard-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s č'ika-Ø da-Ø-u-vard-a
pn - dat glass- nom prv :downward- io 3- ver : o -fall- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre dropped the glass.’

German fallen lassen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl hat das Glas fallen lassen
pn [ nom . sg ] have. prs .3 sg def . n . acc . sg glas[ acc . sg ] fall. inf let. inf
‘Karl dropped the glass.’

Icari Dargwa kʷir=b=ič-aq-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il istːikan kʷir=b=ič-aˤq-ib
pn - erg glass. abs from_hands. ess .fall= n =get: pf - caus - aor
‘Islam dropped the glass.’

Irish tit

Valency pattern: o_SBJ
X: o
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Do=thit an ghloine ó Phól.
pst =fall def glass from pn
‘Pól dropped the glass.’

Italian far cadere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha fatto cad-ere un bicchier-e
pn ( f ) aux .3 sg . prs make. pst . ptcp fall- inf indf . sg . m glass- sg . m
‘Leo dropped a glass.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li istakan ka-b-ik-aˤq-ib
pn - erg glass down - n -fall. pfv - caus - pret
‘Muhammad dropped the glass.’

Kalderash Romani peravel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a per-a-ď-a o stakan-o
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg drop- pst -3 sg art . m . dir . sg glass- acc . sg
‘Murša dropped the glass.’

Karata

Valency pattern: CONTEL_NOM
X: CONT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-č’ogal istakan t’ar-e
pn - contel glass fall- pf
‘Ali dropped the glass.’

Kaytag Dargwa кабичихив

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l stakan kabič:iχ-iv
pn - erg glass n .drop. pf - aor
‘Petja dropped the glass.’

Kazakh tüsіr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya staqan-dï tüsіr-іp al-dï
pn glass- acc drop- cvb give- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya dropped the glass.’

Kazym Khanty iλ pawǝtti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en an pawǝt-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg cup down drop- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja dropped the cup.’

Khoekhoe ǃgau

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge xla-s-a go ǃgau
pn -3 m . sg decl glass-3 f . sg - obl rpst drop
‘Peter dropped the glass.’

Khwarshi j/ekeła

Valency pattern: CONT_ABS
X: CONT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
di-lo uža-qo b-eke-jła k'ote
1 sg - gen 2 son- cont iii -?fall- pot . pst . w plate( iii )
‘My son dropped a plate.’

Kina Rutul saɁ sipxur

Valency pattern: APUD.EL_NOM
X: APUD.EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-da: saɁ s-i<p>xu-r istek’an
pn - apud . el down. lat pv -<3>fall. pfv - cvb glass( nom )
‘Rasul dropped the glass.’

Kumyk tüšürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
rasul stakan-nɨ tüšür-d-ü
pn glass- acc drop- pst -3 sg
‘Rasul dropped the glass.’

Latin demitto

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
di qui cael-o demitti-tis imbr-em
god( m ). nom . pl which. nom . pl . m heaven( n )- abl . sg drop[ prs . ind ]- act .2 pl rain( m )- acc . sg
‘Gods who send down rain from the skies.’
Note: (Verg. Georg. I, 23)

Laz o-xt'-im-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s šuše-Ø n-u-l-u
pn - b - dat glass- nom io 3- ver : o -fall- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim dropped the glass.’

Mandarin Chinese diào

Valency pattern: SBJ_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān bōlibēi diào zài shàng le
pn ba glass drop at floor on pfv
‘Zhangsan dropped the glass on the floor.’
Note: The status of the "bǎ"-construction is controversial. Sometimes, it coexists with the regular transitive pattern. However, it is preferrable for this lexical predicate.

Mano dà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà nɛ́ dà
3 sg . prf child fall
‘S/he dropped the child.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.EL_NOM
X: CONT.EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-ize-la istikan ar-b-ik-ib
pn - cont - el glass pv - n -fall- pst
‘Islam dropped the glass.’

Mingrelian do-Ø-u-ol-un-Ø (FUT)

Valency pattern: DAT_ERG
X: DAT
Y: ERG
Locus: X
čelo-s č'irka-k ku-d-Ø-u-ol-(u)
pn - dat glass- erg aff - prv - io 3- ver : o -fall- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo dropped the glass.’

Modern Hebrew hipil

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas hipil et ha kos
pn drop[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def glass
‘Pinchas dropped the glass.’

Mukhad Rutul χiitxun

Valency pattern: ADEL_NOM
X: ADEL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-daa istakan χiipxu-ri
pn - adel glass a .drop. pf - aor
‘Murad dropped the glass.’

Nanai tugbu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia stakam-ba tug-bu-xə-ni
pn glass- obl fall- caus - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia dropped the glass.’

