BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘call’

Argument frame: X (call) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. tried to open the door himself, but he didn’t manage. Then) P. called M .
Predicate label Ru: звать
Argument frame Ru: X (звать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. пытался сам открыть дверь, но не смог. Тогда) П. позвал М .

Abaza ʕa-z-č̣ə-t

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád rasúl d-ʕa-z-č̣ə́-j-t-d
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl - ben - loc -3 sg . m . erg -call( aor )- dcl
‘Murad called Rasul.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-ǯʼe

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ŝeweẑəje-r č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-m q-je-ǯʼa-ʁ
boy- abs teacher- obl csl -3 sg . io + dat -call- pst
‘The guy called the teacher.’

Aghul un-aq’.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-s un-aq’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - dat sound-do. pf - aor
‘Aslan called Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz sas aric

Valency pattern: ERG_DIR
X: ERG
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
terlan-ir rasul-xvan sas ar-ic
pn - erg pn - dir call do. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan called Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu moħommad zappo
pn - obl ( erg ) pn call. pfv
‘Pasha called Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +karə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
naša +kəry-a-l baxt-u
person( m ) call. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m woman( f )- p .3 m
‘The man called his wife.’

Avar aħize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca aħ-ana aħmad
pn - erg call- aor pn
‘Ali called Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani çağırmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u çağır-dı
pn pn - acc call- pst (3)
‘Aslan called Rasul.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ twóŋə̂ sùù
pn sm p 2 call pn
‘Ambe called Suh.’

Bambara wéele

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Fántà ye Sékù wéele
pn pfv . tr pn call
‘Fanta called Seku.’

Brazilian Portuguese chamar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro cham-ou Miguel
pn ( m ) call-3 sg . pst pn ( m )
‘Pedro called Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır rosul naʕra siʔir-ci
pn - erg pn call n .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan called Rasul.’

Catalan trucar

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT
X: SBJ
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
en Pere va truc-ar al Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind call- inf to. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere called Marc.’
Note: Cf. "en Pere li va trucar"

Chirag wa̰ħ i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le rasul-l-i wa̰ħ ib
pn - erg pn - obl - super call say: pf + aor .3
‘Ali called Rasul.’

Czech zavolat

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr zavola-l na Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] call( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr called Michal.’

Danish kalde

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Peter kald-te Marie
pn call- pst on pn
‘Peter called Marie.’

Dutch roepen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft Marie ge-roep-en
pn (С) have.3 sg pn (С) ptcp -call- ptcp
‘Piet called Marie.’

Eastern Maninka wéle

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà Fónbà wéle.
pn aor . tr pn call
‘Seku called Fomba.’

English call

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter called Mary.

Estonian helistama

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Peeter helista-s Mareti-le
pn . sg . nom call- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘Peeter called Maret.’

Finnish kutsua

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka kutsu-i Matti-a
pn . nom call- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka called Matti.’
Note: It is not clear whether M. came or didn’t come after all.

Forest Enets kaata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kasa nʲe-da kaata
i man- nom . sg .1 sg man child- obl . sg .3 sg call( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend called his son’.

French appeler

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a appelé Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg call. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul called Marie.’

Georgian mo-Ø-u-xm-ob-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-m mašo-s mo-Ø-u-xm-o
pn - erg pn - dat prv : prox - io 3- ver : s -call_out- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre called Masho.’

German rufen

Valency pattern: NOM_nachDAT
X: NOM
Y: nachDAT
Locus: Y
Karl rief nach Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] call. pst .3 sg after pn [ dat . sg ]
‘Karl called Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle tólu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá Hèhee tólu
pn 3 sg . prf pn call
‘Pepee called Hehee.’

Icari Dargwa waˤħ=b=erk'-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_ILL
X: ERG
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Islam-il Nadir-ri-cːi waˤħ=b=erč'-ib
pn - erg pn - obl - ill call= n = lv - aor
‘Islam called Nadir.’

Irish glaoigh

Valency pattern: SBJ_ar
X: SBJ
Y: ar
Locus: Y
Do=glaoigh Pól air Mháire.
pst =call pn on pn
‘Pól called Máire.’

Italian chiamare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha chiamato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs call. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo called Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa waˤ-CL-CL-ar-es / ʡaˤ-CL-CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li rasul waˤ-w-0-ar-ib
pn - erg pn call- m - m -do. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad called Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani akharəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a akhar-ď-a la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg call- pst -3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Murša called Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
fatima-ji maˁhaˁmad.a-z ǯaχ ʁ-ap’nu
pn - erg pn - dat voice pf -do- pst
‘Fatima called Mahamad.’

Karata k’k’anɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l aħmat’ k’k’-an
pn - erg pn call- pf
‘Ali called Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa dimaaqara

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER
X: ERG
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
petja-l miša-c:i dimaaq-iv
pn - erg pn - inter call. pf - aor
‘Petja called Misha.’

Kazakh šaqïr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï šaqïr-dï
pn pn - acc call- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya called Masha.’

Kazym Khanty wɔχti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-ǝλ wɔχ-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg call- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja called Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǂgai

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge go Maria-s-a ǂgai
pn -3 m . sg decl rpst pn -3 f . sg - obl call
‘Peter called Maria.’

Khwarshi goƛ'a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
de gojƛ'a hamaʁe
1 sg . erg call\ pst . w friend
‘I called a friend.’

Kina Rutul ses hawɨr

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB
X: ERG
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul-a ramazan-ɨ-χda ses ha<w>ɨ-r
pn - erg pn - obl - sub sound <3>do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul called Ramazan.’

Kumyk čaqɨrmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir musa-nɨ čaqɨr-d-ɨ
pn pn - acc invite- pst -3 sg
‘Basir invited Musa.’
Note: This sentence is semantically slightly different from the stimulus.

