BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘drive’

Argument frame: X (drive) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is driving the cow (to the pasture).
Predicate label Ru: гнать
Argument frame Ru: X (гнать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. гонит корову (на пастбище).

Abaza t-ca

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-raχʷχč’a a-ẑ tə-j-c-ə́j-ṭ
def -herdsman def -cow loc -3 sg . m . erg -drive- prs - dcl
‘The herdsman is driving the cow.’

Adyghe (West Circassian)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
čʼemaχʷe-m čʼemə-r j-e-fə
herdsman- obl cow- abs 3 sg . erg - dyn -drive
‘This shepherd is driving the cow.’

Aghul hik.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a mal-ar hik.a-a
pn ( erg ) cattle- pl drive. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is driving the cattle.’

Alik Kryz hay aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir zar ürüş-ca hay yi-raʕacu
pn - erg cow pasture- obl . in dispatched do. ipfv - prog . f
‘Terlan is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša χˁon b-a<r>kʼu-r-ši w-i
pn cow 3-< ipfv >drive- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha is driving the cow.’
Note: Binominative construction resolves into transitive.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭarə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +bəṭray=əla tavərt-o gu +bukra
girl( f ) drive. prog =3 f cow( f )- p .3 f in herd( m )
‘The girl is driving the cow to the pasture’ (lit. ‘into the herd’).
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar ʁeze

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca ʕaka q’wat’i-b-e ʁol-e-b b-ugo χaribak’-al-de
pn - erg cow outside- n - lat push. ipf - ptcp - n n - cop pasture- obl - lat
‘Ali is driving the cow away to the pasture.’

Azerbaijani sürmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan inǝyi otlağa sür-ür
pn cow. acc pasture. lat drive- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.ndim
X: SBJ
Y: ndim
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ jóŋə̂ ǹdᵼ̀m káù já
pn sm follow at back/ prep cow def
‘Ambe is driving the cow’.

Bambara gɛ́n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bɛ_kà mìsi` gɛ́n
pn prog cow\ art chase
‘Seku chases a cow.’

Brazilian Portuguese conduzir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro conduz a vaca
pn ( m ) lead.3 sg . prs def . f cow( f )
‘Pedro is driving the cow.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır zar xham-ıla' çoroğu-ri
pn - erg cow pasture- obl . loc a .drive. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Catalan pasturar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està pastur-ant un-a vaca
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind lead- ger indf - sg . f cow( f )
‘Pere is driving the cow.’

Chirag aʁi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le q’ṵl-e uqal-l-i aʁ-ib
pn - erg cow- pl ( abs ) pasture- obl - super drive: pf - aor .3
‘Ali drove the cows to the pasture.’

Czech hnát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr žene kráv-u na pastv-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drive( ipfv ). prs .3 sg cow( f )- acc . sg on pasture( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is chasing the cow to the pasture.’

Danish drive

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter drive-r ko-en
pn drive- prs cow( c )- def . sg
‘Peter is driving the cow.’

Dutch opjagen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet jaag-t de koe op
pn (С) drive-3 sg art . def . c cow( c ) on
‘Piet is driving the cow.’

Eastern Maninka wá

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Sékù yé wá-la nìsi` dí bín` dɔ́.
pn be go- inf . la cow\ art with grass\ art in
‘Seku is driving cows to the pasture.’

English drive

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter is driving the cow to the pasture.

Estonian ajama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter aja-b lehma karjamaa-le
pn . sg . nom drive- prs .3 sg cow. sg . part pasture- all
‘Peeter is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Finnish ajaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka aj-aa lehmä-ä pello-lle
pn . nom drive- prs .3 sg cow- part field- all
‘Pekka is driving the cow to the pasture.’
Note: The actual sentence displays the NOM_PART pattern, which is conditioned by use of the present tense.

Forest Enets tanir

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ ti-za taniŋa nɛbe kɔzuj-d
i man- nom . sg .1 sg reindeer- nom . pl .3 sg drive( ipfv ).3 sg . s new pasture- dat
‘My friend is driving his reindeer to the new pasture’.

French mener

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul mène sa vache au pâturage
pn ( m ) lead. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . f cow( f ) to. def . sg . m pasture( m )
‘Paul is driving his cow to the pasture.’

Georgian Ø-e-rek'-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø p'ir-u-t'q'v-s naxir-ši Ø-e-rek'-eb-a
pn - nom mouth- priv -speak- dat pasture- pstp : ill io 3- ver : r -call- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre is driving the animal to the pasture.’

German treiben

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl treib-t die Kuh
pn [ nom . sg ] drive- prs .3 sg def . f . acc . sg cow[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is driving the cow.’

