BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘break’

Argument frame: X (break) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. broke a stick .
Predicate label Ru: ломать
Argument frame Ru: X (ломать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. сломал палку .

Abaza qə-ĉ̣a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-labá qə-j-ĉ̣á-d
def -boy def -stick loc -3 sg . m . erg -break( aor )- dcl
‘The boy broke the stick.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ze.pə-č̣ʼə.č̣ʼə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m bešʼə-r ze-p-jə-č̣ʼə-č̣ʼə-ʁ
guy- obl stick- abs rec . io - loc : tip -3 sg . erg -break- elat - pst
‘The guy broke the stick.’

Aghul arʕ.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a t’ul arʕ.u-ne
pn ( erg ) branch break. pf - aor
‘Aslan broke a stick.’

Alik Kryz qhaçayc

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir k'ina qhaça-c
pn - erg wood break- aor . n
‘Terlan broke a stick.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu kʼuħan aqˁu
pn - obl ( erg ) stick 4.break. pfv
‘Pasha broke a stick.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +šaməṭ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala kesa +šməṭ-lə
boy( m ) wood( m ) break. pst - ls .3 m
‘The boy broke a stick.’

Avar bekize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca t’il b-ek-ana
pn - erg stick n -break- aor
‘Ali broke a stick.’

Azerbaijani sındırmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan çubuğu sın-dır-dı
pn stick. acc break- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan broke the stick.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ mbə́gə̂ àtì
pn sm p 2 break stick
‘Ambe broke a stick.’

Bambara kári

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye bére` kári
pn pfv . tr stick\ art break
‘Seku broke a stick.’

Brazilian Portuguese quebrar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro quebr-ou o bastão
pn ( m ) break-3 sg . pst def . m stick( m )
‘Pedro broke the stick.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır raz soğu-ci
pn - erg stick break. pf - nar
‘Aslan broke a stick.’

Catalan trencar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va trenc-ar un pal
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind break- inf indf . sg . m stick( m )
‘Pere broke a stick.’

Chirag b-a̰bʁi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le χːamul b-a̰bʁ-ib
pn - erg stick( abs ) n . sg -break: pf - aor .3
‘Ali broke a stick.’

Czech zlomit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zlomi-l tyč
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] break( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stick( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr broke a stick.’

Danish brække

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter brække-de en pind
pn break- pst indf . sg stick( c )
‘Peter broke a stick.’

Dutch breken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de stok ge-brok-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . def . c stick(С) ptcp -break- ptcp .
‘Piet broke the stick.’

Eastern Maninka dɔ́kadi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára gbéleke` dó dɔ́kadi.
pn prf stick\ art indf break
‘Seku has broken a stick.’

English break

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter broke a stick.

Estonian murdma

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter murd-is pulga
pn . sg . nom break- pst .3 sg stick. sg . gen
‘Peeter broke a stick.’

Finnish katkoa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka katko-i oksa-n
pn . nom break- pst .3 sg branch- gen
‘Pekka broke a branch.’

Forest Enets mɔree

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ mɔj mɔree
i man- nom . sg .1 sg wood branch break( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend broke a wooden stick’.

French casser

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a cassé un bâton
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg break. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m stick( m )
‘Paul broke a stick.’

Georgian ga-Ø-t'ex-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m ǯox-i ga-Ø-t'ex-a
pn - erg stick- nom prv :outward- do 3-break. tr - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre broke a stick.’

German zerbrechen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl zerbrach ein-en Stock
pn [ nom . sg ] break. pst .3 sg indf - m . acc . sg stick[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl broke a stick.’

Guinean Kpelle hǔ yálí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hwáahúɣû àa gbɔ́ŋ̀ hǔ yáli
pn 3 sg . prf stick interior break
‘Hwahughu broke the stick.’

Icari Dargwa b=elq'-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il dirxːa b=elq'-un
pn - erg stick. abs n =break: pf - aor
‘Islam broke a stick.’

Irish bris

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=bhris Pól an maide.
pst =break pn def branch
‘Pól broke the stick.’

