BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘dream’

Argument frame: X (dream) of Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is dreaming of a new car .
Predicate label Ru: мечтать
Argument frame Ru: X (мечтать) об Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. мечтает о (новой) машине .

Abaza [z-]qʷəc

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
rasúl mašína–č̣əc d-a-z-qʷə́c-əj-d
pn car­–new3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben -think- prs - dcl
‘Rasul is dreaming of a new car.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) č̣ʼe-nec̣ə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.BEHIND
X: ABS
Y: LOC.BEHIND
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r mašəne-m č̣ʼe-nec̣ə
guy- abs car- obl loc : behind -hanker
‘The guy is dreaming of a car.’

Aghul jurk’.ura-n χijal + COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
c’aje mašin aslan.a-n jurk’.ura-n χijal e
new car pn - gen heart- gen thought cop
‘Aslan is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Alik Kryz xayalca xhiyic

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
terlan taza sad maşin ğayn-ic xayal-ca-ya
pn new one. n machine take. pfv - msd imagination( f )- obl . in - cop
‘Terlan is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patʼimat-li-s noˁš ʟʼan-ši b-i
pn - obl - dat horse want- cvb . ipfv 3-be
‘Pasha is dreaming of a horse.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Avar aniššazda buk’ine

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʕali c’ija-b mašina-jaɬ-ul anišš-az-da w-ugo
pn new- n car- obl - gen dream- pl . obl - loc m - cop
‘Ali is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Azerbaijani arzu-POS-LOC-COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Aslan yeni bir maşın arzu-su-nda-dır
pn new one car wish- poss 3- loc - cop 3
‘Aslan is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Bambara *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Brazilian Portuguese sonhar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro sonh-a com um carro
pn ( m ) dream-3 sg . prs with indf car( m )
‘Pedro is dreaming of a car.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan sad taza ma'şin-ce havas-ce vi
pn one. n recently car- loc desire- loc cop
‘Aslan is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan somiar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere està somi-ant en un nou cotxe
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind dream- ger in indf . sg . m new( m ) sg car( m )
‘Pere is dreaming of a new car.’

Chirag b-ikː-

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i c’i-ze mašna gužle b-ikː-le
pn - obl - super new- atr car( abs ) very n . sg -want: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali is dreaming of a new car.’

Czech snít

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Petr sní o nov-ém aut-ě
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] dream( ipfv ). prs .3 sg about new- n . loc . sg car( n )- loc . sg
‘Petr is dreaming of a new car.’

Danish drømme

Valency pattern: SBJ_om
X: SBJ
Y: om
Locus: Y
Peter drømme-r om en ny bil
pn dream- prs about indf . sg new. c . sg car( c )
‘Peter is dreaming of a new car.’

Dutch dromen

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
Piet droom-t van een auto
pn ( c ) dream-3 sg of art . indf car(С)
‘Piet is dreaming of a car.’

Eastern Maninka náta

Valency pattern: SBJ_ko
X: SBJ
Y: ko
Locus: Y
Sékù yé náta-la mɔ́nbili` kɔ́.
pn be yearn- inf . la car\ art behind
‘Seku dreams of a car.’

English dream

Valency pattern: SBJ_of
X: SBJ
Y: of
Locus: Y
Peter is dreaming of a new car.

Estonian unistama

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Peeter unista-b uue-st auto-st
pn . sg . nom dream_of- prs .3 sg new- ela car- ela
‘Peeter is dreaming of a new car.’

Finnish haaveilla

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka haaveil-ee uude-sta auto-sta
pn . nom dream- prs .3 sg new- ela car- ela
‘Pekka is dreaming of a new car.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French rêver

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul rêve d’ une voiture neuve
pn ( m ) dream. prs .3 sg of indf . sg . f car( f ) new. sg . f
‘Paul is dreaming of a new car.’

