BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘dismount’

Argument frame: X (get down) from Y
Stimulus sentence: P. got down from the horse .
Predicate label Ru: слезать
Argument frame Ru: X (слезать) с Y -a (с лошади)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. слез с лошади .

Abaza ʕa-[ḳ.nə-]c̣ə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCkne
X: ABS
Y: LOCkne
Locus: Y
a-č-kʷá ŝ-ʕa-r-ḳ.nə́-m-c̣ə-n
def -horse- pl 2 pl . abs - cisl -3 pl . io - loc - neg -pass- neg . imp
‘Don’t get down from the horses!’

Adyghe (West Circassian) q-je-psə.xə-

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
seldatə-r šə-m q-je-psə-xə-ʁ
soldier- abs horse- obl csl -3 sg . io + dat -dismount- down - pst
‘The soldier got down from the horse.’

Aghul alajč’.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan ʜajwan.di-l-as alajč’.u-ne
pn horse- super - elat { super }emerge. pf - aor
‘Aslan got down from the horse.’

Alik Kryz ʕaç'ic

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
terlan barkan-ci-ğar ʕaç'-id
pn horse- obl - superel go_in. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan got down from the horse.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
paša noˁši-tː-iš u<w>χːˁu
pn horse. o bl- sup - el <1>go.down. pfv
‘Pasha got down from the horse.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +salə

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+avvo naša +sli-lə mən suysa
dem 3. m person( m ) descend. pst - ls .3 m from horse( m )
‘This man got down from the horse.’

Avar ʁorƛ’e ɬuhine

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
ʕali čo-dasa ʁorƛ’e ɬuh-ana
pn horse. obl - el down. lat enter- aor
‘Ali got down from the horse.’

Azerbaijani düşmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan at-dan düş-dü
pn horse- abl descend- pst (3)
‘Aslan got down from the horse.’

Bambara jìgin

Valency pattern: SBJ_kan
X: SBJ
Y: kan
Locus: Y
Sékù jìgin-na kà bɔ́ fàli` kàn
pn descend- pfv . intr inf go.out donkey\ art on
‘Seku got down from the donkey.’

Brazilian Portuguese desmontar

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro desmont-a do cavalo
pn ( m ) dismount-3 sg . prs of+ def . m horse( m )
‘Pedro dismounted the horse.’

Catalan baixar

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va baix-ar del cavall
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind go_down- inf of. def . sg . m horse( m )
‘Pere got down from the horse.’

Chirag čerk-b-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ELAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le urč-u-rka če-r-k-eb
pn ( abs ) horse- obl ( super )- elat super - elat - down -( m . sg )sit: pf + aor .3
‘Ali got down from the horse.’

Czech seskočit

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Petr seskoči-l z kon-ě
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] jump_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from horse( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr jumped off the horse.’

Danish stige af

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter steg af hest-en
pn climb- pst off horse( c )- def . sg
‘Peter got down from the horse.’

Dutch afsteigen

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
Piet steig-t van het paard af
pn ( c ) get.down-3 sg from art . def . n horse( n ) of
‘Piet got down from the horse.’

Eastern Maninka jìi

Valency pattern: SBJ_kan
X: SBJ
Y: kan
Locus: Y
Sékù bára jìi lá móto` kàn.
pn prf descend 3 sg poss motorbike\ art on
‘Seku has got down from the motorbike.’

English get down

Valency pattern: SBJ_from
X: SBJ
Y: from
Locus: Y
Peter got down from the horse.

Estonian maha tulema

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Peeter tul-i hobuse-lt maha
pn . sg . nom come- pst .3 sg horse- abl down
‘Peeter got down from the horse.’
Note: Phrasal verb (maha is not a flagging device).

Finnish laskeutua

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka laskeutu-i hevose-n selä-stä
pn . nom dismount- pst .3 sg horse- gen back- ela
‘Pekka got down from the horse.’