Italian rompere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha rotto il baston-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs break. pst . ptcp def . sg . m stick- sg . m
‘Leo broke the stick.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-urʡ-es / uʡ-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li t'erxa b-urʡ-ib
pn - erg stick n -break. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad broke a stick.’

Kalderash Romani phagəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a phag-ľ-a ə řaj
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg break- pst -3 sg art . f . dir . sg stick[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša broke a stick.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
mahamad-ǯi marʁ ʁ-uˁ<b>ʁ-uˁ-nu
pn - erg stick( abs ) pf -< n . sg >break- pst
‘Mahamad broke a stick.’

Karata biʔwaaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l c’ule b-iʔw-a
pn - erg stick n -break- pf
‘Ali broke a stick.’

Kaytag Dargwa belq’wana

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l mirğaˁ b-elq’-un
pn - erg stick n -break. pf - aor
‘Petja broke a stick.’

Kazakh sïndïr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya tayaq-tï sïndïr-dï
pn stick- acc break- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya broke a stick.’

Kazym Khanty mǫrǝtti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en jǔχ šǫpa mǫrǝt-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg tree across break- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja broke a stick in half.’

Khoekhoe khôa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge hai-b-a go khôa
pn -3 m . sg decl stick-3 m . sg - obl rpst break
‘Peter broke a stick.’

Khwarshi j/icaχa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i l-ica-χ-χa k'ant'a
pn - erg iv -break- caus - pst . w stick( iv )
‘Shamil broke a stick.’

Kina Rutul q’at’ hɨɁɨr

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a t’at’al q’at’ hɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg stick( nom ) half 4. lv . pfv - cvb
‘Rasul broke a stick.’

Kumyk sɨndɨrmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
rasul tajaq-nɨ sɨndɨr-d-ɨ
pn stick- acc break- pst -3 sg
‘Rasul broke the stick.’

Latin frango

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Apollo inde ram-um freg-it et in caput imposu-it
pn ( m ). nom . sg after_that branch( m )- acc . sg break[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg and in head( n ). acc . sg put[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘Apollo broke a branch and placed it on his head.’
Note: (Hyginus. Fabulae. 203, 1)

Laz o-t'ax-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k k'et'-i me-Ø-t'ax-u
pn - b - erg stick- nom prv - do 3-break- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim broke a stick.’

Mandarin Chinese nòng duàn

Valency pattern: SUB_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān gùnzi nòng duàn le
pn ba stick make broken pfv
‘Zhangsan broke a stick.’
Note: The status of the "bǎ"-construction is controversial.

Mano wí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ō vɛ́ɛ́lɛ́ tɔ́ɔ̄
3 pl . pst glass dem . prox . vis break
‘They broke this glass.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pajzula-li-ni b-urʡ-aˤq-ib derxa
pn - obl - erg n -break: pfv - caus - pst stick
‘Pajzula broke a stick.’

Mingrelian gino-Ø-t'ax-un-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k č'in-i ge-gno-Ø-t'ax-(u)
pn - erg stick- nom pfv - prv - do 3-break-( s 3 sg . pst )
‘Chelo broke a stick.’

Modern Hebrew ʃavar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ʃavar makel
pn break[ pst .3 sg . m ] stick
‘Pinchas broke a stick.’

Mukhad Rutul q'at' hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gaˤrij q'at' hıʔı-ri
pn - erg branch break n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad broke a stick.’

Nanai bojali-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia moka-mba boja.le-ха-ni
pn small_tree- obl break. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia broke a stick.’

Nivkh zоsqt

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik cʰχar̥ zоsq-t
pn tree break- ind
‘Kaskazik broke a stick.’

Northern Akhvakh biq’uruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de č’uli b-iq’w-ari
pn - erg stick n -break- aor
‘Patahi broke a stick.’

Northern Mansi sakwatas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pajel sakwat-as tow
pn break- pst .3 sg branch
‘Pasha broke a branch.’

