BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘be surprised’

Argument frame: X (be surprised) at Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. made P. an expensive gift.) P. was surprised at this gift .
Predicate label Ru: удивляться
Argument frame Ru: X (удивляться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. сделала П. дорогой подарок). П. удивился этому подарку .

Abaza ǯ’a-š’a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád awə́j a-sawʕá ǯ’a-j-š’á-ṭ
pn dist def -gift loc -3 sg . erg -wonder( aor )- dcl
‘Murad was surprised with this gift.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʁe.ṣ̂eʁʷe

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m ṣ̂ʷəhaftənə-r ə-ʁe-ṣ̂eʁʷa-ʁ
guy- obl gift- abs 3 sg . erg - caus -miracle- pst
‘The guy was surprised at this gift.’

Aghul ʡalamat x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan ʡalamat x.u-ne [uč.i-s aq’.u peškeš.i-l]
pn amazing become. pf - aor self- dat do. pf ( ptcp ) gift- super
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift that he received.’

Alik Kryz taʕcib aric

Valency pattern: ERG_EQU
X: ERG
Y: EQU
Locus: Y
terlan-ir lu hadya-ci-ğan taʕcib ar-ic
pn - erg this gift- obl - equ wonder do. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan was surprised at this gift.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
paša χːi i<w>tːi ja-b sːijʁat-li-tː-iš
pn be.surprised <1>become. pfv this-3 present- obl - sup - el
‘Pasha was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative" + 'become').

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +aǧǧəb

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
ana +uǧǧəb-li b d-a pəštəš
i be_surprised. pst - ls .1 sg with obl - dem 1. sg gift( f )
‘I was surprised at this gift.’
Note: pəštaš is a dialect realization of pašcaš or pəšcaš.

Avar ʕažaibɬi habize

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca sajʁat-aɬe ʕažaibɬi ha-b-una
pn - erg gift- nm . obl . dat wonder do- n - aor
‘Ali was surprised at this gift.’

Azerbaijani tǝǝccüblǝnmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan bu hǝdiyyǝ-yǝ tǝǝccüblǝn-di
pn this gift- dat / lat be_surprised- pst (3)
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ fúnᵼ̀ àndásᵼ̀ júà
pn sm p 2 surprise at gift this
‘Ambe was surprised at this gift.’

Bambara kábakoya

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù kábakoya-ra sàma` lá
pn surprise- pfv . intr gift\ art in
‘Seku was surprised by this gift.’

Brazilian Portuguese ficar surpreso

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro fic-ou surpres-o com ess-e presente
pn ( m ) get-3 sg . pst surprised- m with dem . med - m gift( m )
‘Pedro got surprised at this gift.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan ulu bexşeyiş-cekir teʕeccüblenmi saxha-ci
pn prox gift- obl . part surprised ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan quedar sorprès

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
en Pere va qued-ar sorprès pel regal
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf surprised. m for. def . sg . m gift( m )
‘Pere was surprised at this gift.’

Chirag tamaša b-uχi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le cin-n-i b-ičː-ib-an-n-i tamaša uχ-ub-le
pn ( abs ) self. sg - obl - super n . sg -give: pf - aor - part - obl - super surprised ( m . sg )become: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali is surprised at what they gave him.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech překvapit

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a ten dárek překvapi-l
pn ( m )- acc . sg this. m . nom . sg gift( m )[ nom . sg ] surprise( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr was surprised at this gift.’

Danish blive overrasket

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Peter blev overraske-t over denne gave
pn become. pst surprise- ptcp . pst . sg over dem . sg gift( c )
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Dutch verbaasd zijn

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet is verbaas-d met het cadeau
pn ( c ) cop .3 sg be.surprised- ptcp with art . def . n gift( n )
‘Piet was surprised at the gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Eastern Maninka bàra

Valency pattern: do(POST)_SBJ
X: do(POST)
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
lá físiri bára bàra dɔ́.
2 sg poss gift\ art prf surprise 1 sg in
‘I'm surprised with your gift.’

English be surprised

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter was surprised at this gift.
Note: Passive.

Estonian üllatunud olema

Valency pattern: NOM_GENule
X: NOM
Y: GENule
Locus: Y
Peeter ol-i selle kingituse üle üllatu-nud
pn . sg . nom be- pst .3 sg dem . sg . gen gift. sg . gen over be_surprised- act . pst . ptcp
‘Peeter was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Finnish yllättyä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka yllätty-i tä-stä lahja-sta
pn . nom be.surprised- pst .3 sg this- ela gift- ela
‘Pekka was surprised at this gift.’

Forest Enets dʲɔke

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ mɛzesi-xozo-da dʲɔkee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg gift- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_surprised( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend was surprised at the gift’.

French être surpris

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul a été surpris par ce cadeau
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg be. pst . ptcp . m surprise. pst . ptcp . m by this. sg . m gift( m )
‘Paul was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Passive construction.

Georgian ga-Ø-u-k'vir-d-eb-a

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s mašo-s-gan aset-i sačukar-i ga-Ø-k'vir-d-a
pn - dat pn - gen - pstp : abl adj . dem . prox - nom gift- nom prv :outward- io 3- ver : o -be_surprised- intr - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre was surprised by such a gift from Masho.’