Forest Enets kaʔa

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLniz
X: NOM
Y: OBLniz
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ buranu-da nʲi-z dʲa nʲi-ʔ kaʔ-e-zʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg snowmobile- obl . sg .3 sg surface- abl place surface- dat come_down( pfv )- m -3 sg . m
‘My friend got down from the snowmobile to the ground’.

French descendre

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul est descendu du cheval
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg dismount. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m horse( m )
‘Paul got down from the horse.’

Georgian ča-mo-Ø-xt'-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: NOM_INS.ABL
X: NOM
Y: INS.ABL
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø cxen-idan ča-mo-Ø-xt'-a
pn - nom horse- pstp : ins . abl prv :downward+inward- prv : prox - s 3-jump- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre got down from the horse.’

German absteigen

Valency pattern: NOM_vonDAT
X: NOM
Y: vonDAT
Locus: Y
Karl steig-t vom Pferd ab
pn [ nom . sg ] rise- prs .3 sg of. def . n . dat . sg horse[ dat . sg ] from
‘Karl got down from the horse.’

Icari Dargwa či-r-ka=w=q-anaj

Valency pattern: ABS_ELAT
X: ABS
Y: ELAT
Locus: Y
Islam jaˤbu-li-r či-r-ka=w=q-un
pn . abs horse- obl - elat on - elat - down = m =climb: pf - aor
‘Islam got down from the horse.’

Irish tar anuas

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Tháinig Pól anuas de-n gcapall.
come. pst pn down from- def horse
‘Pól got down from the horse.’

Italian smontare

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
Leo è smontat-o da cavall-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs dismount. pst . ptcp - sg . m by horse- sg . m
‘Leo dismounted the horse.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
meħamad jabu-l-zaka xura-0-uh-ub
pn horse- obl - el getting.off- m -become. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad got down from the horse.’

Kalderash Romani hulel

Valency pattern: NOM_pa
X: NOM
Y: pa
Locus: Y
o Murš-a hul-ist-o pa grast
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg dismount- pst -3 sg . m from horse[ nom . sg ]
‘Murša got down from the horse.’

Karata

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
ʕali xwanjagal rušt’-an
pn horse. el dismount- pf
‘Ali got down from the horse.’

Kaytag Dargwa курч1ара

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
petja aˁbu-jt:ar kurč:’-iv
pn horse- superel dismount. pf - aor
‘Petja got down from the horse.’

Kazakh tüs

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya at-tan tüs-tі
pn horse- abl descend- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya got down from the horse.’

Kazym Khanty (iλ) wɔχǝλti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMewelt
X: NOM
Y: NOMewelt
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en λɔw ewǝλt (iλ) wɔχλ-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg horse from (down) descend- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja got down from the horse.’

Khoekhoe ǁgôaxa

Valency pattern: SBJ_xu
X: SBJ
Y: xu
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge hā-b-a xu go ǁgôaxa
pn -3 m . sg decl horse -3 m . sg - obl from rpst come_down
‘Peter got down from the horse.’

Khwarshi j/eqʷa

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.EL
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
šamil sajro-ƛ'o-žo (q'udul) eq-qa
pn horse( iii )- super - el on.the.ground go.out- pst . w
‘Shamil got down from the horse.’

Kina Rutul saɁ seč’ura

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul hejwan-a-la saɁ s-e-č’u-r=a
pn ( nom ) horse- obl ( sup )- el down. lat pv - pv -1.get.down. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul got down from the horse.’

Kumyk tümek

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
basir at-dan tüš-d-ü
pn horse- abl go.down- pst -3 sg
‘Basir got down from the horse.’