Georgian Ø-ocneb-ob-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.SUPERESS
X: ERG
Y: DAT.SUPERESS
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø axal mankana-ze Ø-ocneb-ob-s
pn - nom new car- pstp : superess s 3-dream- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is dreaming of a new car.’

German träumen

Valency pattern: NOM_vonDAT
X: NOM
Y: vonDAT
Locus: Y
Karl träum-t von ein-em neu-en Auto
pn [ nom . sg ] dream- prs .3 sg of indf - n . dat . sg new- n . dat . sg car[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl is dreaming of a new car.’

Guinean Kpelle hḭ̀ḭ̂ ɓó

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Hèhee hḭ̀ḭ̂ ɓò mɔ̀ɓílíì
pn 3 sg .b dream implement with car
‘Hehee dreamt of a car.’

Icari Dargwa pikri-ik'ʷ-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT.CONT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT.CONT
Locus: Y
Islam mašin-nij-čilla pikri-ik'ʷ-il-ca=w
pn - abs car- suplat - cont thought-( m ) lv : ipf - conv - cop = m
‘Islam is dreaming of a car.’

Irish taibhrigh

Valency pattern: SBJ_mar.gheall.ar
X: SBJ
Y: mar.gheall.ar
Locus: Y
ag taibhreamh mar_gheall_air chairt nú.
be. prs 3 sg . m at dream. nmlz with.respect.to car. gs new
‘He is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: The verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian sognare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo sogn-a un-a macchin-a nuov-a
pn ( m ) dream-3 sg . prs indf . sg - f car- sg . f new- sg . f
‘Leo dreams of a new car.’

Kadar Dargwa pikri-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad pikri-0-uk'-ar sagaj maši-j-ke
pn thought- m -say. ipfv - th new car- obl - super
‘Muhammad is dreaming of a new car.’

Kalderash Romani *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: CONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
mahamad-ǯi c’iji mašin.ǯi-k-an fikr-ar ap’-ura
pn - erg new car- cont - elat thought- pl do- prs
‘Mahamad is dreaming of a new car.’

Karata χijal biɬaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali c’injo-m mašin-aa χijal b-iɬ-owχwa idja
pn new- n car. obl - loc hope n -put- pf . m . cv cop
‘Ali is dreaming of a new car.’

Kaytag Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
petja-j jengi mašina as:-ara b-ik:-ulca
pn - datlat new car buy. pf - inf n -want- prs
‘Petja wants to buy a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Kazakh armanda

Valency pattern: NOM_turaly
X: NOM
Y: turaly
Locus: Y
Petya mašiyna turalï armanda-ydï
pn car about dream- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya is dreaming of a car.’

Kazym Khanty nǫmǝsti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMolenen
X: NOM
Y: NOMolenen
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en jiλǝp mašina oλǝŋǝn nǫmǝs-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg new car about think- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is dreaming of a new car.’

Khoekhoe ǁhawo

Valency pattern: SBJ_xa
X: SBJ
Y: xa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge ǀasa audo-s xa ra ǁhawo
pn -3 m . sg decl new car-3 f . sg by ipfv dream
‘Peter is dreaming of a new car.’

Khwarshi j/iha

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
di-ja uža mašina-ƛ'o-žo iha-ha gołe
1 sg . o - gen 1 son( i ) car- super - el [ i ]die- prs aux . prs
‘My son desperately wants a car’, lit. ‘My son is dying about the car.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kina Rutul fikir waɁara

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasul-a fikir w-aɁa-r=a c’in-dɨ mašina-d
pn - erg thought 3-do. ipfv - cvb =be new- attr car- attr
‘Rasul is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Kumyk umut etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat jangɨ mašin-ge umut et-e
pn new car- dat hope do-3 sg
‘Patimat is dreaming of a new car.’

