BivalTyp

‘believe’

Argument frame: X (believe) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. believes M .
Predicate label Ru: верить
Argument frame Ru: X (верить) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. верит М .

Abaza [z-]qa-c̣a

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
rasúl zaréma j-lə-z-qá-j-c̣-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . f . io - ben - loc -3 sg . m . erg -believe- prs - dcl
‘Rasul believes Zarema.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) cəhe fe-ṣ̂ə

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-m pŝaŝe-m cəhe f-j-e-ṣ̂ə
guy- obl girl- obl trust ben -3 sg . erg - dyn -do
‘The guy believes the girl.’

Aghul quχ.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-q quχ.u-naa
pn pn - post believe. pf - prf
‘Aslan believes Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz inanmiş xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
terlan rasul-uğ inanmiş şe-re
pn pn - super believe be. ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan believes Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
patʼimat wiχ moħommad-li-t
pn be.trusting pn - obl - sup
‘Patimat believes Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative").

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hammən

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+avvo naša hammun=əl +al baxt-u
dem 3. m person( m ) believe. prog =3 m on woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This man believes his wife.’

Avar božize

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmad-i-da bož-ula
pn pn - obl - loc trust- ipf
‘Ali believes Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani inanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a inan-ır
pn pn - dat / lat trust- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan believes Rasul.’

Bafut bíì

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ bíì-tɨ̀ sùù
pn sm believe- ipfv pn
‘Ambe believes Suh.’

Bambara dá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù dá-len bɛ́ Fántà lá
pn lie.down- ptcp . res be pn in
‘Seku believes Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese acreditar

Valency pattern: SBJ_em
X: SBJ
Y: em
Locus: Y
Pedro acredit-a em Miguel
pn ( m ) believe-3 sg . prs in pn ( m )
‘Pedro believes Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-a' ina'm ʕöşğü-rü
pn - erg pn - loc faith a .bring. ipf - prs
‘Aslan believes Rasul.’

Catalan creure

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere creu en la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) believe.3 sg . prs . ind in def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere believes Maria.’

Chirag raχːčarej

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
madina ʡa̰li-l-i raχːčarg-l-akːu
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - super believe- dur - neg .3
‘Madina doesn’t believe Ali.’

Czech věřit

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr věří Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] believe( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr believes Michal.’

Danish tro

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Peter tro-r Marie
pn believe- prs on pn
‘Peter believes Marie.’

Dutch geloven

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet geloof-t Marie
pn (С) believe-3 sg pn (С)
‘Piet believes Marie.’

Eastern Maninka lá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù lá-nin Fónbà lá.
pn lie- ptcp . res pn at
‘Seku believes Fomba.’

English believe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter believes Mary.

Estonian uskuma

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter usu-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom believe- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter believes Maret.’

Finnish uskoa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka usko-o Matti-a
pn . nom believe- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka believes Matti.’

Forest Enets pudiri

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-xo-da pudiri
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg trust( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend believes his wife’.

French croire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul croit Marie
pn ( m ) believe. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul believes Marie.’

Georgian s-ǯer-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
p'et're-s mamia-si s-ǯer-a
pn - dat pn - gen io 3-believe- s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre believes Mamia.’

German glauben

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl glaub-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] believe- prs .3 sg pn [ dat . sg ]
‘Karl believes Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle láa

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pépèe láa-ì Hèhee lá
pn lie.stat- pred pn on2
‘Pepee believes Hehee.’

Icari Dargwa či=w=iχː-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-rij či=w=iχː-a-ca=w
pn . abs pn - suplat on = m =believe: ipf - prs - cop = m
‘Islam believes Nadir.’

Irish creid

Valency pattern: SBJ_i
X: SBJ
Y: i
Locus: Y
Creid-eann Pól i Mícheal.
believe- prs pn in pn
‘Pól believes Mícheal.’

