BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘depend’

Argument frame: X (depend) on Y
Stimulus sentence: Memory depends on age .
Predicate label Ru: зависеть
Argument frame Ru: X (зависеть) от Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: Память зависит от возраста .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-λətəʁ

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aqələ-r nəbžʼə-m je-λətə-ʁ
mind- abs age- obl dat -consider- res
‘Memory depends on age.’

Aghul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Alik Kryz asli xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_ADEL
X: NOM
Y: ADEL
Locus: Y
yaddaş yaş-in-var asli-ya
memory age- obl - adel depending- cop . n
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUP.LAT
Locus: Y
pahmu-li-n heʟʼən ʕummal-li-tː-ik aču-tːu-t i
memory- obl - gen thing life- obl - sup - lat 4.throw- attr -4 4.be
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: heʟʼən functions as an empty head.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Avar baze

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
rak’-alda žo č’e-j či-jas-ul rih-alda b-a-ra-b b-ugo
heart- obl . loc thing stand- msd man- obl . m - gen delay- obl . nm . loc n -hang- pf . ptcp - n n - cop
‘Memory depends on age.’

Azerbaijani asılı-COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
yaddaş yaş-dan asılı-dır
memory age- abl depending- cop 3
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Bafut

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Bambara dúlon

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
fɛ́n sɔ̀ngɔ` dúlon-nen bɛ́ bònya` ná
thing price\ art hang- ptcp . res be 3 sg size\ art in
‘The price of a thing depends on its size.’

Brazilian Portuguese depender

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
a memória depende da idade
def . f memory( f ) depend-3 sg . prs of+ def . f age( f )
‘Memory depends on age.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
ya'dda ya'ş-ın-a'r asıli vi
memory age- obl - abl depending cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan variar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
la memòria vari-a amb l'edat
def . sg . f memory( f ) depend-3 sg . prs . ind with def . sg . f -age( f )
‘Memory depends on age.’

Chirag b-uχi

Valency pattern: ABS_hisable
X: ABS
Y: hisable
Locus: Y
pahme ʡumre ħisable b-urχ-le
memory( abs ) age( abs ) according.to n . sg -become: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Memory depends on age.’

Czech závislý + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_naLOC
X: NOM
Y: naLOC
Locus: Y
pamět' je závisl-á na věk-u
memory( f )[ nom . sg ] be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg dependent- f . nom . sg on age( m )- loc . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Danish afhænge

Valency pattern: SBJ_af
X: SBJ
Y: af
Locus: Y
Hukommelse afhænge-r af alder-en
memory( c ). sg depend- prs of age( c )- def . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Dutch afhangen

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
het geheugen hang-t af van de leeftijd
art . def . n memory( n ) depend-3 sg of from art . def . c age( c )
‘Memory depends on age.’

Eastern Maninka bɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_do(POST)
X: SBJ
Y: do(POST)
Locus: Y
sɔ̀nko` yé bɔ́-la kùnbaya lè dɔ́.
3 sg price\ art be exit- inf . la 3 sg size foc in
‘Its price depends on its size.’

English depend

Valency pattern: SBJ_on
X: SBJ
Y: on
Locus: Y
Memory depends on age.

Estonian sõltuma

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
mälu sõltu-b vanuse-st
memory. sg . nom depend- prs .3 sg age- ela
‘Memory depends on age.’

Finnish riippua

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
muisti riippu-u iä-stä
memory. nom depend- prs .3 sg age- ela
‘Memory depends on age.’

Forest Enets pɛri

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
mɛsi-za ŋa-xaz pɛri
wind- nom . sg .3 sg sky- abl hold( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘The wind depends on the sky’.

French dependre

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
la mémoire d’ une personne dépend de son âge
def . sg . f memory( f ) of indf . sg . f person( f ) depend. prs .3 sg of one’s. sg . m age( m )
‘One's memory depends on their age.’

Georgian da-mo-k'id-eb-ul-i + COP (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT.SUPERESS
X: NOM
Y: DAT.SUPERESS
Locus: Y
mexsiereba-Ø asak'-ze da-mo-k'id-eb-ul-i=a
memory- nom age- pstp : superess prv :downward- prv : prox -hang- sm - ptcp - nom = cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

German abhängen

Valency pattern: NOM_vonDAT
X: NOM
Y: vonDAT
Locus: Y
das Gedächtnis häng-t vom Alter ab
def . n . nom . sg memory[ nom . sg ] hang- prs .3 sg of. def . n . dat . sg age[ dat . sg ] from
‘Memory depends on age.’