Latin somnio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
me desider-e-s, me somni-e-s, me exspecta-s, de me cogit-e-s
i . acc want- prs . sbjv - act .2 sg i . acc dream- prs . sbjv - act .2 sg i . acc expect[ prs . ind ]- act .2 sg about i . acc think- prs . sbjv - act .2 sg
‘You want me, you dream about me, you expect me, you think about me.’
Note: (Ter. Eu. 194)

Laz nos-iš o-kt-am-u

Valency pattern: ERG_ABL
X: ERG
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k araba-šen=i nos-i gam-Ø-u-kt-am-s
pn - b - erg car- abl = ev reason- nom prv - io 3- ver : o -turn- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is obsessed with a car.’
Note: The verb contains vestiges of a dative argument that is not actually present.

Mandarin Chinese mèngxiǎng yōngyǒu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān mèngxiǎng yōngyǒu yí-liàng xīn chē
pn dream have one- clf new car
‘Zhangsan is dreaming of a new car.’

Mano mɛ̀ŋ̀ zɛ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
mɛ̀ŋ̀ zɛ̄ ŋ̄ ká
3 sg . pst dream kill 1 sg with
‘S/he dreamed of me.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Pajzula=gʷa anišː saga-l mašina-li-če
pn = ptcl dream new- attr car- obl - super ( lat )
‘Islam is dreaming of a new car.’

Mingrelian Ø-i-orc-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_ABL
X: ERG
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø axal mašna-še(n) Ø-i-orc-en-s
pn - nom new car- abl do 3- ver : s -dream- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo is dreaming of a new car.’

Modern Hebrew χolem

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
Pinχas χolem al meχonit χadaʃa
pn dream[ ptcp . sg . m ] on car new
‘Pinchas is dreaming of a new car.’

Mukhad Rutul xırxın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad mašin-e-χda xırxa-ra a
pn car- obl - apud ipf .desire- simul be_in
‘Murad is dreaming of a car.’

Nanai murči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia sikun mašina-wa murči-ni
pn new car- obl think. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is dreaming of a new car.’

Nivkh kʰəmləd

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kaskazik cʰir + tʰu kʰəmlə-d
pn new + narta think- ind
‘Kaskazik is thinking of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Northern Akhvakh kwinɬunuƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
pataħi č’inda mašina kwinɬ-o gudi
pn new car want- seq . m m . cop
‘Patahi is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: This structure is unusual (two nominatives). Probably, this is a remnant of the affective construction.

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir Y-PROP-NLZR-bunˈ=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn mаšinа-nˈǝ-l-bunˈ-i
pn aff car- prop - nlzr - des - intr .3 sg
‘Semien is dreaming of a car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a root within a derived word.

Norwegian Bokmål å drømme

Valency pattern: SBJ_om
X: SBJ
Y: om
Locus: Y
Per drømme-r om en ny bil
pn dream- prs about indf . m . sg new car
‘Per is dreaming of a new car.’

Polish marzyć

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Jacek marzy o samochodz-ie
pn [ nom . sg ] dream: ipfv . prs .3 sg about car- loc . sg
‘Jacek is dreaming of a car.’

Russian mečtatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja mečta-et o nov-oj mašin-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg dream( ipfv )- prs .3 sg about new- f . loc . sg car( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja is dreaming of a new car.’

Serbian maštati

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Petar mašta o nov-im kol-ima
pn . nom . sg dream. prs .3 sg about new. loc . pl . n car- loc . pl
‘Petar is dreaming of a new car.’

Shinaz Rutul χijal-mi-kj kirxu-n

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTR
X: NOM
Y: ATTR
Locus: Y
basir χijal-mɨ-kj ki mašin-a-d
pn fantasy- pl . obl - cont be_in car( a )- obl - attr
‘Basir is dreaming of a new car.’

Shughni *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Skolt Saami niõǥǥtõõllâd

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij niõǥǥ-tõõll-men ođđ aaut diõtt
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg dream- cont - prog . ptcp new car. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete is dreaming of a new car.’

Slovak snívať

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter sníva o nov-om aut-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] dream( ipfv ). prs .3 sg about new- n . loc . sg car( n )- loc . sg
‘Peter is dreaming of a new car.’

