BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘bite’

Argument frame: X (bite) Y
Stimulus sentence: A dog bit P. .
Predicate label Ru: кусать
Argument frame Ru: X (кусать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: Собака укусила П .

Abaza cha

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
a-lá sará j-ʕa-sə-cha-d
def -dog i 3 sg . n . abs - cisl -1 sg . io -bite( aor )- dcl
‘The dog bit me.’

Aghul fac.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
χuj.i fac.u-ne aslan
dog( erg ) grasp. pf - aor pn
‘A dog bit (lit. ‘grasped’) Aslan.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +karəṭ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata calba +krəṭ-o=l
girl( f ) dog( m ) bite. pst - p .3 f =3 m
‘A dog bit the girl.’

Brazilian Portuguese morder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
o cachorro mord-eu Pedro
def . m dog( m ) bite-3 sg . pst pn ( m )
‘A dog bit Pedro.’

Catalan mossegar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un gos va mosseg-ar al Pere
indf . sg . m dog( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind bite- inf to. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘A dog bit Pere.’

Czech kousat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr-a kous-l pes
pn ( m )- acc . sg bite( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] dog( m )[ nom . sg ]
‘A dog bit Petr.’

Danish bide

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
En hund bed Peter
indf . sg dog( c ) bite. pst pn
‘A dog bit Peter.’

Dutch bijten

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
de hond heeft Piet ge-bet-en
art . def . c dog(С) have.3 sg pn ( c ) ptcp -bite- ptcp
‘The dog bit Piet.’

Estonian hammustama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
koer hammusta-s Peetri-t
dog. sg . nom bite- pst .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘A dog bit Peeter.’

Finnish purra

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
koira pur-i Pekka-a
dog. nom bite- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘A dog bit Pekka.’

Forest Enets sɛkuru

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
buniki kasa-jʔ sɛkura
dog man- nom . sg .1 sg bite( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘A dog bit my friend’.

Italian mordere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
il can-e ha morso Leo
def . sg . m dog- sg . m aux .3 sg . prs bite. pst . ptcp pn ( m )
‘The dog bit Leo.’

Kazakh qap

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
It Petya-nï qap-tï
dog pn - acc bite- pst 1.3 sg
‘A dog bit Petya.’

Kazym Khanty pǒrԑmǝti + PASS

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
tǎm amp-ǝn pet’a-j-en pǒrԑm-ǝs-i
this dog- loc pn - ep - poss .2 sg bite- pst - pass [3 sg ]
‘This dog bit Petja.’
Note: This is a passive construction.

Latin mordeo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
si me canis memord-eri-t
if i . acc dog. nom . sg bite- fut 2. ind - act .3 sg
‘... if a dog bites me.’
Note: (Enn. Sat. 63)

Modern Hebrew naʃaχ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
kelev naʃaχ et Pinχas
dog bite[ pst .3 sg . m ] do pn
‘A dog bit Pinchas.’

Nanai səkpən-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
enda Petia-wə səkpəŋ-ki-ni
dog pn - obl bite- pst - p .3 sg
‘A dog bit Petia.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bite

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
hund-en bet Per
dog- def . m . sg bite. pst pn
‘The dog bit Per.’

Polish ugryźć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pies ugryz-ł mam-ę
dog[ nom . sg ] bite: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] mummy- acc . sg
‘A dog bit mummy.’

Russian kusatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
sobak-a ukusi-l-a Pet-ju
dog( f )- nom . sg bite( pfv )- pst - f . sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘A dog bit Petja.’

Rutul sɨs kiʔɨr

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER
X: ERG
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
rasul-u-k tɨlɨj-ra sɨs k-iʔɨ-r
pn - obl - inter dog. obl - erg tooth( nom ) pv -4. lv . pfv - cvb
‘A dog bit Rasul.’

Skolt Saami snäuʹǩǩed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
piânnai snauʹǩ-i suu
dog. sg . nom bite- pst .3 sg 3 sg . acc
‘A dog bit him.’

Slovenian ugrizniti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pes je ugrizni-l mam-o
dog[ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg bite: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] mother- acc . sg
‘A dog bit the mother.’

Spanish morder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un perro mordi-ó a Pedro
art . ndef . sg . m dog[ sg . m ] bite- aor .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . m ]
‘A dog bit Pedro.’

Swedish att bita

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en hund bet Björn
indf . c . sg dog bite. pst pn
‘A dog bit Björn.’

Turkish ısırmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
köpek Mehmed-i ısır-dı
dog pn - acc bite- pst
‘A dog bit Mehmet.’

Ulcha iktəmən-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
min xusə piktə-wə-ji iŋda iktəmən-či-ni
my male child- acc -1 sg dog bite- pst -3 sg
‘A dog bit my son.’

Zilo Andi qχ’amm.i-j

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
χʷedo-di qχ’amm.i-j pat’imati-ʔa
dog. obl - erg bite. pst - pf pn - super
‘The dog bit Patimat.’