Guinean Kpelle *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Icari Dargwa b=ič:-aq-uj

Valency pattern: ABS_ILL.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: ILL.ELAT
Locus: Y
ʕaˤq'lu ʕuˤmru-la dus-m-a-cːi-r b=ikːʷ-il-ca=b
mind. abs life- gen year- pl - obl - ill - elat n =want: ipf - adv - cop = n
‘Memory depends on age.’

Irish braith

Valency pattern: SBJ_ar
X: SBJ
Y: ar
Locus: Y
Braith-inn an cuimhne air an aois.
depend- prs def memory on def age
‘Memory depends on age.’

Italian dipendere

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
la salut-e dipend-e dall’ età
def . sg . f health- sg . f depend-3 sg . prs by. def . sg . f age. sg . f
‘Health depends on age.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
χugi iʁ-u=cada pamaˤt kam-b-ur-ar
big reach. ipfv - prs =as.much.as memory( rus ) little- n -become. ipfv - th
‘As you get older, your memory diminishes.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kalderash Romani zavisil

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
o pamiť-o zavis-il kata l bərš
art . m . dir . sg memory- nom . sg depend- prs .3 sg from art . pl year[ nom . pl ]
‘Memory depends on age.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
šadval pul-il-an asilu vu
happiness( abs ) money- super - elat dependent cop ( prs )
‘Happiness depends on money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Karata baʔaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
hek’wa-š:u-b pahmu rih-jar b-aʔ-a-b idja
man- obl . m - n memory age- lat n -come- pf . ptcp - n cop
‘One’s memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

Kaytag Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained

Kazakh baylanïs

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Žad-ï žas-qa baylanï-s-tï
memory- poss 3 age- dat depend- rec - pst 1.3 sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe mûmâinǃgâ

Valency pattern: SBJ_ai
X: SBJ
Y: ai
Locus: Y
ǂâi-s ge kuri-n ai mûmâinǃgâ
memory-3 f . sg decl year-3 c . pl on depend pfv
‘Memory depends on age.’

Khwarshi gic'a

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.LAT
X: ABS
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
ʕaq'u zamana-qo-l gic'a-na b-e:ča
mind( iii ) time( iii )- cont - lat look- pst . u iii -be\ gnt
‘One’s mind depends on one’s age.’

Kina Rutul pet’ ruʔura

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ul-id išɨɢ pet’ ruʔu-r=a q’aˁs-wol-i-kan
eye- attr light little 4.become. ipfv - cvb =be old- abstr - obl - com
‘Sight deteriorates with age.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kumyk taʔsirli

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
es ömür-den taʔsir-li
memory life- abl impact- adjvz
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Latin dependeo

Valency pattern: NOM_exABL
X: NOM
Y: exABL
Locus: Y
ex horum lev-issim-is mot-ibus fortun-ae popul-orum depende-nt
from this. gen . pl . n light- sup - abl . pl . m motion( m )- abl . pl fortune( f )- nom . pl people( m )- gen . pl depend[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘The fortunes of nations depend on their (stars’) slightest motions.’
Note: (Sen. Dia. 18, 3)

Laz o-Ɂ-u

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
nos-i c'ana-ten Ø-i-[ʔ]-en-Ø
reason- nom year- ins s 3- ver : s -[be]- sm - s 3 sg . inact
Lit. ‘Reason grows with age.’

Mandarin Chinese qǔjué

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
jìyìlì de hǎo-huài qǔjué niánlíng
memory de good-bad depend to age
Lit. ‘The memory’s good or bad (state) depends on age.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mano *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʡumru-li-če b-aʔ-ib-i b-uʔ-an ʡaˤq'lu=ra
life- obl - super ( lat ) n -arrive: pfv - pst - attr n -be- hab intelligence= add
‘Intelligence comes with age.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Mingrelian Ø-o-r-en-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
šin-i orčinel-iša Ø-(o)-r-e(n)-Ø
memory- nom age- all s 3-( ver : sup )-be- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Memory depends on age.’

Modern Hebrew taluj

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
zikaron taluj be gil
memory dependent in age
‘Memory depends on age.’

Mukhad Rutul asıllı jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
jik'-ıı ʁadgı-n ješ-aala asıllı jiʔi
heart- super n .remain_on. pf - msd age- superel dependent n . cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai zavisela-

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
əǯə-čə-u-ri zavisela-j-ni səə-ǯiəǯi
remember- res - imps - npst depend- npst - p .3 sg age- abl
‘Memory depends on age.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh belooruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
rak’wa-ro-ge čula b-eʁ-e zama b-eqq-ero-ga b-ela-ada gwede
heart- obl - loc things n -stand- seq time n -cross- ipf . ptcp . m - lat n -depend- pf . ptcp n . cop
‘Memory depends on age’ (lit. ‘The way thing remain in the memory depends on the passing of time’).
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir monnǝmu=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
lugu-mu-rǝ ködǝ-n čuŋdǝ mon-nǝ-mu-nun-i
be_old- trnsf - cnv man- gen mind be_short- stat - trnsf - hab - intr .3 sg
Lit. ‘When one is getting old, one’s mind shortens.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Norwegian Bokmål å avhenge