Slovenian sanjati

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter sanja o avt-u
pn [ nom . sg ] dream: ipfv . prs .3 sg about car- loc . sg
‘Peter is dreaming of a new car.’

Sorani Kurdish xewin dîtin

Valency pattern: SBJ_be.we
X: SBJ
Y: be.we
Locus: Y
Hîwa xewin be maʂên-êk-î niwê-we de-bîn-ê
pn dream to car- indf - izf new-to ind -see. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is dreaming of a new car.’

Southern Rutul yik'-i-gı itxhun

Valency pattern: ATTR_NOM
X: ATTR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-dı yik'-i-gı maşin aˁğaˁvğuˁ-r
np - attr heart- obl - el car( a ) a .go_out. ipf - prs
‘Murad is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: By analogy with 76 and 88, the X argument is considered a clause-level constituent.

Spanish soñar

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Pedro sueñ-a con un coche nuev-o
pn [ sg . m ] dream- prs .3 sg with art . ndef . sg . m car[ sg . m ] new[ sg ]- m
‘Pedro is dreaming of a new car.’

Standard Arabic ḥalama

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un yaḥlamu bi=sayyārat-i-n ǧadīd-at-i-n
pn - nom dream. ipf .3 m by=car( f )- gen - indef new- f - gen - indef
‘Badr is dreaming of a new car.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø axne mankana-s Ø-i-wd-i
pn - nom new car- dat do 3- ver : s -dream- prs
‘Maizer dreams of a new car.’

Swedish att drömma

Valency pattern: SBJ_om
X: SBJ
Y: om
Locus: Y
Björn drömm-er om en ny bil
pn dream- prs about indf . c . sg new car
‘Björn is dreaming of a new car.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-nga~ngarap si Pedro ng bago-ng sasakyan
av - ipfv ~dream pers . subj pn gen new- lin vehicle
‘Pedro is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Alternative is the CAUS<PV> construction, also with the ACT_UND pattern.

Telugu kalalu kanu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLgurinci
X: NOM
Y: OBLgurinci
Locus: Y
pravīṇ kotta kāru guriṁci kala-lu kaṁtunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom new car( n ). sg . obl about dream( n )- pl . nom perceive. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is dreaming of a new car.’

Tsakhur ıхhay

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad teze mašın-ee-ni muraad-ee vo-r
pn new car- obl - attr . obl desire- in cop - h
‘Murad is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-ikː-iz

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
uršːi-z sakːa mašina asː-iz b-ikː-ule=saj
boy- dat new car buy- inf n -like/want- prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy wants to buy a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Tsugni Dargwa xul b-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ mašin-ni-ge xul ik'-ule caj
boy car- obl - super ( lat ) hope ( m )say- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is dreaming of a new car.’

Turkish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Mehmet yeni araba al-ma-yı hayal ed-ıyor
pn new car take- nmlz - acc dream make- prs
‘Mehmet is dreaming to buy a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Turoyo ḥoləm

Valency pattern: SBJ_m
X: SBJ
Y: m
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-ḥoləm me raḏayto ḥaṯ-to
pn prs -dream. ipfv .3 m from car( f ) new- f
‘Gabriyel is dreaming about a new car.’

Ulcha muruči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama sičəu ogda-wa muruč-i-ni
father new boat- acc think- prs -3 sg
‘Father is dreaming (lit. thinking) of a new boat.’

Uzbek orzu qilmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya mašina-ni orzu qil-a-di
pn car- acc dream do- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja is dreaming of a car.’

West Central Oromo abdʒata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n konkolaataa haaraa abdʒattʃ-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom car. abs new. abs dream- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is dreaming of a new car.’

Zilo Andi aniʃːi

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-b aniʃːi ts’ːiw maʃina
pn - inan 1( gen ) dream[ inan 1][ nom ] new car[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali dreams of a new car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.