BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘bend’

Argument frame: X (bend) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. bent the branch .
Predicate label Ru: гнуть
Argument frame Ru: X (гнуть) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. согнул ветку .

Abaza rə.qʷa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č̣’ḳʷən a-q̇ʷadáma j-rə́-qʷa-ṭ
def -boy def -branch 3 sg . m . erg - caus -bend( aor )- dcl
‘The boy bent the branch.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) wəfe

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m qʷətame-r ə-wəfa-ʁ
guy- obl branch- abs 3 sg . erg -bend- pst
‘The guy bent the branch.’

Aghul č’ut’.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a t’ul č’ut’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) branch crush. pf - aor
‘Aslan bent the branch.’

Alik Kryz agmiş aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir budağ agmiş ar-ic
pn - erg branch bend do. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan bent the branch.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu χol boqʼˁo
pn - obl ( erg ) branch bend. pfv
‘Pasha bent the branch.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭayəp

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur +ṭip-e-lə +pavan=ət ilana
pn bend. pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 m branch( m ). pl = rel tree( m )
‘Ashur bent the branch.’

Avar het’izabize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca ʕarƛ’el het’-izab-ula
pn - erg branch bend- caus . n - ipf
‘Ali bends the branch.’

Azerbaijani ǝymək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan budağı ǝy-di
pn branch. acc bend. tr - pst (3)
‘Aslan bent the branch.’

Bambara bíri

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye jíribolo` bíri
pn pfv . tr branch\ art bend
‘Seku bent a branch.’

Brazilian Portuguese dobrar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro dobr-ou o galho
pn ( m ) bend-3 sg . pst def . m branch( m )
‘Pedro bent the branch.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır budağ egmi siʔir-ci veq'il-ci
pn - erg branch bend n .do. pf - nar twist. pf - nar
‘Aslan bent the branch.’

Catalan doblegar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va dobleg-ar la branca
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind bend- inf def . sg . f branch( f )
‘Pere bent the branch.’

Chirag b-aqːʷi b-aqi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le ʁa̰mul b-aqːʷ-i b-aq-ib
pn - erg nail( abs ) n . sg -bend: pf - inf n . sg - caus : pf - aor .3
‘Ali bent a nail.’

Czech ohnout

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr ohnu-l větev
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] bend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] branch( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr bent the branch.’

Danish bøje

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter bøje-de gren-en
pn bend- pst branch( c )- def . sg
‘Peter bent the branch.’

Dutch buigen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de tak ge-bog-en
pn (С) have.3 sg art . def . c branch(С) ptcp -bend- ptcp
‘Piet bent the branch.’

Eastern Maninka dɔ́kùru

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà bólon` dó dɔ́kùru.
pn aor . tr branch\ art indf bend
‘Seku bent a branch.’

English bend

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter bent the branch.

Estonian painutama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter painuta-s oksa
pn . sg . nom bend- pst .3 sg branch. sg . part
‘Peeter bent the branch.’

Finnish taivuttaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka taivutt-i oksa-n
pn . nom bend- pst .3 sg branch- gen
‘Pekka bent the branch.’

Forest Enets bujurta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ niga bujurta
i man- nom . sg .1 sg bushes bend( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend bent the branch’.

French courber

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a courbé une branche
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg bend. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f branch( f )
‘Paul bent a branch.’

Georgian mo-Ø-γun-av-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m t'ot-i mo-Ø-γun-a
pn - erg branch- nom prv : prox - do 3-bend- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre bent the branch.’

German biegen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl bog ein-en Zweig
pn [ nom . sg ] bend. pst .3 sg indf - m . acc . sg branch[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl bent the branch.’

Guinean Kpelle kpíníŋ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá ŋwùlú ɓéɣéŋ̀ kpíníŋ́
pn 3 sg . pfv def \tree branch bend
‘Pepee bent a branch.’

Icari Dargwa b=aˤlč'-aq-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il q'aˤli b=aˤlč'-aq-un
pn - erg branch. abs n =bend: pf - caus - aor
‘Islam bent the branch.’

Irish lúb

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Lúb Pól an tuige.
bend( pst ) pn def branch
‘Pól bent the branch.’

