BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘cut oneself’

Argument frame: X (cut oneself) with Y
Stimulus sentence: P. cut himself with a razor .
Predicate label Ru: порезаться
Argument frame Ru: X (резаться) Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. порезался бритвой .

Abaza p-q̇ə

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murád a-brítva d-p-na-q̇ə́-d
pn def -razor 3 sg . h . abs - loc -3 sg . n . erg -cut( aor )- dcl
‘The razor cut Murad.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Adyghe (West Circassian) zə-wəʔʷe

Valency pattern: ERG_INSTR.CASE
X: ERG
Y: INSTR.CASE
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-m ŝhe.wəpsə-m-č̣ʼe z-jə-wəʔa-ʁ
guy- obl razor- obl - ins rfl . abs -3 sg . erg -wound- pst
‘The guy cut himself with a razor.’
Note: Dependents marked by the instrumental case are not indexed on the verb.

Aghul at’.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a uč.i-n muʔul at’.u-ne lezwi-l-di
pn ( erg ) self- gen lip cut. pf - aor blade- super - lat
‘Aslan cut himself with the (razor’s) blade.’

Alik Kryz yat'ic

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
terlan lezva-czina ug ug yat'-id
pn blade- obl . ins refl . m ( erg ) refl . m ( nom ) cut. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan cut himself with a blade.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
paša-n močʼor χːartʼa-r-tːu-t-mi-tː-iš bi ba-qˁa-li
pn - gen beard shave- ipfv - attr -4- obl - sup - el blood 3-come. pfv - cvb ( evid )
‘There is blood coming off Pasha’s razor.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic parəm gana

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
yala gan-u prim-a-l bi +magreta
boy( m ) refl ( f )- p .3 m cut. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m with razor( f )
‘The boy cut himself with a razor.’

Avar q’ot’ize

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʕali-l kwer q’ot’-ana almas-aɬ
pn - gen hand cut- aor cutter- erg
‘Ali cut himself with a knife’ (lit. ‘A knife cut Ali’s hand’).
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Azerbaijani yaralanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan ülgüc-lǝ yarala-n-dı
pn razor-with injure- pass - pst (3)
‘Aslan cut himself with a razor.’
Note: The suffix "-lǝ" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ lɨ́ ʃjé nú jì nᵼ̀ ʃwáʔà
pn sm p 1 cut body/ prep his with1 razor
‘Ambe cut himself with a razor.’

Bambara tìgɛ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mùru` y' bólo` tìgɛ
knife\ art pfv . tr 3 sg hand\ art cut
‘He cut his hand with a knife.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Brazilian Portuguese cortar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro se cort-ou com a lâmina
pn ( m ) refl cut-3 sg . pst with def . f blade( f )
‘Pedro cut himself with the razor.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan ülgüc-cizın irdoxuna saxha-ci
pn razor-with in_blood ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan cut himself with a razor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan tallar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere es va tall-ar amb un-a navalla
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind cut- inf with def - sg . f razor( f )
‘Pere cut himself with a razor.’

Chirag b-alʁi

Valency pattern: ABS_ERG
X: ABS
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le lezwija-le w-alʁ-un-ne
pn ( abs ) razor.blade- erg m . sg -cut: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali cut himself with a razorblade.’

Czech pořezat se

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr se pořeza-l břitv-ou
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc cut( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] razor( f )- ins . sg
‘Petr cut himself with a razor.’

Danish skære

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Peter skar sig selv med et barberblad
pn cut. pst refl . obl self with indf . sg razor( n )
‘Peter cut himself with a razor.’

Dutch zich snijden

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet heeft zich ge-sned-en met zijn scheermes
pn ( c ) have.3 sg refl ptcp -cut- ptcp with poss . n .3 sg razor( n )
‘Piet cut himself with a razor.’

Eastern Maninka mádimin

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù kà mádimin lílan` ná.
pn aor . tr 3 sg wound razor\ art at
‘Seku cut himself with a razor.’

English cut oneself

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter cut himself with a razor.

Estonian ennast vigastama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter vigasta-s ennast habemenoa-ga
pn . sg . nom hurt- pst .3 sg refl . sg . part beard_knife- com
‘Peeter hurt himself with a razor.’

Finnish tehdä itselleen haavan

Valency pattern: NOM_ADE
X: NOM
Y: ADE
Locus: Y
Pekka tek-i itse-lle-en haava-n partaterä-llä
pn . nom do- pst .3 sg self- all - poss .3 sg cut- gen razor- ade
‘Pekka cut himself with a razor.’