Latin descendo

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
quibus de caus-is Sull-am dictator-em un-i sibi descend-ere equ-o
which. abl . pl of cause( f )- abl . pl pn ( m )- acc . sg disctator( m )- acc . sg one- dat . m refl . dat dismount[ prs ]- inf . act horse( m )- abl . sg
‘For these reasons Sulla the dictator used to only dismount from a horse before him. ’
Note: (Sal. Hist. V, 20, 2)

Laz o-xt'-im-u

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Käzim-i cxen-išen ge-Ø-xt'-u
pn - nom horse- abl prv - s 3-go- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim came down from the horse.’

Mandarin Chinese xià

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān xià le
pn go_down pfv horse
‘Zhangsan got down from the horse.’

Mano yɔ̀ló

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: là
Locus: Y
yɔ̀ló mòtōò là
3 sg . pst go.down motorbike on
‘S/he got off the motobike.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
Islam če-w w-arc-ur jaˤbu-li-če-la
pn pv - m ( ess ) m -unmount- aor horse- obl - super - el
‘Islam got down from the horse.’

Mingrelian gim-Ø-ur-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_ABL
X: ERG
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
čelo-k cxen-(i)še(n) gim-Ø-e-l-(u)
pn - erg horse- abl prv - s 3- ver : s -go- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo got down from the horse.’

Modern Hebrew jarad

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas jarad me ha sus
pn descend[ pst .3 sg . m ] from def horse
‘Pinchas got down from the horse.’

Mukhad Rutul (saʔ) saˤč'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad jivan-dııla saʔ saˤč'uˤ-ri
pn horse- obl . superel down ( m )go_down. pf - aor
‘Murad got down from the horse.’
Note: saʔ is partially optional, it functions as an adverb here.

Nanai xulun-

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petia moren oja-ǯea-ni xuluŋ-ki-ni
pn horse surface- abl - p .3 sg go_down- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia got down from the horse.’
Note: The ablative marker can also be attached attached directly to the Y-argument (‘the horse’).

Nivkh caqrd

Valency pattern: SBJ_LOC/ABL
X: SBJ
Y: LOC/ABL
Locus: Y
Kaskazik murŋ-ux caqr-d
pn horse- loc / abl jump- ind
‘Kaskazik got down from the horse.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
pataħi xwana-gu geƛ’:a χ:er-ari
pn horse. obl - superel down climb- aor
‘Patahi got down from the horse.’

Northern Mansi xotkwalapas

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
jēn’a buran-e-nǝl xot-kwal-ap-as
pn snowmobile- poss .3 sg - el from-stand- pfv - pst [3 sg ]
‘Eugene dismounted from his snowmobile.’

Northern Yukaghir kǝriǝ=

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn johodilǝ-ɣаt kǝriǝ-j
pn horse- abl descend- intr .3 sg
‘Semien got down from the horse.’

Norwegian Bokmål å stige av

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per steg av hest-en
pn climb. pst of horse- def . m . sg
‘Per got down from the horse.’
Note: Phrasal verb (av is not a flagging device).

Polish zejść

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Jacek zszed-ł z koni-a
pn [ nom . sg ] go_down: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] from horse- gen . sg
‘Jacek got down from the horse.’

Russian sleztʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_sGEN
X: NOM
Y: sGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja slez s lošad-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg dismount( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] from horse( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja got down from the horse.’

Serbian sići

Valency pattern: NOM_sGEN
X: NOM
Y: sGEN
Locus: Y
Petar je siša-o s konj-a
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg go.down- part . perf . m . sg from.up horse- gen . sg
‘Petar got down from the horse.’

Shinaz Rutul saʔ seč'u-n

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
basir saʔ seč'u-r hijvan-a-la
pn ( n )down ( m )dismount. pf - aor horse- obl - el
‘Basir got down from the horse.’

Shughni xāvdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL-SUP
X: NOM
Y: EL-SUP
Locus: Y
Azim as vorǰ-ti xāv-d
pn el horse- sup descend- pst
‘Azim got down from the horse.’