Nivkh ɣuсit

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik stakan ɣuсi-t
pn glass drop- ind
‘Kaskazik dropped the glass.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: EL_NOM
X: EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-gune istaka kwadu ma-ani
pn - el glass hand. el n .go- aor
‘Patahi dropped the glass.’

Northern Mansi jolpattǝs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am istakan jol-pat-t-ǝs
1 sg glass down-fall- tr - pst [3 sg ]
‘I dropped the glass.’

Northern Yukaghir kǝriǝs=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn suskǝ-lǝ kǝriǝ-s-mǝ-lǝ
pn cup- acc fall- caus - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien dropped the glass.’

Norwegian Bokmål å miste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per miste-t glass-et i gulv-et
pn lose- pst glass- def . n . sg in floor- def . n . sg
‘Per dropped the glass.’

Polish upuścić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Ann-a upuści-ł-a szklank-ę
pn - nom . sg drop: pfv - pst - f .3 sg glass- acc . sg
‘Anna dropped the glass.’

Russian uronitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja uroni-l stakan
pn ( m )- nom . sg drop( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] glass( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja dropped the glass.’

Serbian ispasti

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u je ispa-la čaš-a
pn - dat . sg be. prs .3 sg fall.down- part . perf . f . sg glass- nom . sg
‘Petar dropped the glass.’

Shinaz Rutul saʔ ʁipxu-n

Valency pattern: AD_NOM
X: AD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-da saʔ ʁipxu-r istak'an
pn - ad down a .drop. pf - aor glass( a )
‘Basir dropped the glass.’

Shughni pitêwdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i čaška pitêw-d
pn =3 sg cup drop- pst
‘Azim dropped the glass.’

Skolt Saami kõõččted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kõõččt-i ståkkan
pn . sg . nom drop- pst .3 sg glass. sg . acc
‘Pete dropped the glass.’

Slovak pustiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter pusti-l pohár
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drop( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] glass( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter dropped the glass.’

Slovenian spustiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je spusti-l-a kozarec
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg drop: pfv - lpt - f . sg glass[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana dropped the glass.’

Sorani Kurdish berdanewe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa perdax-eke=î ber-da-Ø-we
pn glass- def =3 sg . pc prev -give. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa dropped the glass.’

Southern Rutul aa sehin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a istikan aa sevi-r
pn - erg glass( a ) down a .throw. pf - aor
‘Murad dropped the glass.’

Spanish dejar caer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro dej-ó caer un vaso
pn [ sg . m ] allow- aor .3 sg fall[ inf ] art . ndef . sg . m glass[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro dropped a glass.’

Standard Arabic Ɂawqaʕa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n Ɂawqaʕa kūb-a-n
pn - nom - indef drop. pf .3 m glass- acc - indef
‘Badr dropped the glass.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s č'ik-Ø č-ot-Ø-šq'äd
pn - dat cup- nom prv : downward - prv : dist . ver : o - io 3-drop
‘Maizer dropped the cup.’

Swedish att tappa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn tappa-de glas-et
pn lose- pst glass- def . n . sg
‘Björn dropped the glass.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-hulog ni Pedro ang salamin
pot . pv . pfv -drop pers . gen pn subj glass
‘Pedro dropped the glass.’
Note: Ask Sergey. Co-exists with the regular PV construction that implies intentional action and has the same encoding frame.

Telugu paḍēyu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ glāsu-ni paḍēsāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom glass( n ). sg . obl - acc drop. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen dropped the glass.’

Tsakhur q:aʔavhiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee istakan q:aʔavhu
pn - erg glass( a ) a .drop. pf
‘Murad dropped the glass.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le stakan b-at k-aʁ-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) cup n -let down -chase. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy dropped the glass.’

Tsugni Dargwa kʷer-k-aq'-i / kʷer-k-alq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li k'uč'u kʷer-k-aq'-ur
boy- erg cup from.hand- down -pour. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy dropped the glass.’

Turkish düşürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet bardağ-ı düşür-dü
pn glass- acc drop- pst
‘Mehmet dropped the glass.’

Turoyo dore

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel dre-le u koso
pn drop. pfv - ls .3 m art . m cup
‘Gabriyel dropped the cup.’

Ulcha tugbu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə čāmi-wa tugbu-xə-ni
male child cup- acc drop- pst -3 sg
‘This boy dropped the glass.’

Uzbek tuširib olmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya piola-ni tušir-ib ol-di
pn cup- acc drop- cvb take- pst .3 sg
‘Petja dropped the glass.’

West Central Oromo buusa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n burtʃ'uk'k'oo lafa buus-e
pn - nom glass. abs ground drop. caus -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa dropped a glass.’

Zilo Andi <r>-ukː-oɬ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di r-ukː-oɬ.i istakan
pn - erg inan 2-fall- caus . pst ( aor ) glass[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Patimat dropped a glass.’