BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘cross’

Argument frame: X (cross) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. saw that the shop is on the other side of the road.) P. crossed the road (and entered the shop).
Predicate label Ru: пересечь
Argument frame Ru: X (пересекать) Y (улицу)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. увидел, что магазин на другой стороне дороги. Тогда). П. пересек дорогу (и вошел в магазин).

Abaza [qə-]sə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCqe
X: ABS
Y: LOCqe
Locus: Y
a-phʷə́s á-mʕʷa d-a-qə́-s-d
def -woman def -road 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The woman crossed the road.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ze.pə.rə-č̣ʼə

Valency pattern: ABS_REC.IO.LOC.TIP.PRV.INSTR
X: ABS
Y: REC.IO.LOC.TIP.PRV.INSTR
Locus: Y
bzəλfəʁe-r ʁʷegʷə-m ze-pə-rə-č̣ʼə-ʁ
woman- abs road- obl rec . io - loc : tip - instr -exit- pst
‘The woman crossed the road.’

Aghul te qːʷal.a-s ajč’.u-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan reqː.ü-n te qːʷal.a-s ajč’.u-ne
pn road- gen demt side- dat { in }emerge. pf - aor
‘Aslan crossed the road.’ (lit. ‘Aslan emerged on the other side of the road.’)
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Alik Kryz yaç'ic

Valency pattern: NOM_INEL
X: NOM
Y: INEL
Locus: Y
terlan rixeʕar yaç'-ci mağaza-ca ʕaç'-id
pn road. inel pass. pfv - seq shop- obl . in go_in. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan crossed the road.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu deqʼˁ a<b>tʼu
pn - obl ( erg ) way <3>cut. pfv
‘Pasha crossed the road.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +avər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava urxa +vər-a-l
old. m way( f ) enter. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m
‘The oldman crossed the road.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar baχine

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca nuχ b-aχ-ana
pn - erg way n -cross- aor
‘Ali crossed the road.’

Azerbaijani keçmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan yol-u keç-di mağaza-ya gir-di
pn road- acc pass- pst (3) and shop- dat / lat enter- pst (3)
‘Aslan crossed the road and entered the shop.’

Bambara tìgɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye síra` tìgɛ
pn pfv . tr road\ art cut
‘Seku crossed the road.’

Brazilian Portuguese atravessar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro atravess-ou a rua
pn ( m ) cross-3 sg . pst def . f street( f )
‘Pedro crossed the street.’

Catalan creure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va creu-ar la carretera
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind cross- inf def . sg . f road( f )
‘Pere crossed the road.’

Chirag ej

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʡa̰le xːuni-la taˤ-kan šːili-l-i ag-ur
pn ( abs ) road- gen dist - atr side- obl - super go: pf - aor .3
‘Ali went to the other side of the road.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Czech přejít

Valency pattern: NOM_presACC
X: NOM
Y: presACC
Locus: Y
Petr přeše-l přes ulic-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] cross( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] over street( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr crossed the street.’

Danish krydse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter krydse-de vej-en
pn cross- pst road( c )- def . sg
‘Peter crossed the road.’

Dutch oversteken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de straat overstok-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . def . c street( c ) cross- ptcp
‘Piet crossed the street.’

Eastern Maninka rɔ́tɛ̀ɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára síla` rɔ́tɛ̀ɛ.
pn prf road\ art cross
‘Seku has crossed the road.’

English cross

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter crossed the road.

Estonian ületama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter ületa-s tee
pn . sg . nom cross- prs .3 sg road. sg . gen
‘Peeter crossed the road.’

Finnish ylittää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ylitt-i tie-n
pn . nom cross- pst .3 sg road- gen
‘Pekka crossed the road.’

Forest Enets kanʲe

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLnoru
X: NOM
Y: OBLnoru
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ sɛxɛri nɔruʔ kanʲi
i man- nom . sg .1 sg road across leave( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend crossed the road’.

French traverser

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a traversé la route
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg cross. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . f road( f )
‘Paul crossed the road.’

Georgian gada-Ø-di-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT.SUPERESS
X: NOM
Y: DAT.SUPERESS
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø gza-ze gada-Ø-vid-a
pn - nom road- pstp : superess prv :over- s 3-go. pst - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre crossed the road.’

German überqueren

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl überquer-te die Straße
pn [ nom . sg ] cross- pst .3 sg def . f . acc . sg street[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl crossed the road.’

Icari Dargwa u:q-anaj

Valency pattern: ABS_GENtesal
X: ABS
Y: GENtesal
Locus: Y
Islam xːun-na te-šːal u:q-un
pn . abs road- gen that-side ( m )cross: pf - aor
‘Islam crossed the road.’
Note: In this construction, "tešːal" functions as a postposition.