Skolt Saami luâšttõõttâd

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt luâšttõõđ-i (vuâlas) heäppaz sieʹlj-est
pn . sg . nom descend- pst .3 sg (downwards) horse. sg . gen back- sg . loc
‘Pete got down from the horse.’

Slovak zosadnúť

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter zosado-l z koň-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] jump_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from horse( m )- gen . sg
‘Peter jumped off the horse.’

Slovenian zlesti

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter je zleze-l s konj-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg dismount: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] from horse- gen . sg
‘Peter got down from the horse.’

Sorani Kurdish dabezîn

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa le hesp-eke-î dabezî-Ø
pn from horse- def - obl dismount. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa got down from the horse.’
Note: The exact morphemic boundaries in "dabezî" are not fully clear.

Southern Rutul suˤçuˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad balkan-dııla suˤçuˤ-r
pn horse- obl . superel ( m )dismount. pf - aor
‘Murad got down from the horse.’

Spanish apearse

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se ape-ó de=l caballo
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg dismount- aor .3 sg from= art . def . sg . m horse[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro got down from the horse.’

Standard Arabic nazala

Valency pattern: NOM_minGEN
X: NOM
Y: minGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-u-n nazala min al-faras-i
pn - nom - indef descend. pf .3 m from def -horse- gen
‘Badr got down from the horse.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_ABL.SUBL
X: ERG
Y: ABL.SUBL
Locus: Y
maizer-d č'äž-xän-ču an-Ø-skin-e
pn - erg horse- abl - subl prv : prox - s 3-hop- pst
‘Maizer hopped down from the horse.’

Swedish att kliva av

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn klev av häst-en
pn climb. pst of horse- def . c . sg
‘Björn got down from the horse.’
Note: Phrasal verb (av is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_mulaPATH
X: ACT
Y: mulaPATH
Locus: Y
B<um>aba si Pedro mula sa kabayo
< av > pfv .go down pers . subj pn from dat horse
‘Pedro got down from the horse.’

Telugu digu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLmidanunci
X: NOM
Y: OBLmidanunci
Locus: Y
pravīṇ gurramu mīda-nuṁci digāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom horse( n ). sg . obl on- abl come_down. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen got down from the horse.’

Tsakhur q:eʔeč’iy

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad balkan-ıle q:eʔeč’u
pn horse- superel ( m )dismount. pf
‘Murad got down from the horse.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL1
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL1
Locus: Y
uršːi urči-ja-la k-ac'-ib
boy horse- super - abl 1 down -( m )fall. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy got down from the horse.’

Tsugni Dargwa če-rka-b-uq-i / če-rka-b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ urči-ge-rka če-rka-uq-un
boy horse- super - abl . down on - abl . down -( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy got down from the horse.’

Turkish inmek

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet at-tan in-di
pn horse- abl descend- pst
‘Mehmet got down from the horse.’

Turoyo noḥət

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_m.7al
X: SBJ.SS
Y: m.7al
Locus: Y
Gabriyel naḥət m ʕal u səsyo
pn descend. pfv .3 m from on art . m horse( m )
‘Gabriyel got down from the horse.’

Ulcha xulunǯu-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ama murin-ǯi xulun-ǯu-xə-ni
father horse- ins climb_out- rep - pst -3 sg
‘Father got down from the horse.’

Uzbek tušmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya ot-tan tuš-ti
pn horse- abl get_down- pst .3 sg
‘Petja got down from the horse.’

West Central Oromo buʔa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSirraa
X: NOM
Y: ABSirraa
Locus: Y
nam-ittʃ-i fard-ittʃa irraa buʔ-e
man- def - nom horse- def . abs on. abl get_down-3 sg . m . pfv
‘The man got down from the horse.’

Zilo Andi <w>-utɬ.i hitɬ’u

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
ali w-utɬ.i k’otu-ʔa-kːu hitɬ’u
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -come_down. pst ( aor ) horse- super - el down
‘Ali got off the horse.’