Italian piegare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha piegato un ramoscell-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs bend. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m branch- sg . m
‘Leo bent a branch.’

Kadar Dargwa ʁaˤw-CL-ar-es / ʁaˤw-CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li q'aˤli ʁaˤw-b-ar-ib
pn - erg branch bend- n -do. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad bent the branch.’

Kalderash Romani banďarəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a banďar-ď-a ə salk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg bend- pst -3 sg art . f . dir . sg tree- acc . sg
‘Murša bent the tree.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatima-ji t’ul q’uǯal ʁ-ap’-nu
pn - erg branch( abs ) twofold pf -do- pst
‘Fatima bent the branch.’

Karata q’alaaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l rošila-ƛ hala q’ala-a
pn - erg tree. obl - gen branch bend. caus - pf
‘Ali bent the branch.’

Kaytag Dargwa q:imkaʁara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l q’aˁli q:imkağ-iv
pn - erg branch bend. pf - aor
‘Petja bent the branch.’

Kazakh mayïstïr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya butaq-tï mayïstïr-dï
pn branch- acc bend- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya bent the branch.’

Kazym Khanty mɛnši

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en nŭw mɛnš-əs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg branch bend- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja bent the branch.’

Khoekhoe gama kai

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǁnâu-b-a go gama kai
pn -3 m . sg decl branch- obl rpst crooked make
‘Peter bent the branch.’

Khwarshi j/uk'aχa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
di-lo uža l-uk’a-χ-χa ala
1 sg . o - gen 2 son\ erg iv -bend- caus - pst . w branch( iv )
‘Shamil bent the branch.’

Kina Rutul q’ut’k’e hɨɁɨr

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a dal q’-u<t’>k’-e hɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg branch( nom ) pv -<4>bend( intr )- imp 4.do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul bent the branch.’

Kumyk ijeltmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir butaq-nɨ ijel-t-d-i
pn branch- acc bend.down- caus - pst -3 sg
‘Basir bent the branch.’

Latin curvo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Amor) curva-v-it flexil-e corn-um
pn ( m ). nom . sg bend- prf - ind . act .3 sg flexible- acc . sg . n horn( n )- acc . sg
‘(Cupid) bent his flexible horn.’
Note: (Ov. Met. V, 383)

Laz o-drik'-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k č'ino-Ø go-Ø-drik'-u
pn - b - erg stick- nom prv - do 3-bend- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim bent the stick.’

Mandarin Chinese nòng wān

Valency pattern: SUB_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān shùzhī nòng wān le
pn ba branch make bent pfv
‘Zhangsan bent the branch.’
Note: The status of the "bǎ"-construction is controversial.

Mano gbīnī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yílí kɔ̀ɔ̀ gbīnī
3 sg . pst tree branch bend
‘S/he bent a branch.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pat’imat-li-n q'aˤjʔi ʁaˤm b-aq'-ib
pn - obl - erg branch wrong n -do: pfv - pst
‘Patimat bent the branch.’

Mingrelian mo-Ø-γirik'-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k noʔvela-Ø mo-Ø-γirik'-(u)
pn - erg branch- nom prv - do 3-bend-( s 3 sg . pst )
‘Chelo bent the branch.’

Modern Hebrew kofef

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas kofef et ha anaf
pn bend[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def branch
‘Pinchas bent the branch.’

Mukhad Rutul saʔ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gaˤri saʔ hıʔı-ri
pn - erg branch down n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad bent the branch.’

Nanai uriəwən-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia suktu-wə uri.ə-wəŋ-ki-ni
pn branch- obl bend. intr - caus - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia bent the branch.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh mik’oonuƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patħudi-de hala m-ik’-ani
pn - erg branch n -bend- aor
‘Pathudi bent the branch.’

Northern Mansi xutəltaste

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ōjka xut-əlt-as-t-e tow
man bend_oneself- caus - pst -3 sg . o -3 sg . s branch
‘The man bent the branch.’

