BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘drink’

Argument frame: X (drink) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. was given a glass of milk by his mother.) P. drank the milk .
Predicate label Ru: пить
Argument frame Ru: X (пить) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Мама налила П. стакан молока) П. выпил молоко .

Abaza ẑə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád a-χš jə-ẑ-d
pn def -milk 3 sg . m . erg -drink( aor )- dcl
‘Murad drank the milk.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) jə-ŝʷə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ŝeweẑəje-m šʼe-r r-jə-ŝʷə-ʁ
guy- obl milk- abs loc : cont -3 sg . erg -drink- pst
‘The guy drank the milk.’

Aghul uχ.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a nekː uχ.u-ne
pn ( erg ) milk drink. pf - aor
‘Aslan drank the milk.’

Alik Kryz ğirayc

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir yux ğira-c
pn - erg milk drink. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan drank the milk.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu naˁʟʼ cʼabu
pn - obl ( erg ) milk drink. pfv
‘Pasha drank the milk.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic šatə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata šti-la +xalva
girl( f ) drink. pst - ls .3 f milk( m )
‘The girl drank the milk.’

Avar heq’eze

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca rax heq’-ana
pn - erg milk drink- aor
‘Ali drank the milk.’

Azerbaijani içmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan süd-ü iç-di
pn milk- acc drink- pst (3)
‘Aslan drank the milk.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nô mílíkə̀ wá
pn sm p 2 drink milk def
‘Ambe drank the milk.’

Bambara mìn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye jí` mìn
pn pfv . tr water\ art drink
‘Seku drank the water.’

Brazilian Portuguese beber

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro beb-eu o leite
pn ( m ) drink-3 sg . pst def . m milk( f )
‘Pedro drank the milk.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır yux seğir-ci
pn - erg milk drink. pf - nar
‘Aslan drank the milk.’

Catalan beure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va beure la llet
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind drink( inf ) def . sg . f milk( f )
‘Pere drank the milk.’

Chirag b-erčːi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le nig d-erčː-ib
pn - erg milk( abs ) n . pl -drink: pf - aor .3
‘Ali drank the milk.’

Czech vypít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr vypi-l mlék-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drink( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] milk( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr drank the milk.’

Danish drikke

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter drak mælk-en
pn drink. pst milk( c )- def . sg
‘Peter drank the milk.’

Dutch opdrinken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft melk op-ge-dronk-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg milk( c ) up- ptcp -drink- ptcp
‘Piet drank the milk.’

Eastern Maninka mìn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà jí` mìn.
pn aor . tr water\ art drink
‘Seku drunk water.’

English drink

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter drank the milk.

Estonian jooma

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter jõ-i piima
pn . sg . nom drink- pst .3 sg milk. sg . part
‘Peeter drank milk.’

Finnish juoda

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka joi maido-n
pn . nom drink. pst .3 sg milk- gen
‘Pekka drank the milk.’

Forest Enets ixuru

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ tetʃi-za biz ixura
man- nom . sg .1 sg be_cold( ipfv )- ptcp . sim water. obl drink( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend drank cold water’.

French boire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a bu du lait
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg drink. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m milk( m )
‘Paul drank some milk.’

Georgian da-Ø-lev-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m rʒe-Ø da-Ø-li-a
pn - erg milk- nom prv :downward- do 3-drink- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre drank the milk.’

German trinken

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl trank Milch
pn [ nom . sg ] drink. pst .3 sg milk[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl drank milk.’

Guinean Kpelle kpěle

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hwáahuɣû àá nìŋɛ níni yà kpěle
pn 3 sg . prf cow breast\ l milk\ l drink
‘Hwaahughu drank cow milk.’

Icari Dargwa d=erčː-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il nejg d=erčː-ib
pn - erg milk. abs npl =drink: pf - aor
‘Islam drank the milk.’

Irish ól

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
D’=ól Pól an bainne.
pst =drink pn def milk
‘Pól drank the milk.’

Italian bere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha bevuto il latt-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs drink. pst . ptcp def . sg . m milk- sg . m
‘Leo drank the milk.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-erž-es / CL-už-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li niʔ d-erž-un
pn - erg milk npl -drink. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad drank the milk.’

Kalderash Romani pel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a pi-ľ-a thud
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg drink- pst -3 sg milk[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša drank the milk.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
rasul-i nikː ʁ-uχ-nu
pn - erg milk( abs ) pf -drink- pst
‘Rasul drank the milk.’

Karata c’c’araɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l š:iw c’c’ar-e
pn - erg milk drink- pf
‘Ali drank the milk.’

Kaytag Dargwa berč:ara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l d-erč:-iv neg
pn - erg npl -drink. pf - aor milk
‘Petja drank the milk.’

Kazakh іš

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya süt-tі іš-tі
pn milk- acc drink- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya drank the milk.’

Kazym Khanty jańśi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en ԑsǝm jiŋk jańś-əs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg udder water drink- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja drank the milk.’

Khoekhoe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge dai-e ge
pn -3 m . sg decl milk-3 c . sg . obl pst drink
‘Peter drank the milk.’

Khwarshi χiƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i χiƛ-ƛa ʁi
pn - erg drink- pst . w milk( v )
‘Shamil drank the milk.’

Kina Rutul waraˁʁɨˁra

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a nek wa-raˁʁɨˁ-r=a
pn - erg milk( nom ) 3-drink. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul drank the milk.’

Kumyk ičmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir süt ič-d-i
pn milk drink- pst -3 sg
‘Basir drank milk.’

Latin bibo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Cassi-us tot-a vit-a aqu-am bib-it
pn ( m )- nom . sg whole- abl . sg . f life( f )- abl . sg water( f )- acc . sg drink[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘Cassius drank water all his life.’
Note: (Sen. Ep. 83, 12)

Laz o-š-(um)-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k mža-Ø o-Ø-š-u
pn - b - erg milk- nom pfv - do 3-drink- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim drank the milk.’