Guinean Kpelle lí

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa lì-î ŋwɔ̀ nìŋɛ̌-ì nàá mìǐ mɛ́ni ɓà
pn cop go- inf with 3 sg . poss cow- art there eat issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is taking his cow to eat.’

Icari Dargwa tːura-aʁ-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il q'ʷaˤl tːura-ʕaˤʁ-ib
pn - erg cow. abs outside -drive: pf - aor
‘Islam is driving the cow.’

Irish tiomáin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pól aig tiomáint an bhó.
be. prs pn at drive. nmlz def . gs cow( gs )
‘Pól is driving the cow.’
Note: The Y argument is in the GS-form because the verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian portare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo port-a la mucc-a al pascol-o
pn ( m ) lead-3 sg . prs def . sg . f cow- sg . f to. def . sg . m pasture- sg . m
‘Leo drives the cow to the pasture.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-aˤħ-CL-ar-es / CL-aˤħ-CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li q'aˤl b-aˤħ-b-ir-u-le
pn - erg cow n -side- n -do. ipfv - prs - cvb
‘Muhammad is driving the cow.’

Kalderash Romani našavel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a našav-el la gurumnʼ-a pe poľa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg drive- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg cow- acc . sg on field. nom . sg
‘Murša is driving the cow to the field.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi χni χtl.i-z ut’u<b>kː-nu
pn - erg cow( abs ) field- dat ( n . sg )drive- pst
‘Mahamad drove the cow out to the pasture.’

Karata q’ot’aaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l zini žim-jar q’ot’-eda idja
pn - erg cow grass- lat drive- ipf cop
‘Ali is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Kaytag Dargwa hejkabarara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l q’vaˁl hejkabar-iv q’ari
pn - erg cow n .drive. pf - aor pasture. datlat
‘Petja is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Kazakh ayda

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya siyïr-dï ayda-ydï
pn cow- acc drive- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya is driving the cow.’

Kazym Khanty wɔšitti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
petr-en wǔλǝ-t wɔšit-ǝλ
pn - poss .2 sg deer- pl drive- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is driving the reindeer.’

Khoekhoe hîkhao

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge goma-s-a ra hîkhao
pn -3 m . sg decl cow-3 f . sg - obl ipfv drive_animals
‘Peter is driving the cow.’

Khwarshi j/ec'a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i zihi b-ec'-c'o hun-ƛ'o-ʁol kuk-a
pn - erg cow( iii ) iii -drive- prs mountain( v )- super - dir eat- inf
‘Shamil is driving the cow to graze on the mountain.’

Kina Rutul hiwirgara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a zer hi-w-irga-r=a
pn - erg cow( nom ) pv -3-drive. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is driving the cow.’

Kumyk quwalamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat inek-ni quwala-j
pn cow- acc drive-3 sg
‘Patimat is driving the cow.’

Latin ago

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ipse capell-as protinus aeger ag-o
oneself. nom . sg . m she_goat( f )- acc . pl forward sick. nom . sg . m drive[ prs . ind ]- act .1 sg
‘I myself wearily drive forth my she-goats.’
Note: (Verg. Ecl. 1, 13)

Laz o-č-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k puǯ-ep-e mend-Ø-u-č-u
pn - b - erg cow- pl - nom prv - do 3- ver : o -drive- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim drove the cows.’

Mandarin Chinese gǎn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhèngzài gǎn niú
pn prog drive cow
‘Zhangsan is driving the cow.’

Mano nū

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
lɛ̄ nū-pɛ̀lɛ̀ dìì ká
3 sg . exi come- inf cow with
‘S/he is driving a cow.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pajzula-jni q'ʷaˤl b-arxaʔ-ib
pn - erg cow n -cause.to.go- pst
‘Pajzula is driving the cow.’

Mingrelian mida-Ø-raʔ-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-Ø čxou-s mindor-(i)ša mid-ma-Ø-raʔ-an-s
pn - nom cow- dat field- all prv - progr - do 3-drive- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo is driving the cow to the field.’

Modern Hebrew movil

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas movil et ha para
pn drive[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def cow
‘Pinchas is driving the cow.’

Mukhad Rutul jıgın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a zer jivıgı-r a
pn - erg cow a .lead. pf - seq be_in
‘Murad is driving the cow.’

Nanai puŋiə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia exa-mba sirgə-či puŋiə-j-ni
pn cow- obl hillock_by_river- dir drive- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh eχχa buq’q’ooruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patħudi-de žinwo eχχa b-uq’q’a-ari
pn - erg cow out n -drive- aor
‘Pathudi is driving the cow.’

Northern Mansi n’āwi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ōjka n’āw-i sāli
man drive- npst .3 sg reindeer
‘The man is driving the reindeer (to the pasture).’