Latin voco

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Caecin-a) serv-um-que su-um nomin-e Antioch-um ad se voca-v-it
pn ( m )- nom . sg slave( m )- acc . sg -and one’s_own- acc . sg . m name( n )- abl . sg pn ( m )- acc . sg at refl . acc call- prf - ind . act .3 sg
‘(Caecina) summoned his slave named Antiochus.’
Note: (Cic. Pro Caec. 22)

Laz o-ǯox-(in)-u

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k Fatma-s Ø-u-ǯox-u
pn - b - erg pn - dat io 3- ver : o -call- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim called Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese jiào

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān jiào-lái le Lǐsì
pn call-come pfv pn
‘Zhangsan called Lisi and made him come.’

Mano súò kɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ súò kɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg call do: ipfv
‘S/he calls me.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pajzula-li-ni Nadir waˤb-aˤt-ur
pn - obl - erg pn call- lv : pfv - aor
‘Pajzula called Nadir.’

Mingrelian d-Ø-u-ʒax-en-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s d-Ø-u-ʒax-(u)
pn - erg pn - dat prv - io 3- ver : o -call- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo called Anuchia.’
Note: This verb is a recent borrowing from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew hitkaʃer

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas hitkaʃer le Menaχem
pn call[ pst .3 sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas called Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul ses vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ı-χda ses vıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn - obl - apud sound( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad called Kurban.’

Nanai xəərsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
totara Maša Petia-wə xəərsi-xə-ni
then pn pn - obl call- pst - p .3 sg
‘Then Masha called Petia.’

Nivkh jazd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + az-d
pn pn + call- ind
‘Kaskazik called Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh žooruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patħudi-de musa ža-ari
pn - erg pn call- aor
‘Pathudi called Musa.’

Northern Mansi wowəste

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ɕān’-e wōw-əs-t-e āɣi-te
mother- poss .3 sg call- pst -3 sg . o -3 sg . s girl- poss .3 sg
‘The mother called her daughter.’

Northern Yukaghir nˈiǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ nˈiǝ-mǝ-lǝ
pn pn call- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien called Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å rope

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Per rop-te Ola
pn call- pst on pn
‘Per called Ola.’

Polish zawołać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Józef zawoła-ł zięci-a
pn [ nom . sg ] call: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] son_in_law- acc . sg
‘Józef called his son in law.’

Russian pozvatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja pozva-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg call( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja called Maša.’

Serbian pozvati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je pozva-o Marij-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg call- part . perf . m . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar called Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul un hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
basir un hɨʔɨ-r karam-ɨχda
pn ( erg ) call n .do. pf - aor pn - apud
‘Basir called Karam.’

Shughni qīwdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i xu nān qīw-d
pn =3 sg refl mother call- pst
‘Azim called his mother.’

Skolt Saami čuârvvad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuârva-i Määʹrj vieʹǩǩ-en
pn . sg . nom shout- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc help- ess .
‘Pete shouted to Maria for help.’

Slovak zavolať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter zavola-l Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] call( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter called Marek.’

Slovenian poklicati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je poklica-l zet-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg call: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] son_in_law- acc . sg
‘Peter called his son-in-law.’

Sorani Kurdish zeng lêdan

Valency pattern: SBJ_bo
X: SBJ
Y: bo
Locus: Y
Hîwa zeng=î bo Kamr̂an-î lê-da-Ø
pn bell=3 sg . pc for pn - obl prev -give. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa called Kamran.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul ses havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad-a ehmed-a-xda ses havʔı-r
pn - erg pn - obl - apud sound( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad called Ehmed.’

Spanish llamar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
entonces Pedro llam-ó a María
then pn [ sg . m ] call- aor .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro called Maria.’

Standard Arabic ṣāḥa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un ṣāḥa Maryam-a
pn - nom call. pf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr called Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-d gegi-s la-x-t'wiːl
pn - nom pn - dat prv : slightly - io 3-call
‘Maizer called Gegi.’

Swedish att ropa

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn ropa-de Maja
pn call- pst on pn
‘Björn called Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
T<in>awag ni Pedro si Miguel
< pv > pfv .call pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro called Miguel.’

Telugu pilucu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni pilicāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc call. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen called Mahesh.’

Tsakhur qhort’uniy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee aydın qhort’un
pn - erg pn h .call. pf
‘Murad called Aydin.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa waˤw ʔ-iz/ʔir-iz

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi-le juldaš-li-c:e waˤw ʔ-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) friend- obl - inter ( lat ) call say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy called his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa weh ag-i / ig-i

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li zumra-cːe weh ag-ib
boy- erg neighbor- inter ( lat ) call say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy called his neighbor.’

Turkish çağırmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Filiz Mehmed-i çağır-dı
pn pn - acc call- pst
‘Filiz called Mehmet.’

Turoyo qore

Valency pattern: SBJ_IO
X: SBJ
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Gabriyel qre-le l Yuḥanən
pn call. pfv - ls .3 m to pn
‘Gabriyel called Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha xərsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
tara ən-bi xərsi-xə-ni
then mother- refl . sg call- pst -3 sg
‘Then [he] called his mother.’

Uzbek čaqirmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni čaqir-di
pn pn - acc go_out- pst .3 sg
‘Petja called Maša.’

West Central Oromo waammata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu waamm-at-e
pn - nom pn . abs call- mid -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa called Bontu.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-z ever-na
pn - erg pn - obl - dat call- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib called Eldar.’

Zilo Andi qχ’or.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di muħammad qχ’or.i
pn - erg pn [ m ][ nom ] call. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat called Muhammad.’