Irish trasnaigh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=thrasnaigh Pól an bóthar.
pst =cross pn def road
‘Pól crossed the road.’

Italian attraversare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha attraversato la strad-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs cross. pst . ptcp def . sg . f street- sg . f
‘Leo crossed the street.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
meħamad huj-zaka ke-w-0-uq-u-wa erχ-un tuke-j-ze
pn way- el on - m - m -move. pfv - prs - cvb enter. pfv - pret shop- obl - in
‘Muhammad crossed the road and entered the shop.’

Kalderash Romani nakhəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a nakh-ľ-a inťal o drom
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg go- pst -3 sg through art . m . dir . sg road. nom . sg
‘Murša crossed the road.’
Note: The adverb inťal ‘across’ is optional.

Karata

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l miq’e b-oq’-e
pn - erg road n -cut- pf
‘Ali crossed the road.’

Kaytag Dargwa багбяхъяра

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l bagbaˁq-iv xuni
pn - erg n .cross. pf - aor road
‘Petja crossed the road.’

Kazakh kes-іp öt

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya žol-dï kes-іp öt-tі
pn way- acc cut- cvb pass- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya crossed the road.’

Kazym Khanty mănti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en jǫš šǫpa măn-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg road in_halves go- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja crossed the road.’

Khoekhoe ǃgâu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge dao-b-a ge ǃgâu
pn -3 m . sg decl road-3 m . sg - obl pst cross
‘Peter crossed the road.’

Khwarshi j/iƛ'a

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
šamil iƛ'-ƛ'a huni-ƛ'o igo-jža-ʁol
pn ( i ) [ i ]go- pst . w road( iv )- super there- trans - dir
‘Shamil went across the road to the other side.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kina Rutul tiʔ eʁeč’ur

Valency pattern: NOM_IN.EL
X: NOM
Y: IN.EL
Locus: Y
rasul rɨˀɢ-a: tiʔ e-ʁ-eč’u-r
pn ( nom ) road. obl - in . el there pv - pv -1.cross. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul crossed the road.’

Kumyk čɨqmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
basir jol-dan čɨq-d-ɨ
pn road- abl go- pst -3 sg
‘Basir crossed the road.’

Latin transeo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
rar-us ab Itali-a tantum mar-e navit-a transi-t
rare- nom . sg . m from i taly( f )- abl . sg so_much sea( n )- acc . sg sailor( m )- nom . sg cross[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘Few sailors cross the sea so far from Italy.’
Note: (Ov. Tristia. III, 12, 39)

Laz o-l-in-u

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k gza-s gol-Ø-i-l-u
pn - b - erg way- nom prv - do 3- ver : s -go- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim crossed the road.’

Mandarin Chinese chuānguò

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān chuānguò le mǎlù
pn cross pfv road
‘Zhangsan crossed the road.’

Mano ká̰

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ yíí ká̰
1 sg . pst water cut
‘I crossed the river.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
tukaj-ħe d-uˤq’-es i-le Patimat-ini huni alʔ-un
shop- in ( lat ) f -go. pfv - inf say. pfv . aor - cvb pn - erg road cut: pfv - aor
‘Patimat cross the road in order to enter the shop.’

Mingrelian gin-Ø-i-l-en-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k šara-Ø gin-Ø-i-l-u
pn - erg road- nom prv - do 3- ver : s -go- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo crossed the road.’

Modern Hebrew χatsa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas χatsa et ha reχov
pn cross[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def street
‘Pinchas crossed the road.’

Mukhad Rutul jıxın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERELxu7
X: NOM
Y: SUPERELxu7
Locus: Y
murad rıˤq-ııˤla xuʔ jıxı-ri
pn road. obl - superel forth m .go. pf - aor
‘Murad crossed the road.’

Nanai dao-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia pokto-wa dao-xa-ni
pn road- obl cross- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia crossed the road.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de miq’:i q’:ot’il-ari
pn - erg road cross- aor
‘Patahi crossed the road.’

Northern Mansi minas

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMultta
X: NOM
Y: NOMultta
Locus: Y
ēkwa l’ōŋx ūltta min-as wiɣir pōs-ǝl
woman road across go- pst [3 sg ] red light- el
‘A woman crossed the road on a red light.’

Northern Yukaghir čaɣа̄=

Valency pattern: NOM_ACCsajde
X: NOM
Y: ACCsajde
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn jаwul-ǝ sаjdǝ čаɣа̄-j
pn road- acc across cross- intr .3 sg
‘Semien crossed the road.’