Italian credere

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo cred-e a Maria
pn ( m ) believe-3 sg . prs to pn ( f )
‘Leo believes Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa mar-CL-uh-es / mar-CL-ur-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad ʡaˤšura-li-ke mar-0-ur-ar
pn pn - obl - super true- m -become. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad believes Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani paťal

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a paťa-l la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg believe- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Murša believes Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
fatima maˁhaˁmed.a-q q-uˁʁ-uru
pn ( abs ) pn - post post -( h . sg )believe- hab
‘Fatima believes Mahamad.’

Karata bežwaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmat’-ja w-ož-uda
pn pn - dat m -believe- ipf
‘Ali believes Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa viχcegara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja v-iχceg-urca miša-j
pn m -believe. pf - perf pn - datlat
‘Petja believes Misha.’

Kazakh sen

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa sen-edі
pn pn - dat believe- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya believes Masha.’

Kazym Khanty ewǝλti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
petˊa-j-en waśa-j-eλ-a ewǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg - dat believe. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja believes Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǂgom

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Sara-s ge Maria-s-a ra ǂgom
pn -3 f . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl ipfv believe
‘Sara believes Maria.’

Khwarshi buža

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
šamil buža-ha isu-lo ʁina-ƛ'о
pn believe- prs dem . an . o . i - gen 2 woman( ii )- super
‘Shamil believes his wife.’

Kina Rutul inamiš jiʔi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul inamiš jiʔi ramazan-ɨ
pn ( nom ) believe 1. cop pn - obl ( sup )
‘Rasul believes Ramazan.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kumyk inanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat musa-ʁa inan-a
pn pn - dat trust-3 sg
‘Patimat believes Musa.’

Latin credo

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
quis nobis cred-e-t, cui nos?
who. nom . sg we. dat believe- fut . ind - act .3 sg who. dat . sg we. nom
‘Who will believe us, who will we believe?’
Note: (Cic. In Verrem. II, 1, 127)

Laz o-mtinan-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-s d-Ø-a-mtinan-en-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat prv - io 3- ver : r -correct- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim believes Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese xiāngxìn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān xiāngxìn Lǐsì
pn believe pn
‘Zhangsan believes Lisi.’

Mano láá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pèé lɛ́ɛ̀ làà ŋ̄ là
pn 3 sg . ipfv spread: ipfv 1 sg on
‘Pe believes me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Pajzula Musa-če w-irχilʔʷ-an
pn pn - super ( lat ) m -believe: ipfv - hab
‘Pajzula believes Musa.’

Mingrelian Ø-ǯer-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
čelo-s anučia-ši Ø-ǯer-s
pn - dat pn - gen io 3-believe- s 3 sg
‘Chelo believes Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew maamin

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas maamin le Menaχem
pn believe[ ptcp . sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas believes Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul inaamiš jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ıı inaamiš jiʔi
pn pn - super believe m . cop
‘Murad believes Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai agdača-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa agda-ča-j-ni
pn pn - obl believe- res - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia believes Masha.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh bužuruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
patħudi buž-iri musa-ga
pn believe- ipf 3 pn - lat
‘Pathudi believes Musa.’

Northern Mansi ajti

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
taw ajt-i ɕān’-e-n
he believe- npst .3 sg mother- poss .3 sg - lat
‘He believes his mother.’

Northern Yukaghir ǝwiǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ mǝr ǝwiǝ-m
pn pn - acc aff believe- tr .3 sg
‘Semien believes Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å tro

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per tro-r Ola
pn believe- prs pn
‘Per believes Ola.’

Polish wierzyć

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Michał wierzy ojc-u
pn [ nom . sg ] believe: pfv . prs .3 sg father- dat . sg
‘Michał believes his father.’

Russian veritʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja ver-it Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg believe( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja believes Maša.’