Northern Yukaghir salˈɣarǝj=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn tolī-lǝ sаlˈɣаrǝ-j-mǝ-lǝ
pn stick- acc break- pf - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien broke a stick.’

Norwegian Bokmål å ødelegge

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per ødela stokk-en
pn break. pst stick- def . m . sg
‘Per broke a stick.’

Polish złamać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Jan złama-ł lask-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] break: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] stick- acc . sg
‘Jan broke a stick.’

Russian slomatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sloma-l palk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg break( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stick( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja broke a stick.’

Serbian polomiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je polomi-o štap
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg break- part . perf . m . sg stick. acc . sg
‘Petar broke a stick.’

Shinaz Rutul q'at' hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir q'at' hɨʔɨ-r t'at'al
pn ( erg ) break n .do. pf - aor stick
‘Basir broke a stick.’

Shughni virix̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i wi sêx virux̌-t
pn =3 sg d 3. m . sg . obl stick break- pst
‘Azim broke a stick.’

Skolt Saami tuäjjad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tuäja-i sueʹbb
pn . sg . nom break- pst .3 sg stick. sg . acc
‘Pete broke a stick.’

Slovak zlomiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter zlomi-l paličk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] break( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stick( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter broke a stick.’

Slovenian zlomiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je zlomi-l palčk-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg break: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] stick- acc . sg
‘Peter broke a stick.’

Sorani Kurdish ʂikandin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa ʂûɫ-eke=î ʂikand-Ø
pn stick- def =3 sg . pc break. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa broke the stick.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul q'at' hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a k'ar q'at' hıʔı-r
pn - erg stick cut n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad broke a stick.’

Spanish romper

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha roto un palo
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg break. ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . m stick[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro broke the stick.’

Standard Arabic kasara

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un kasara ʕaṣāyat-a-n
pn - nom break. pf .3 m stick( f )- acc - indef
‘Badr broke a stick.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d pawa-Ø a-Ø-q'wič
pn - erg stick- nom prv : dist - do 3-break
‘Maizer broke a stick.’

Swedish att knäcka

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn knäck-te en pinne
pn break- pst indf . c . sg stick
‘Björn broke a stick.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-bali ni Pedro ang patpat
pot . pv . pfv -break pers . gen pn subj stick
‘Pedro broke a stick.’
Note: Alternative is a POT.AV construction.

Telugu viragakoṭṭu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ kaṭṭe-ni viragakoṭṭāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom stick( n ). sg . obl - acc break. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen broke a stick.’

Tsakhur haq’var haʔiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee čık’ haq’var haʔu
pn - erg stick ( n )break. cov n .do. pf
‘Murad broke a stick.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-urʡ-iz/ʡuʡ=iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le t'irxa b-urʔ-ub
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) stick n -break. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy broke a stick.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-aˤč-i / b-aˤlč-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li dirxːa b-aˤč-un
boy- erg stick n -break. pfv ( caus )- pret (3)
‘The boy broke a stick.’

Turkish kırmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet dal-ı kır-dı
pn branch- acc break- pst
‘Mehmet broke a stick.’

Turoyo towər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel twər-le u čugan
pn break. pfv - ls .3 m art . m stick( m )
‘Gabriyel broke the stick.’

Ulcha kiŋdali-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə mō-wa kiŋdala-xa-ni
male child tree- acc break- pst -3 sg
‘The boy broke a stick.’

Uzbek sindirib qo’ymoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya tayoq-ni sin-dir-ib qo’y-di
pn stick- acc break- caus - cvb put- pst .3 sg
‘Petja broke a stick.’

West Central Oromo tʃ'aba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n ulee tʃ'ab-s-e
pn - nom stick. abs break- caus -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa broke a stick.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a tˈval xa-na
pn - erg stick break. ipfv / pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib broke a stick.’

Zilo Andi <r>-iqχ-onɬ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ts’ur r-iqχ-onɬ.i
pn - erg stick[ inan 2][ nom ] inan 2-break- caus . pst ( aor )
‘Ali broke the stick.’