Norwegian Bokmål å krysse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per krysse-t vei-en
pn cross- pst way- def . m . sg
‘Per crossed the road.’

Polish przejść

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Stefan przeszed-ł drog-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] cross: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] road- acc . sg
‘Stefan crossed the road.’

Russian peresečʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja peresek dorog-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg cross( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] road- acc . sg
‘Petja crossed the road.’

Serbian preći

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je preša-o ulic-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg cross- part . perf . m . sg street- acc . sg
‘Petar crossed the road.’

Shinaz Rutul tinaʔ ʁaˁč'u-n

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
basir rɨqh-aˁ tinaʔ ʁaˁč'u-r
pn road. obl - in there ( m )cross. pf - aor
‘Basir crossed the road.’

Shughni naɣ̌ǰīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Azim as půnd naɣ̌ǰī-d
pn el road pass- pst
‘Azim crossed the road.’

Skolt Saami mõõnnâd

Valency pattern: NOM_GENraast
X: NOM
Y: GENraast
Locus: Y
Peâtt mõõn-i čuõkku rââst
pn . sg . nom go. pst .3 sg road. sg . gen across
‘Pete crossed the road’

Slovak prejsť

Valency pattern: NOM_cezACC
X: NOM
Y: cezACC
Locus: Y
Peter prešie-l cez cest-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] cross( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] over street( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter crossed the street.’

Slovenian prečkati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je prečka-l cest-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg cross: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] road- acc . sg
‘Peter crossed the road.’

Sorani Kurdish per̂înewe

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa le cade-ke per̂î-Ø-ewe
pn from road- def jump. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa crossed the road.’

Southern Rutul faˤğaˤç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRcina7ane
X: NOM
Y: ATTRcina7ane
Locus: Y
murad rıˤqhdi çin-aʔane faˤğaˤç'uˤ-r
pn road. attr dist - dir ( m )pass. ipf - prs
‘Murad crossed the road.’

Spanish cruzar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro cruz-ó la calle
pn [ sg . m ] cross- aor .3 sg art . def . sg . f street[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro crossed the street.’

Standard Arabic ʕabara

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n ʕabara ṭ-ṭarīq-a
pn - nom - indef cross. pf .3 m def -road- acc
‘Badr crossed the road.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø šuk'w-ka a-Ø-čäd
pn - nom road- el prv : dist - s 3-go
‘Maizer crossed the road (lit. ‘Maizer went over the road’).’

Swedish att gå över

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn gick över gata-n
pn go. pst over street- def . c . sg
‘Björn crossed the road.’
Note: Phrasal verb (över is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_PATH
X: ACT
Y: PATH
Locus: Y
T<um>awid si Pedro sa kalsada
< av > pfv .cross pers . subj pn dat road
‘Pedro crossed the road.’
Note: Ask Sergey. The Y-argument can be introduced by PATH-expression.

Telugu dāṭu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ rōḍḍu dāṭāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom road( n ). sg . nom cross. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen crossed the road.’

Tsakhur ilğeč’iy

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad yaˁq:q:ıˁ-le ilğeč’u
pn road. obl - superel ( m )cross. pf
‘Murad crossed the road.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
uršːi xːun-na it-il šːal-le w-at-ac'-ib
boy road- gen dem . dist - cntrs side- erg / loc ( lat ) m -thither-get. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy crossed the road.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Tsugni Dargwa četːe ka-b-uq-i / ka-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: LOC.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ xːun-ne-rka četːe ka-uq-un
boy road- loc - abl . down across down -( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy crossed the road.’

Turkish geçmek

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet yol-dan karşı-ya geç-ti
pn way- abl opposite- dat pass- pst
‘Mehmet crossed to the other side of the street.’
Note: The adverb "karşıya" is optional.

Turoyo qoṭəʕ

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_7al
X: SBJ.SS
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
Gabriyel qaṭəʕ ʕal u šuqo
pn cross. pfv .3 m on art . m street
‘Gabriyel crossed the street.’

Ulcha wəli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əgdi xurəm-bə wəlu-m
many mountain- acc cross- cvb . sim . sg
‘After crossing many mountains...’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek o’tmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya yo’l-dan o’t-ti
pn road- abl cross- pst .3 sg
‘Petja crossed the road.’

West Central Oromo k'at't'aamura

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n daandii k'at't'aamur-e
pn - nom road. abs cross-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa crossed the road.’

Zilo Andi <b>-uqχ’-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di miqχ’i b-uqχ’-i
pn - erg road[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-displace. pst ( aor )
‘Ali crossed the road.’