Mandarin Chinese hē-xià

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān hē-xià le niúnǎi
pn drink-down pfv milk
‘Zhangsan drank the milk.’

Mano mī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ yíí mī
3 sg . ipfv water drink: ipfv
‘S/he drinks water.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini niʔ d-erž-ib
pn - erg milk npl -drink: pfv - pst
‘Islam drank the milk.’

Mingrelian Ø-š-un-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k bža-Ø ge-Ø-š-u
pn - erg milk- nom prv - do 3-drink- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo drank the milk.’

Modern Hebrew ʃata

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ʃata et ha χalav
pn drink[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def milk
‘Pinchas drank the milk.’

Mukhad Rutul raʁın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a naˤk va-raʁı-ri
pn - erg milk( a ) a -drink. pf - aor
‘Murad drank the milk.’

Nanai omi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia moloko-wa ome-xa-ni
pn milk- obl drink- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia drank the milk.’

Nivkh rad

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik mоlоkо + ra-d
pn milk + drink- ind
‘Kaskazik drank the milk.’

Northern Akhvakh c’c’aruruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de sso c’c’ar-ari
pn - erg milk drink- aor
‘Patahi drank the milk.’

Northern Mansi ajǝs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
jēn’a saw wīna aj-i
pn much alcohol drink- npst [3 sg ]
‘Eugene drinks a lot of alcohol.’

Northern Yukaghir law=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn īsī-lǝ lаw-mǝ-lǝ
pn milk- acc drink- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien drank the milk.’

Norwegian Bokmål å drikke opp

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per drakk melk-en opp
pn drink. pst milk- def . m . sg up
‘Per drank the milk.’
Note: Phrasal verb (opp is not a flagging device).

Polish wypić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek wypi-ł mlek-o
pn [ nom . sg ] drink: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] milk- acc . sg
‘Staszek drank the milk.’

Russian vypitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja vypi-l molok-o
pn ( m )- nom . sg drink( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] milk( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja drank the milk.’

Serbian popiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je popi-o mlek-o
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg drink- part . perf . m . sg milk- acc . sg
‘Petar drank the milk.’

Shinaz Rutul raˁʁɨˁ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir vaˁ-raˁʁɨˁ-r naˁk
pn ( erg ) a -( n )drink. pf - aor milk( a )
‘Basir drank the milk.’

Shughni birêx̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola=yi x̌ūvd birox̌-t
pn =3 sg milk drink- pst
‘Lola drank the milk.’

Skolt Saami juukkâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt juuǥǥ-i mieʹlǩ
pn . sg . nom drink- pst .3 sg milk. sg . acc
‘Pete drank the milk.’

Slovak vypiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter vypi-l mliek-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drink( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] milk( n )- acc . sg
‘Peter drank the milk.’

Slovenian spiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je spi-l mlek-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg drink: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] milk- acc . sg
‘Peter drank the milk.’

Sorani Kurdish xiwardinewe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa ʂîr-eke=î xiward-Ø-ewe
pn milk- def =3 sg . pc eat. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa drank the milk.’

Southern Rutul raˤğıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a naˤk vaˤraˤğıˤ-r
pn - erg milk( a ) a .drink. pf - aor
‘Murad drank the milk.’

Spanish tomarse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro se ha toma-do la leche
pn [ sg ] refl .3 sg aux .3 sg take- ptcp : prf art . def . sg . f milk[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro drank the milk.’

Standard Arabic šariba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un šariba ḥalīb-a-n
pn - nom drink. pf .3 m milk- acc - indef
‘Badr drank the milk.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d lǝǯe-Ø la-Ø-iː-š
pn - erg milk- nom prv : slightly - do 3- ver : s -drink
‘Maizer drank the milk.’

Swedish att dricka

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn drack mjölk-en
pn drink. pst milk- def . c . sg
‘Björn drank the milk.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
<Um>inom si Pedro ng gatas
< av > pfv .drink pers . subj pn gen milk
‘Pedro drank the milk.’
Note: Co-exists with the PV-construction.

Telugu tāgu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ pālu tāgāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom milk. pl . nom drink. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen drank the milk.’

Tsakhur ulyodğiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee nyak ulyobğu-na
pn - erg milk( a ) a .drink. pf - a
‘Murad drank the milk.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-erčː-iz/b-učː-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le nig d-erčː-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) milk npl -drink. ipfv - pret (3)
‘The boy drank the milk.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-erčː-i / b-učː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li nig d-erčːib
boy- erg milk npl -drink. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy drank the milk.’
Note: Co-exists with an antipassive (NOM_INST) pattern.

Turkish içmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet suy-u iç-ti
pn water- acc drink- pst
‘Mehmet drank the water’.

Turoyo šote

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel šte-way-le u ḥalwo
pn drink. pfv - pst - ls .3 m art . m milk( m )
‘Gabriyel had drank the milk.’

Ulcha umi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
piktə moloko-wa čupal umu-xa-ni
child milk- acc whole drink- pst -3 sg
‘This child drank all the milk.’

Uzbek ičmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya sut ič-ti
pn milk drink- pst .3 sg
‘Petja drank the milk.’

West Central Oromo ɗuga

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n aannan-ittʃa ɗug-e
pn - nom milk- def . abs drink-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa drank the milk.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a nek qhva-na
pn - erg milk drink. pfv / ipfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib drank the milk.’

Zilo Andi ts’ad.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ʃiw̃ ts’ad.i
pn - erg milk[ inan 2][ nom ] drink. pst ( aor )
‘Ali has drunk the milk.’