Forest Enets mɔta

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ uzi-da mɔta kɔru-d
i man- nom . sg .1 sg hand- obl . pl .3 sg cut( pfv ).3 sg . s knife- dat . sg
‘My friend cut his hand with the knife’.

French se couper

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul s’ est coupé avec un rasoir
pn ( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg cut. pst . ptcp . m with indf . sg . m razor( m )
‘Paul cut himself with a razor.’

Georgian ga-Ø-i-č'r-i-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_INS
X: ERG
Y: INS
Locus: Y
p'et're-m samartebl-it saxe-Ø ga-Ø-i-č'r-a
pn - erg razor- ins face- nom prv :outward- do 3- ver : s -cut- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre cut himself with a razor.’
Note: The overt mentioning of ‘face’ is optional.

German sich schneiden

Valency pattern: NOM_mitDAT
X: NOM
Y: mitDAT
Locus: Y
Karl schnitt sich mit ein-er Rasierklinge
pn [ nom . sg ] cut. pst .3 sg refl with indf - f . dat . sg razor[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl cut himself with a razor.’

Guinean Kpelle téɣe

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá dèɣé mɛ̀ikɔ́ù
pn 3 sg . prf 3 sg \cut with arrow
‘Pepee cut himself with an arrow.’

Icari Dargwa ka=tː=ičː-uj

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Islam-la daˤʕ mut'rusː-il ka=tː=ičː-ib
pn - gen face. abs razor- erg on = npl =cut: pf - aor
‘The razor cut Islam’s face.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Irish gearr

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Ghearr Pól é fein le rásúr.
pst /cut pn he. acc refl with razor
‘Pól cut himself with a razor.’

Italian tagliarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo si è tagliat-o con il rasoi-o
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs cut. pst . ptcp - sg . m with def . sg . m razor- sg . m
‘Leo cut himself with the razor.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-alʁ-es / luʁ-es

Valency pattern: ERG_AD
X: ERG
Y: AD
Locus: Y
meħamad-li britwa-li-ču b-alʁ-un
pn - erg razor- obl - ad n -cut. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad cut himself with a razor.’

Kalderash Romani śinelpe

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a śin-ď-a-pe la britv-asa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg cut_oneself- pst -3 sg - refl art . f . obl . sg razor- ins . sg
‘Murša cut himself with a razor.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_APUD.DIR
X: ABS
Y: APUD.DIR
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad britva.ji-x-ǯi hadat’-nu
pn ( abs ) razor- apud - dir ( h . sg )cut- pst
‘Mahamad cut himself with a razor.’

Karata boq’aɬa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʕali-b reƛ’a χχa-ndo-b hedela-ɬi-l b-oq’-e
pn - n hand shave- ipf . ptcp - n thing- obl - erg n -cut- pf
‘The razor cut Ali’s hand.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Kaytag Dargwa baˁqaˁra

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
petja mut’rus-li v-aˁq-iv
pn razor- erg m -strike. pf - aor
‘Petja cut himself with a razor.’

Kazakh kes-іn-іp al

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya briytva-men kes-іn-іp al-dï
pn razor- ins cut- refl - cvb take- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya cut himself with a razor.’

Kazym Khanty ewtantti

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en tŭš λǒrt-ti ǒt-ǝλ-ǝn ewtant-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg beard cut- nfin . npst thing- poss .3 sg - loc cut_oneself- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja cut himself with a razor.’

Khoekhoe ǃgao-sen

Valency pattern: SBJ_kha
X: SBJ
Y: kha
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge ǂkhomgôa-s ǀkha go ǃgao-sen
pn -3 m . sg decl razor-3 f . sg with rpst cut- refl
‘Peter cut himself with a razor.’

Khwarshi j/ič'a

Valency pattern: GEN1_ERG
X: GEN1
Y: ERG
Locus: X
di-ja l-ič-ča t'iq-a
1 sg - gen 1 iv -cut- pst . w knife( iv )- erg
‘I cut myself with a knife.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument. It is not entirely clear what triggers agreement here. Probably, some unnamed body-part, such as ‘hand’ or ‘palm’ (both from the IV class).

Kina Rutul hart’ura

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
rɨš kant’-i-ra hart’u-r=a
girl( nom ) knife- obl - erg <2>cut. pfv - cvb =be
‘The girl cut herself with a knife.’