Northern Yukaghir tono=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn kǝrǝwǝ-lǝ tono-m-lǝ
pn cow- acc bring- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien brought the cow.’

Norwegian Bokmål å jage

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per jage-r ku-a beite
pn drive- prs cow- def . f . sg on pasture
‘Per is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Polish gonić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Andrzej goni krow-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] drive: ipfv . prs .3 sg cow- acc . sg
‘Andrzej is driving the cow.’

Russian gnatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja gon-it korov-u na pastbišč-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg drive( ipfv )- prs .3 sg cow( f )- acc . sg on pasture( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Serbian terati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar tera krav-u
pn . nom . sg drive. prs .3 sg cow- acc . sg
‘Petar is driving the cow.’

Shinaz Rutul jɨkɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir hivɨka-r a zer
pn ( erg ) a .drive. ipf - simul exist cow
‘Basir is driving the cow.’

Shughni ay čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i wam žow ay čūd wox̌ xīd
pn =3 sg d 3. f . sg . obl cow expulsion do. pst grass eat. inf
‘Azim is driving the cow to graze.’

Skolt Saami laiʹddjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt laiʹddai kuuzz
pn . sg . nom lead. prs .3 sg cow. sg . acc
‘Pete is driving the cow (to the pasture).’

Slovak hnať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter ženie krav-u na pastvin-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drive( ipfv ). prs .3 sg cow( f )- acc . sg on pasture( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter is chasing the cow to the pasture.’

Slovenian gnati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter žene krav-o
pn [ nom . sg ] drive: ipfv . prs .3 sg cow- acc . sg
‘Peter is driving the cow.’

Sorani Kurdish birdin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa manga-ke de-b-at-e lewer̂-ê
pn cow- def ind -take. prs -3 sg -to pasture- loc
‘Hiwa is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Southern Rutul keğedixin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a zer keğebixi-r
pn - erg cow a .lead_across. pf - aor
‘Murad is driving the cow.’

Spanish arrear

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro arre-a a la vaca a los pastos
pn [ sg . m ] drive- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm art . def . sg . f cow[ sg . f ] to art . def . m . pl pasture[ pl . m ]
‘Pedro is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Standard Arabic sāqa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yasūqu l-baqar-a
pn - nom drive. ipf .3 m def -cow- acc
‘Badr is driving the cow.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-Ø k'umäš-s laxw-te a-Ø-rk'-äl-i
pn - nom cattle- dat slope_meadow- all prv : dist - do 3-drive- vpl - prs
‘Maizer is driving the cow to the pasture.’

Swedish att driva

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn driv-er ko-n
pn drive- prs cow- def . c . sg
‘Björn is driving the cow.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
D<in>a~dala ni Pedro ang baka sa pastulan
< pv > ipfv ~bring pers . gen pn subj cow dat pasture
‘Pedro is bringing the cow to the pasture.’

Telugu tōlukupōvu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ āvu-ni tōlukupōtunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom cow( n ). sg . obl - acc make_walk. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is driving the cow.’

Tsakhur heʔevkiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee zer q:ohooši
pn - erg cow a .drive. ipf
‘Murad is driving the cow.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa baˤħ b-arq'-iz/b-irq'-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le q'ʷaˤl awlaq-le baˤħ b-arq'-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) cow flat- erg / loc ( lat ) face do. pfv - pret . cnv (3)
‘The boy drove the cow into the plain.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-uč-i / b-ič-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li ħaˤjwan-te duče k-ule=caj
boy- erg domestic_animal- pl pasture. loc ( lat ) drive. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is driving the cattle to the pasture.’

Turkish sürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ineğ-i sür-üyor
pn cow- acc drive- prs
‘Mehmet is driving the cow.’

Turoyo qoləʕ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel qləʕ-le aḥ ḥayewən l-i marʕa
pn drive. pfv - ls .3 m art . pl animal( pl ) to- art . f pasture( f )
‘Gabriyel drove the animals to the pasture.’

Ulcha puŋəči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə ixa-wa puŋə-č-i-ni
male child cow- acc drive- iter - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is driving the cows.’

Uzbek xaydamoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya sigir-ni xayda-y-di
pn cow- acc drive- prs -3 sg
‘Petja is driving the cow.’

West Central Oromo oofa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n saʔ-ittii oof-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom cow- def . abs drive- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is driving the cow.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a kkal çukkur-zva
pn - erg cow drive_away- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is driving the cow.’

Zilo Andi <b>-uqχ’.i-r

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ziw̃ b-uqχ’.i-r alaχil-ʔo
pn - erg cow[ an ][ nom ] an -displace. pst - prog pasture- super . lat
‘Ali drives the cow to the pasture.’