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
hukommels-en avhenge-r av alder-en
memory- def . m . sg depend- prs of age- def . m . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Polish zależeć

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
pamięć zależy od wiek-u
memory[ nom . sg ] depend: ipfv . prs .3 sg from age- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Russian zavisetʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_otGEN
X: NOM
Y: otGEN
Locus: Y
pamjatʹ zavis-it ot vozrast-a
memory( f )[ nom . sg ] depend( ipfv )- prs .3 sg from age( m )- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Serbian zavisiti

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
Pamćenj-e zavisi od uzrast-a
memory- nom . sg depend. prs .3 sg from.near age- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Shinaz Rutul asɨl-ɨ h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
hik'i-j ʁatkɨ-n asɨl ɨj ješ-mɨ-la
heart. obl - super n .remain. pf - msd depending cop year- pl . obl - el
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni wobastā vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Pamyat as vozrast wobastā
memory el age dependent
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Slovak závisieť

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
Pamäť zavísí od vek-u
memory( f )[ nom . sg ] depend( ipfv ). prs .3 sg from age( m )- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Slovenian biti odvisen

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
spomin je odvisen od starost-i
memory[ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg dependent[ nom . sg . m ] from age- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Sorani Kurdish westan

Valency pattern: SBJ_le.ser
X: SBJ
Y: le.ser
Locus: Y
bîrge de-west-êt-e ser temen
memory ind -stand. prs -3 sg -to head age
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: The verbal marker –e is the result of the “migration” of the preposition "le", cf. “bîrge de-west-êt le-ser temen”.

Southern Rutul aslı yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
yaddaş yaş-aala aslı i
memory age- superel depending ( n ) cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish depender

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
la memoria depend-e de la edad
art . def . sg . f memory[ sg . f ] depend- prs .3 sg from art . def . sg . f age[ sg . f ]
‘Memory depends on age.’

Standard Arabic taʕallaqa

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Ɂaḏ-ḏākirat-u tataʕallaqu bi=l-ʕumr-i
def -memory( f )- nom depend. ipf .3 f by= def -age- gen
‘Memory depends on age.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPERESS
Locus: Y
ala-Ø eče-ži l-i
dem . prox - nom dem . dist - superess s 3-be
‘This (thing) depends (lit. ‘is’) on that (thing).’
Note: The lexical part ‘depend’ is not mentioned.

Swedish att bero

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
minn-et bero-r ålder-n
memory- def . n . sg depend- prs on age- def . c . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: SBJNV_LOC
X: SBJNV
Y: LOC
Locus: XY
Naka-depende ang memorya sa edad
stat -depend subj memory dat age
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (state).

Telugu ādhārapaḍu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLmida
X: NOM
Y: OBLmida
Locus: Y
jñāpakašakti vayasu mīda ādhārapaḍi uṁṭuṁdi
memory_force( n ). sg . nom age( n ). sg . obl on depend. cvb . ant be. dur .3 sg . nm
‘Memory depends on age.’

Tsakhur asılı ıхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTEL
X: NOM
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
bič’ yeš-ı-ke asılı-ba vo-b-na
memory( a ) age- obl - contel depending- a cop - a - a
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsudakhar Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Tsugni Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Turkish bağlı olmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
akıl yaş-a bağlı-dır
mind age- dat dependent- cop .3
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turoyo maləx

Valency pattern: SBJ_7am
X: SBJ
Y: 7am
Locus: Y
u hawno ko-maləx ʕam u ʕəmro
art . m cognition( m ) prs -walk. ipfv .3 m with art . m age( m )
‘Cognition depends on age’, lit. ‘Cognition goes along with age.’

Ulcha *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Uzbek boɣlanišmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
xotira yoši-ga boɣlan-iš-ti
age memory- dat connect- recp - pst .3 sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

West Central Oromo hundaaʔa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSirratti
X: NOM
Y: ABSirratti
Locus: Y
jaadattʃuu-n umurii irra-tti hundaaʔ-a
memory- nom age. abs on- loc depend-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Memory depends on age.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
yaddaș yaș-di-laa asıllı ya
memory age- obl - supel depending cop
‎‎‎‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zilo Andi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aqχ’ulo r-uʔ.inn-ija w-oχːor-ɬir-qχi
knowledge inan 2-go. npst - fut m -old- abst - inst
‘Memory goes away with age.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.