BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘dismount’

Argument frame: X (get down) from Y
Stimulus sentence: P. got down from the horse .
Predicate label Ru: слезать
Argument frame Ru: X (слезать) с Y -a (с лошади)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. слез с лошади .

Abaza ʕa-[ḳ.nə-]c̣ə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCkne
X: ABS
Y: LOCkne
Locus: Y
a-č-kʷá ŝ-ʕa-r-ḳ.nə́-m-c̣ə-n
def -horse- pl 2 pl . abs - cisl -3 pl . io - loc - neg -pass- neg . imp
‘Don’t get down from the horses!’

Aghul alajč’.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan ʜajwan.di-l-as alajč’.u-ne
pn horse- super - elat { super }emerge. pf - aor
‘Aslan got down from the horse.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +salə

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+avvo naša +sli-lə mən suysa
dem 3. m person( m ) descend. pst - ls .3 m from horse( m )
‘This man got down from the horse.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro desmonta do cavalo
‘Педру слез с лошади.’

Czech seskočit

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Petr seskoči-l z kon-ě
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] jump_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from horse( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr jumped off the horse.’

Finnish laskeutua

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka laskeutu-i hevose-n selä-stä
pn . nom dismount- pst .3 sg horse- gen back- ela
‘Pekka got down from the horse.’

Forest Enets kaʔa

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLniz
X: NOM
Y: OBLniz
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ buranu-da nʲi-z dʲa nʲi-ʔ kaʔ-e-zʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg snowmobile- obl . sg .3 sg surface- abl place surface- dat come_down( pfv )- m -3 sg . m
‘My friend got down from the snowmobile to the ground’.

Latin descendo

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
quibus de caus-is Sull-am dictator-em un-i sibi descend-ere equ-o
which. abl . pl of cause( f )- abl . pl pn ( m )- acc . sg disctator( m )- acc . sg one- dat . m refl . dat dismount[ prs ]- inf . act horse( m )- abl . sg
‘For these reasons Sulla the dictator used to only dismount from a horse before him. ’
Note: (Sal. Hist. V, 20, 2)

Modern Hebrew jarad

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas jarad me ha sus
pn descend[ pst .3 sg . m ] from def horse
‘Pinchas got down from the horse.’

Nanai xulun-

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petia moren oja-ǯea-ni xuluŋ-ki-ni
pn horse surface- abl - p .3 sg go_down- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia got down from the horse.’
Note: The ablative marker can also be attached attached directly to the Y-argument (‘the horse’).

Norwegian Bokmål å stige av

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per steg av hest-en
pn climb. pst of horse- def . m . sg
‘Per got down from the horse.’

Polish zejść

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Jacek zszed-ł z koni-a
pn [ nom . sg ] go_down: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] from horse- gen . sg
‘Jacek got down from the horse.’

Russian sleztʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_sGEN
X: NOM
Y: sGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja slez s lošad-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg dismount( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] from horse( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja got down from the horse.’

Rutul saɁ seč’ura

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul hejwan-a-la saɁ s-e-č’u-r=a
pn ( nom ) horse- obl ( sup )- el down. lat pv - pv -1.get.down. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul got down from the horse.’

Skolt Saami luâšttõõttâd

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt luâšttõõđ-i (vuâlas) heäppaz sieʹlj-est
pn . sg . nom descend- pst .3 sg (downwards) horse. sg . gen back- sg . loc
‘Pete got down from the horse.’

Slovenian zlesti

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter je zleze-l s konj-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg dismount: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] from horse- gen . sg
‘Peter got down from the horse.’

Swedish att kliva av

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn klev av häst-en
pn climb. pst of horse- def . c . sg
‘Björn got down from the horse.’
Note: Phrasal verb (av is not a flagging device).

Turkish inmek

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet at-tan in-di
pn horse- abl descend- pst
‘Mehmet got down from the horse.’

Ulcha xulunǯu-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ama murin-ǯi xulun-ǯu-xə-ni
father horse- ins climb_out- rep - pst -3 sg
‘Father got down from the horse.’

Zilo Andi <w>-utɬ.i hitɬ’u

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
ali w-utɬ.i k’otu-ʔa-kːu hitɬ’u
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -come_down. pst ( aor ) horse- super - el down
‘Ali got off the horse.’