Northern Yukaghir hajsǝj=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn čilgǝ-lǝ hаj-sǝ-j-mǝ-lǝ
pn branch- acc be_curved- caus - pf - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien bent the branch.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bøye

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per bøy-de gren-en
pn bend- pst branch- def . m . sg
‘Per bent the branch.’

Polish zgiąć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Paweł zgią-ł gałąź
pn [ nom . sg ] bend: pfv \ m - pst [ m .3 sg ] branch[ acc . sg ]
‘Paweł bent the branch.’

Russian sognutʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sognu-l vetk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg bend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] branch( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja bent the branch.’

Serbian saviti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je savi-o gran-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg bend- part . perf . m . sg branch- acc . sg
‘Petar bent the branch.’

Shinaz Rutul q'uˁt'k' hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir q'uˁt'k' hɨʔɨ-r bɨdaʁ
pn ( erg ) bend n .do. pf - aor branch
‘Basir bent the branch.’

Shughni xām δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i wi xêx̌čak xām δod
pn =3 sg d 3. m . sg . obl branch bend give. pst
‘Ahmed bent the branch.’

Skolt Saami poonnjâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt poonnj-i ååuʹs
pn . sg . nom bend- pst .3 sg branch. sg . acc
‘Pete bent the branch.’

Slovak ohnúť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter oho-l konár
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] bend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] branch( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter bent the branch.’

Slovenian upogniti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je upogni-l vej-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg bend: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] branch- acc . sg
‘Pavel bent the branch.’

Sorani Kurdish çemandin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa liq-î dar-eke=î çemand-Ø
pn branch- izf tree- def =3 sg . pc bend. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa bent the branch.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul suˤç'uˤkaˤ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gariy suˤç'uˤkaˤ hıʔı-r
pn - erg branch bend n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad bent the branch.’

Spanish encorvar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha encorva-do una rama
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg bend- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . f branch[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro bent the branch.’

Standard Arabic ṯanā

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un ṯanā ġusn-a-n
pn - nom bend. pf .3 m branch- acc - indef
‘Badr bent a branch.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d ašxäl-Ø- anː-Ø-i-k'w-e
pn - erg branch- nom prv : prox - do 3- ver : s -bend- pst
‘Maizer bent a branch.’

Swedish att böja

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn böj-de gren-en
pn bend- pst branch- def . c . sg
‘Björn bent the branch.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
B<in>aluktot ni Pedro ang sanga
< pv > pfv .bend pers . gen pn subj branch
‘Pedro bent the branch.’

Telugu vaṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ komma-ni vaṁcāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom branch( n ). sg . obl - acc bend. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen bent the branch.’

Tsakhur qhuˁč’okar haʔiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee bıtar qhuˁč’okar haʔu
pn - erg branch bend. ipf n .do. pf
‘Murad bent the branch.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-alq'-aq-iz/b-ulk'-aq-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi q'aˤli b-elk'-aq-un
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) branch n -bend. pfv - caus - pret (3)
‘The boy bent the branch.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-aˤž-i / b-aˤlž-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li k'aˤli b-aˤž-un
boy- erg branch n -bend. pfv ( caus )- pret (3)
‘The boy bent the branch.’

Turkish bükmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet dal-ı bük-tü
pn branch- acc bend- pst
‘Mehmet bent the branch.’

Turoyo ṭowe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel ṭwe-le u čəqəl d-u ilono
pn bend. pfv - ls .3 m art . m branch( m ) rel - art . m tree( m )
‘Gabriyel bent the tree branch.’

Ulcha mokčo-mokčo opawan-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
tara ti mərgən mə̄n ǯai mokčo-mokčo opa-wan-da
then that hero self birch_boat bent become- caus - cvb . nsim
‘Then this hero bent his birch boat.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek egmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya filoli eg-di
pn stick bend- pst .3 sg
‘Petja bent the branch.’

West Central Oromo dʒallisa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n dam-ittʃa dʒall-i-s-e
pn - nom branch- def . abs bend- ep - caus -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa bent the branch.’

Zilo Andi tʃ’ab-oɬ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di anɡa tʃ’ab-oɬ.i
pn - erg branch[ inan 1][ nom ] bend- caus . pst ( aor )
‘Patimat bent the branch.’