Kumyk gesmek

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMbulan
X: NOM
Y: NOMbulan
Locus: Y
basir dellek bulan ges-d-i
pn razor with cut- pst -3 sg
‘Basir cut himself with a razor.’
Note: The verb is not specialized in the middle meaning ‘cut oneself’.

Latin *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
hispanic-o (gladi-o) humer-um dextr-um incid-it
s panish- abl . sg . m sword( m )- abl . sg shoulder( m )- acc . sg right- acc . sg . m cut[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘(He) cuts his right shoulder with a Spanish sword.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate. (Quad. Hist. 10.b)

Laz o-k'vat-u

Valency pattern: ERG_INS
X: ERG
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k ǯälet-iten m-Ø-i-k'vat-u
pn - b - erg razor- ins prv - do 3- ver : s -cut- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim cut himself with a razor.’

Mandarin Chinese gē-shāng zìjǐ

Valency pattern: SBJ_yong
X: SBJ
Y: yong
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān yòng tìdāo gē-shāng le zìjǐ
pn with razor cut-hurt pfv oneself
‘Zhangsan cut himself with a razor.’

Mano (kɔ̀) ká̰

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
(kɔ̀) ká̰ làà ká
3 sg . pst 3 sg . refl arm cut knife with
‘S/he cut himself with a knife.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Islam-is britwa-li-n b-uʔ-ri b-aq'-ib
pn - dat razor- obl - erg n -spoil: pfv - nmlz n -do: pfv - pst
‘The razor hurt Islam.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Mingrelian g-Ø-i-č'k'ir-un-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_INS
X: ERG
Y: INS
Locus: Y
čelo-k oxok'al-it g-Ø-i-č'k'ir-u
pn - erg razor- ins prv - do 3- ver : s -cut- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo cut himself with a razor.’

Modern Hebrew χataχ et atsm-o

Valency pattern: SBJ_im
X: SBJ
Y: im
Locus: Y
Pinχas χataχ et atsm-o im taar
pn cut[ pst .3 sg . m ] do self-3 sg . m with razor
‘Pinchas cut himself with a razor.’

Mukhad Rutul džuˤ vıdž hat'un

Valency pattern: ERG_ERG
X: ERG
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
murad-a džuˤ vıdž jalʁudž-e-re hat'u-ri
pn - erg m . refl . erg m . refl ( nom ) razor- obl - erg ( m )cut. pf - aor
‘Murad cut himself with a razor.’

Nanai xaga-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia britva-ǯi xaga-xa-ni
pn razor- ins cut_oneself- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia cut himself with a razor.’

Nivkh jaqt

Valency pattern: SBJ_INS
X: SBJ
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Kaskazik caqо-ɣir̥ pʰ-aq-t
pn knife- ins rfl -cut- ind
‘Kaskazik cut himself with a razor.’

Northern Akhvakh sanuruƛa

Valency pattern: LOC_ERG
X: LOC
Y: ERG
Locus: X
pataħi-ge britwa-de san-e b-eɬɬ-ari
pn - loc razor- erg cut- seq n -end_up- aor
‘Patahi cut himself with a razor.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir turjuodˈǝs=

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn čoɣojǝ-lǝk tur-juodˈǝ-s-u-m
pn knife- ins refl -wound- caus . vr -0- tr .3 sg
‘Semien cut himself with a knife.’

Norwegian Bokmål å skjære seg

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Per skjær-te seg med barberkniv-en
pn cut- pst refl with razor- def . m . sg
‘Per cut himself with a razor.’

Polish zaciąć się

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Staszek zacią-ł się brzytw-ą
pn [ nom . sg ] cut\ pst : pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] refl razor- ins . sg
‘Staszek cut himself with a razor.’

Russian porezatʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja poreza-l-sja britv-oj
pn ( m )- nom . sg cut( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl razor( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja cut himself with a razor.’

Serbian poseći se

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petar se poseka-o brijač-em
pn . nom . sg refl cut- part . perf . m . sg razor- ins . sg
‘Petar cut himself with a razor.’

Shinaz Rutul hat'u-n

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
basir-dɨ xesɨm hat'u-r mič'ri qhavaʔa-d mašin-a-r
pn - attr face n .cut. pf - aor beard( a ) re .a.do. ipf - attr machine- obl - erg
‘The razor cut Basir’s face.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Shughni xu zaxmi čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim=i xu têɣ-ak=qati zaxmi čūd
pn =3 sg refl razor- dim = ins injured do. pst
‘Azim cut himself with a razor.’

