BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘drive’

Argument frame: X (drive) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is driving the cow (to the pasture).
Predicate label Ru: гнать
Argument frame Ru: X (гнать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. гонит корову (на пастбище).

Abaza t-ca

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-raχʷχč’a a-ẑ tə-j-c-ə́j-ṭ
def -herdsman def -cow loc -3 sg . m . erg -drive- prs - dcl
‘The herdsman is driving the cow.’

Aghul hik.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a mal-ar hik.a-a
pn ( erg ) cattle- pl drive. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is driving the cattle.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭarə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +bəṭray=əla tavərt-o gu +bukra
girl( f ) drive. prog =3 f cow( f )- p .3 f in herd( m )
‘The girl is driving the cow to the pasture’ (lit. ‘into the herd’).
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro conduz a vaca
‘Педру гонит корову.’

Czech hnát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr žene kráv-u na pastv-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drive( ipfv ). prs .3 sg cow( f )- acc . sg on pasture( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is chasing the cow to the pasture.’

Finnish ajaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka aj-aa lehmä-ä pello-lle
pn . nom drive- prs .3 sg cow- part field- all
‘Pekka is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Forest Enets tanir

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ ti-za taniŋa nɛbe kɔzuj-d
i man- nom . sg .1 sg reindeer- nom . pl .3 sg drive( ipfv ).3 sg . s new pasture- dat
‘My friend is driving his reindeer to the new pasture’.

Latin ago

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ipse capell-as protinus aeger ag-o
oneself. nom . sg . m she_goat( f )- acc . pl forward sick. nom . sg . m drive[ prs . ind ]- act .1 sg
‘I myself wearily drive forth my she-goats.’
Note: (Verg. Ecl. 1, 13)

Modern Hebrew movil

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas movil et ha para
pn drive[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def cow
‘Pinchas is driving the cow.’

Nanai puŋiə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia exa-mba sirgə-či puŋiə-j-ni
pn cow- obl hillock_by_river- dir гнать- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Norwegian Bokmål å jage

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per jage-r ku-a beite
pn drive- prs cow- def . f . sg on pasture
‘Per is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Polish gonić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Andrzej goni krow-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] drive: ipfv . prs .3 sg cow- acc . sg
‘Andrzej is driving the cow.’

Russian gnatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja gon-it korov-u na pastbišč-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg drive( ipfv )- prs .3 sg cow( f )- acc . sg on pasture( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Rutul hiwirgara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a zer hi-w-irga-r=a
pn - erg cow( nom ) pv -3-drive. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is driving the cow.’

Skolt Saami laiʹddjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt laiʹddai kuuzz
pn . sg . nom lead. prs .3 sg cow. sg . acc
‘Pete is driving the cow (to the pasture).’

Slovenian gnati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter žene krav-o
pn [ nom . sg ] drive: ipfv . prs .3 sg cow- acc . sg
‘Peter is driving the cow.’

Swedish att driva

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn driv-er ko-n
pn drive- prs cow- def . c . sg
‘Björn is driving the cow.’

Turkish sürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ineğ-i sür-üyor
pn cow- acc drive- prs
‘Mehmet is driving the cow.’

Ulcha puŋəči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə ixa-wa puŋə-č-i-ni
male child cow- acc drive- iter - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is driving the cows.’

Zilo Andi <b>-uqχ’.i-r

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ziw̃ b-uqχ’.i-r alaχil-ʔo
pn - erg cow[ an ][ nom ] an -displace. pst - prog pasture- super . lat
‘Ali drives the cow to the pasture.’