BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘catch up’

Argument frame: X (catch up) with Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. had an argument with M., M. went away, P. went after her.) P. caught up with M .
Predicate label Ru: догнать
Argument frame Ru: X (догонять) Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. поссорился с М., и М. ушла. П. пошел за ней). П. догнал М .

Abaza [χ’ə-]ʒa

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCxe
X: ABS
Y: LOCxe
Locus: Y
murád fatíma də-l-χ’ə́-ʒa-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - loc -reach( aor )- dcl
‘Murad caught up with Fatima.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) č̣ʼeλə-he

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.BEHIND.LOC.AFTER
X: ABS
Y: LOC.BEHIND.LOC.AFTER
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r pŝaŝe-m č̣ʼe-λə-ha-ʁ
guy- abs girl- obl loc : behind - loc : after -enter- pst
‘The guy caught up with the girl.’

Aghul qukː.u-na ruq’.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
aslan qukː.u-na meʜemed.i-q ruq’.u-ne
pn chase. pf - conv pn - post reach. pf - aor
‘Aslan caught up with Muhammad’

Alik Kryz surq'vic

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
terlan yixh-ci leyla-ğ surq'u-d
pn go. pfv - seq . interr pn - super m .reach. pfv - aor ( m )
‘Terlan caught up with Leyla.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
paša moħommad-li-s χir i-w-di
pn pn - obl - dat behind become-1- pfv
‘Pasha caught up with Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (adverbial element + 'become'). The NP in the dative case can be omitted.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +maṭə

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
naša +mṭi-l ka baxt-u
person( m ) arrive. pst - ls .3 m to woman( f )- p .3 m
‘The man caught up with his wife.’

Avar χaduw ʁeze

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali marjam-i-da χadu-w ʁ-una
pn pn - obl - loc behind- m push- aor
‘Ali caught up with Marjam.’
Note: Here, χadu-w functions an adverb.

Azerbaijani çatmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya çat-dı
pn pn - dat / lat reach- pst (3)
‘Aslan caught up with Leyla.’

Bambara kún

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bòli-la dén` nɔ̀fɛ̀ kà kún lá
pn run- pfv . intr child\ art behind inf catch.up 3 sg in
‘Seku run after the child and caught him up.’

Brazilian Portuguese alcançar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro alcanç-ou Maria
pn ( m ) reach-3 sg . pst pn ( f )
‘Pedro caught up with Maria.’

Catalan atrapar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va atrap-ar la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind catch- ind def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere caught up with Maria.’

Chirag hitːas-b-aʁi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-l-i hitːa-s-j-aʁ-ib
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - super post - hi - m . sg -reach: pf - aor .3
‘Ali caught up with Rasul.’

Czech dohnat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr dohna-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] catch_up( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr caught up with Michal.’

Danish indhente

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter indhente-de Marie
pn catch_up- pst pn
‘Peter caught up with Marie.’

Dutch bijhalen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet hal-de Marie bij
pn (С) catch- pst pn ( c ) at
‘Piet caught up with Marie.’

Eastern Maninka kún

Valency pattern: SBJ_do(POST)
X: SBJ
Y: do(POST)
Locus: Y
Sékù kà kún dén` dɔ́.
pn aor . tr fit.into child/ art in
‘Seku caught up with the child.’

English catch up

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter caught up with Mary.

Estonian järele jõudma

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Peeter jõud-is Mareti-le järele
pn . sg . nom reach- pst .3 sg pn - all after
‘Peeter caught up with Maret.’
Note: Phrasal verb (järele is not a flagging device).

Finnish ottaa kiinni

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ott-i Mati-n kiinni
pn . nom take- pst .3 sg pn - gen shut
‘Pekka caught up with Matti’

Forest Enets dʲɔbu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da dʲɔbuɔ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg catch_up( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend caught up with his wife’.

French rattraper

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a rattrapé Marie près du parc
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg catch_up. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f ) near of. def . sg . m park( m )
‘Paul caught up with Marie near the park.’

Georgian da-Ø-e-c'ev-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s da-Ø-e-c'i-a
pn - nom pn - dat prv :downward- io 3- ver : r -catch up- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre caught up with Masho.’

German einholen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl hol-te Marie ein
pn [ nom . sg ] get- pst .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ] in
‘Karl caught up with Marie.’