Serbian verovati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petar veruje Marij-i
pn . nom . sg believe. prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Petar believes Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul ilamiš h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir ilamiš ij karam-ɨ
pn believe cop pn - super
‘Basir believes Karam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni bowar δêdow1

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Ahmat Azim-ard bowari δī-d
pn pn - lat trust give-3 sg
‘Ahmed believes Azim.’

Skolt Saami åskkad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt åskk suu
pn . sg . nom believe. prs .3 sg 3 sg . acc
‘Pete believes her.’

Slovak veriť

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter verí Mark-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] believe( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Peter believes Marek.’

Slovenian verjeti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a verjame očet-u
pn - nom . sg believe: ipfv . prs .3 sg father- dat . sg
‘Ana believes her father.’

Sorani Kurdish bawer̂ kirdin

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Hîwa bawer̂ be Selîm-î de-k-a
pn belief to pn - obl ind -do. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa believes Selim.’
Note: The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul inaamış yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad natig-aa inaamış i
pn pn - super believe ( m ) cop
‘Murad believes Natig.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish creer

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Pedro cre-e a María
pn [ sg . m ] believe- prs .3 sg ndir . obj pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro believes Maria.’

Standard Arabic ṣaddaqa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yuṣaddiqu Maryam-a
pn - nom believe. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr believes Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
maizer-s gegiː-š x-a-ǯraːw-a
pn - dat pn - gen io 3- ver : sup -believe- prs
‘Maizer believes Gegi.’

Swedish att tro

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn tro-r Maja
pn believe- prs pn
‘Björn believes Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
na-ni~niwala si Pedro kay Miguel
av . ipfv - ipfv ~believe pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro believes Miguel.’
Note: Co-exists with the causativized construction with LV and Y argument marked as PERS.SUBJ.

Telugu nammu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni nammutāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc believe. npst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen believes Mahesh.’

Tsakhur haˁye qhıхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERLAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPERLAT
Locus: Y
murad aˁliy-lqha haˁye qheхhi
pn pn - superlat believing re . m .be. ipf
‘Murad believes Ali.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa irχ k-až-iz/k-arž-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-ja irχ k-arg-ule=saj
boy friend- obl - super ( lat ) m .trust down - m .put. ipfv - prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The father believes his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-iχ ag-i / arg-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
tːatːi rurs:i-ge w-iχ ag-ur
father girl- super ( lat ) m -trust go. ipfv - pret (3)
‘The father believes his daughter.’

Turkish inanmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e inan-iyor
pn pn - dat believe- prs
‘Mehmet believes Filiz.’

Turoyo mətyaqən

Valency pattern: SBJ_m
X: SBJ
Y: m
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-mətyaqən me Yuḥanən
pn prs -believe. ipfv .3 m from pn
‘Gabriyel believes Yuḥanən.’

Twi gye di

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi gye nanabarima di
pn take(3 sg . prs ) grandfather handle
‘Kofi believes grandfather.’
Note: CV. The glosses are partially based on the dictionary information.

Ulcha agdi-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
əj xusə piktə əktə piktə-ti agd-i-ni
this male child female child- lat trust- prs -3 sg
‘This boy believes the girl.’

Uzbek išonmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga išon-a-di
pn pn - dat believe- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja believes Maša.’

West Central Oromo amana

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa aman-a
pn - nom pn . abs believe-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa believes Tolaa.’

Wolof gëm

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
gëm naa la
believe prf .s i :1 sg o i :2 sg
‘I believe you.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-l çˈalax ya
pn pn - obl - sup believing cop
‎‎‎‘Sahib believes Eldar.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.TR_ra.PSTP
X: SBJ.TR
Y: ra.PSTP
Locus: Y
oxɨr hɛsɛn-i=ra bawɛr k-ɛn-o
pn pn - m . obl =from belief do. prs - aug -3 sg . m
‘Oxir believes Hesen.’

Zilo Andi buʒ.u

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali buʒ.u-r marjam-ʔo
pn [ m ][ nom ] believe. pst - prog pn - super . lat
‘Ali believes Mariam.’