Skolt Saami čuõppõõttâd

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt čuõpp-õõđ-i neeiʹb-in
pn . sg . nom cut- refl - pst .3 sg knife- sg . com
‘Pete cut himself with a knife.’

Slovak porezať sa

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Peter sa poreza-l britv-ou
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc cut( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] razor( f )- ins . sg
‘Peter cut himself with a razor.’

Slovenian urezati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se je ureza-l z britvij-o
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg cut: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with razor- ins . sg
‘Peter cut himself with a razor.’

Sorani Kurdish xo bir̂în

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
min be tiẍ-î xo=m bir̂î-Ø
i to razor- obl self=1 sg . pc cut. pst -3 sg
‘I cut myself with razor. ’

Southern Rutul q'at' hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_COM
X: ERG
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad-a vic ci ülgüc-e-xhvan q'at' hıʔı-r
pn - erg refl . nom self. erg razor- obl - com cut m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad cut himself with a razor.’

Spanish cortarse

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Pedro se ha corta-do con una navaja
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg aux .3 sg cut- ptcp : prf with art . ndef . sg . f razor[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro cut himself with the razor.’

Standard Arabic ǧaraḥa

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un ǧaraḥa nafs-a-hu bi=l-mūs-i
pn - nom injure. pf .3 m self- acc - p .3 m . sg by= def -razor- gen
‘Badr cut himself with a razor.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_INS
X: ERG
Y: INS
Locus: Y
maizer-d lac'bural-wš ničw-Ø äd-Ø-kwic
pn - erg razor- ins face- nom prv : dist . ver : s - do 3-cut
‘Maizer cut himself (lit. ‘cut his face’) with a razor.’
Note: The mentioning of the word ‘face’ here is obligatory.

Swedish att skära sig

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Björn skar sig med en rakkniv
pn cut. pst refl with indf . c . sg razor
‘Björn cut himself with a razor.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_gamit
X: ACT
Y: gamit
Locus: Y
Na-hiwa ni Pedro ang sarili gamit ang pang-ahit
pot . pv . pfv -cut pers . gen pn subj self using subj razor
‘Pedro cut himself with a razor.’
Note: gamit is a originally a verb that has partially grammaticalized into a preposition.

Telugu kōsukōnu

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pravīṇ blēḍ-tō tana-ni tānu kōsukunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom blade( n ). sg . obl - com own- acc refl cut. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen cut himself with a razor.’

Tsakhur q:ats’adk’uniy

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
lezva-yn murad-ın aq’va q:ats’adk’un
blade- erg pn - n face n .pluck. pf
‘Murad cut himself with a razor.’ (Lit. ‘The razor cut Murad's face.’)
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-aˤq-iz

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
uršːi dis-le w-aˤq-ib
boy knife- erg / loc ( lat ) m -hurt. pfv - pret (3)
‘The knife cut the boy.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Tsugni Dargwa b-alʁ-i / luʁ-i

Valency pattern: ERG_ERG
X: ERG
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li dis-li t'ul b-alʁ-un
boy- erg knife- erg finger n -cut. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy cut his finger with the knife.’

Turkish yüzünü kesmek

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet traş bıçağ-ı-yla yüz-ü-nü kes-ti
pn shaving knife- p .3- com face- p .3- acc cut- pst
‘Mehmet cut his face with a razor.’

Turoyo ǧorəḥ ruḥ-

Valency pattern: SBJ_b
X: SBJ
Y: b
Locus: Y
Šabo ǧrəḥ-le ruḥ-e b ǧəlet
pn injure. pfv - ls .3 m refl - p .3 m with razor( m )
‘Shabo cut himself with a razor.’

Ulcha bajla- məpi

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
xusə piktə kučən-ǯi bajla-xa-ni məpi
male child knife- ins hurt- pst -3 sg refl . sg
‘The boy hurt himself with a knife.’

Uzbek kesvolmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya ustara bilan kesvol-di
pn razor with cut- pst .3 sg
‘Petja cut himself with a razor.’

West Central Oromo of mura

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
obsaa-n k'arabaa-ɗaan of mur-e
pn - nom razor- ins himself cut-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa cut himself with a razor.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sahib-a-n ççin lezvi-di atˈa-na
pn - obl - gen face blade- erg cut. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘The razor cut Sahib’s face.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Zilo Andi <b>-uqχ’.i-j

Valency pattern: ERG_INST
X: ERG
Y: INST
Locus: Y
ali-di b-uqχ’.i-j besuno-qχi
pn - erg inan 1-displace. pst - pf knife. obl - inst
‘Ali cut himself with a knife.’