Icari Dargwa tːi=w=eːʁ-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-reh tːi=w=eːʁ-ib
pn . abs pn - post post = m =catch_up: pf - aor
‘Islam caught up with Nadir.’

Irish tar suas

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Do=thanic Pól suas le Máire.
pst =catch.up pn up with pn
‘Pól caught up with Máire.’

Italian raggiungere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha raggiunto Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs reach. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo caught up with Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad ʡaˤ-w-w-aʁ-ib ʡašura-ke
pn catch.up- m - m -reach. pfv - pret pn - super
‘Muhammad caught up with Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani dugunil

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a duguni-sarď-a la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg catch_up- pst -3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Murša caught up with Marijka.’

Karata

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali marjam-ja χirχi-r w-aʔ-a
pn pn - dat behind- lat m -catch_up- pf
‘Ali caught up with Marjam.’
Note: Here, “χirχir” arguably functions as part of the predicate.

Kaytag Dargwa гьеркегъара

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja herkeğ-iv maša-j
pn catch_up. pf - aor pn - datlat
‘Petja caught up with Masha.’

Kazakh quw-ïp žet

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï quw-ïp žet-tі
pn pn - acc catch_up- cvb reach- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya caught up with Masha.’

Kazym Khanty ԑλtǝ jŏχǝtti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en maša-j-ǝλ ԑλtǝ jŏχǝt-s-ǝλλe
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg from_behind come- pst -3 sg . so
‘Petja caught up with Maša.’

Khoekhoe sīǃnâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ge sīǃnâ
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl pst catch_up
‘Peter caught up with Maria’

Khwarshi žoho j/eta

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN2
X: ABS
Y: GEN2
Locus: Y
šamil žoho ejta tušman-lo
pn ( i ) behind [ i ]catch.up\ pst . w enemy( i )- gen 2
‘Shamil caught up with the enemy.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul qeqiq’ɨra

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul qe-q-iq’ɨ-r=a samira-χda
pn ( nom ) pv - re -1.catch.up. pfv - cvb =be pn - sub
‘Rasul caught up with Samira.’

Kumyk jetišmek

Valency pattern: NOM_GENartPOSS.ABL
X: NOM
Y: GENartPOSS.ABL
Locus: Y
basir patimat-nɨ art-ɨn-dan jet-iš-d-i
pn pn - gen back-3 sg - abl arrive- rec - pst -3 sg
‘Basir caught up with Patimat.’

Latin consequor

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ego ill-um in praetur-a sum consecut-us
i [ nom . sg ] that- acc . sg . m in praetorship( f )- abl . sg be. prs . ind . act .1 sg catch_up. prf . ptcp . pass - nom . sg . m
‘I caught up with him in the praetorship.’
Note: (Plin. Ep. 7, 16, 2)

Laz o-xt'-im-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-s gol-Ø-u-xt'-u
pn - nom pn - dat prv - io 3- ver : o -go- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim caught up with Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese zhuī-shàng

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhuī-shàng le Lǐsì
pn chase-up pfv pn
‘Zhangsan caught up with Lisi.’

Mano kṵ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé Sèé kṵ́
pn 3 sg . pst pn catch
‘Pe caught up with Se.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pajzula ʡa-w w-aʔ-ib Musa-li-s
pn behind- m m -arrive: pfv - pst pn - obl - dat
‘Pajzula caught up with Musa.’

Mingrelian gi-Ø-o-č'iš-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s ki-gi-Ø-o-č'iš-u
pn - erg pn - dat aff - prv - io 3- ver : sup -catch_up- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo caught up with Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew higia

Valency pattern: SBJ_el
X: SBJ
Y: el
Locus: Y
Pinχas higia el Mirjam
pn reach[ pst .3 sg . m ] towards pn
‘Pinchas caught up with Miriam.’

Mukhad Rutul qhiqhijq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad majram-ı-χda qhiqhijq'ı-ri
pn pn - obl - apud m .catch_up. pf - aor
‘Murad caught up with Majram.’

Nanai xaŋpan-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa xaŋpaŋ-ki-ni
pn pn - obl catch_up- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia caught up with Masha.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
patħudi ƛ’a q’w-eni madina-ge
pn on reach- aor pn - loc
‘Pathudi caught up with Madina.’
Note: Here, ƛ’a functions as a preverb.

Northern Mansi jujəljoxtəste

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
kūt’uw jujəl=joxt-əs-t-e ōtr-e
dog after=go- pst -3 sg . o -3 sg . s master- poss .3 sg
‘The dog catched up with its master.’

Northern Yukaghir pǝl=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ pǝl-u-m
pn pn - acc aff catch_up-0- tr .3 sg
‘Semien caught up with Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å ta igjen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per tok Kari igjen
pn take. pst pn again
‘Per caught up with Kari.’

Polish dogonić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Maciek dogoni-ł Jank-a
pn [ nom . sg ] catch_up: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Maciek caught up with Janek.’

Russian dognatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja dogna-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg catch_up( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja caught up with Maša.’

Serbian stići

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je stiga-o Marij-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg catch.up- part . perf . m . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar caught up with Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul leqhejq'ɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
basir leqhejq'ɨ-r peri-χda
pn re . m .fight. pf - aor pn - apud
‘Basir caught up with Peri.’

Shughni daryov čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i Karamšo daryov čūd
pn =3 sg pn capture do. pst
‘Ahmed caught up with Karamsho.’

Skolt Saami tääʹvted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tääʹvt-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom grab- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete caught up with Maria’

Slovak dostihnúť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter dostiho-l Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] catch_up( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter caught up with Marek.’

Slovenian dohiteti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
patrulj-a je dohite-l-a Petr-a
patrol- nom . sg aux .3 sg catch_up: pfv - lpt - f . sg pn - acc . sg
‘The patrol caught up with Peter.’

Sorani Kurdish girtnewe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa Kamran=î le r̂êga-ke-da girt-Ø-ewe
pn pn =3 sg . pc from way- def -in catch. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa caught up with Kamran on the way.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul kiyq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad ayten-ıxda kiyq'ı-r
pn pn - apud m .hit. pf - aor
‘Murad caught up with Ayten.’

Spanish alcanzar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha alcanza-do a Maria
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg reach- ptcp : prf dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro caught up with Maria.’

Standard Arabic laḥiqa

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-u-n laḥiqa bi=Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef catch_up. pf .3 m by= pn - gen
‘Badr caught up with Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-s la-h-xiːdː-a
pn - nom pn - dat prv : slightly - io 3-catch_up- pst
‘Maizer caught up with Gegi.’

Swedish att hinna i kapp

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn hann ikapp Maja
pn be_in_time. pst caught_up_with pn
‘Björn caught up with Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
H<um>abol si Pedro kay Miguel
< av > pfv .catch up pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro caught up with Miguel.’

Telugu cērukōnu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni cērukunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc join. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen caught up with Mahesh.’

Tsakhur arq’uniy

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRqhehna
X: NOM
Y: ATTRqhehna
Locus: Y
murad nigar-ni qhehna arq’un-na
pn pn - attr . obl behind h .catch_up. pf - h
‘Murad caught up with Nigar.’
Note: nigar-ni qhehna forms a constituent here and qhehna is a postposition.

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-ja ʡer eʁ-ib
boy friend- obl - super ( lat ) post (after) reach. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy caught up with his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa hitːe ha-b-eʁ-i / ha-b-irʁ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_POST
X: NOM
Y: POST
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-gitːe hitːe h-eʁ-ib
boy neighbor- post post (after) up -( m )reach. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy caught up with his neighbor.’

Turkish yetişmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e yetiş-ti
pn pn - dat catch_up- pst
‘Mehmet caught up with Filiz.’

Turoyo moṭe

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_IO
X: SBJ.SS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Šabo maṭi l Maryam
pn reach. pfv .3 m to pn
‘Shabo caught up with Maryam.’

Ulcha xaŋpanǯu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə əktə piktə-wə xaŋpan-ǯu-xa-ni
male child female child- acc pursue- rep - pst -3 sg
‘The boy caught up with the girl.’

Uzbek etvolmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga etvol-di
pn pn - dat chase- pst .3 sg
‘Petja caught up with Maša.’

West Central Oromo k'ak'k'abata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu k'ak'k'ab-at-e
pn - nom pn . abs catch_up- mid -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa caught up with Bontu.’

Zilo Andi <w>-eχudu <w>-oqχ.o-j

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-tʃ’u w-eχudu w-oqχ.o-j
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - cont m -after m -reach. pst - pf
‘Ali caught up with Muhammad.’