German überrascht werden

Valency pattern: NOM_vonDAT
X: NOM
Y: vonDAT
Locus: Y
Karl wurde von dem Geschenk überrascht
pn [ nom . sg ] become. pst .3 sg of def . n . dat . sg gift[ dat . sg ] surprise. ptcp 2
‘Karl was surprised with a gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Guinean Kpelle kwèi pǐli mà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul kwèi àá pìlí mà dàa ɲɛ́í màa mɛ́nî ɓà
pn stomach. loc 3 sg . prf throw 3 sg .on1 def \town dem surface issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is surprised by this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa tamaša=w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam hel žaˤqːrum-lij tamaša=w=ih-ub
pn . abs this gift- suplat surprise= m = lv : pf - aor
‘Islam was surprised at this gift.’

Irish bí iontas

Valency pattern: ar_mar.gheall.air
X: ar
Y: mar.gheall.air
Locus: XY
Bhí iontas air Phól mar_gheall_air an mbronntanas.
be. pst surprise on pn with.respect.to def gift
‘Pól was surprised at the gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian rimanere sorpreso

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
Leo è rimast-o sorpres-o dal regal-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs stay. pst . ptcp - sg . m surprise. pst . ptcp - sg . m by. def . sg . m gift- sg . m
‘Leo got surprised at the gift.’

Kadar Dargwa ħaˤjran-CL-uh-es / ħaˤjran-CL-ur-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad ħaˤjran-0-uh-ub podarok-i-ke
pn surprise- m -become. pfv - pret this gift( rus )- obl - super
‘Muhammad was surprised at this gift.’

Kalderash Romani udivilpe

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
o Murš-a udivi-sajl-o kata padark-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg be_surprised- pst . refl -3 sg . m from gift- nom . sg
‘Murša was surprised at this gift.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
fatima podarok.ǯi-in rusvah ʁa-x-nu
pn ( abs ) gift- super surprise pf -( h . sg )become- pst
‘Fatima was surprised at the gift.’

Karata tamašaɬaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali tamašaɬ-e sajʁat-ja
pn wonder- pf gift- dat
‘Ali was surprised at this gift.’

Kaytag Dargwa tamašawihara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja tamaša v-ih-aˁv hel paˁdaˁrk:a-j
pn wonder m -be. pf - aor dem gift- datlat
‘Petja was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh taŋɣal

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya osï sïylïq-qa taŋɣal-dï
pn this gift- dat be_surprised- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya was surprised at this gift.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe buru

Valency pattern: SBJ_xa
X: SBJ
Y: xa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge nē ǀkhaexū-i xa ge buru
pn -3 m . sg decl this gift-3 c . sg by pst be_surprised
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’

Khwarshi ažajbła

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.TRANS
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.TRANS
Locus: Y
fatima аžajb-łа-ja padarka-ƛ'o-jža
pn surprised- vblz - pst . w gift- super - trans
‘Fatima was surprised at this gift.’

Kina Rutul taˤʔǯib jišira

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul taˤʔǯib jiši-r=a ha-d amanat-a-s hɨwɨ-d saʔat-a
pn ( nom ) amazed 1.become. pfv - cvb =be this- attr gift- obl - dat 4.give. pfv - attr watch- obl ( sup )
‘Rasul was surprised at the watch that was given to him as a present.’

Kumyk tamaša bolmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
musa bu sawʁat-ʁa tamaša bol-d-u
pn this present- dat strange be- pst -3 sg
‘Musa was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Latin miror

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(host-is) dum mira-tur subit-um advent-um
enemy( m )- nom . sg as_long_as be_surprised[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg sudden- acc . sg . m advance( m )- acc . sg
‘... while (the enemy) was surprised by the sudden advance.’
Note: (Liv. XXXIX, 30, 10)

Laz o-šaš-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i xedie-s go-Ø-i-šaš-u
pm - nom gift- dat prv - do 3- ver : s -surprise- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim was surprised at the gift.’

Mandarin Chinese jīngyà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Zhāngsān shōudào zhè-ge lǐwù hěn jīngyà
pn receive this- clf gift very surprised
‘Zhangsan received this gift and was very surprised.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because Y is embedded in a complement clause.

Mano gé dùò

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ gé dùò sɛ́lɛ́ ɓɛ̄ ká
1 sg stomach 3 sg . pst throw town dem with
‘I am astonished by this town .’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam tamaša uh-ub sajʁat-iče
pn strange m .become: pfv - aor present- super ( lat )
‘Islam was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian Ø-e-Ɂ-on-eb-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_INS
X: DAT
Y: ERG
Locus: X
čelo-s te nač'q'olopu-t(i) Ø-e-Ɂ-on-(u)
pn - dat dem . prox gift- ins io 3- ver : r -follow- r . ext - s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo got surprised at this gift.’

Modern Hebrew hufta

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas hufta me ha matana ha z-o
pn be.surprised[ pst .3 sg . m ] from def gift def this- sg . f
‘Pinchas was surprised at this gift.’

Mukhad Rutul maˤʔaˤt'al jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad mi amanat-aa maˤʔaˤt'al jiši-ri
pn prox trust- super surprised m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai ərdəŋgə baa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia əj daŋsa-wa ərdəŋgə baa-xa-ni
pn this book- obl wonderful find- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia was surprised at this book.’

Nivkh fəskəd

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik hu + pоdarоk-rоχ fəskə-d
pn close . dem + gift- dat / add be.surprised- ind
‘Kaskazik was surprised at this gift.’

Northern Akhvakh tamašaɬiluruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pataħi tamašaɬil-ari sejeʁate-ɬɬi-ge
pn marvelous- vblz - aor gift- obl - loc
‘Patahi was surprised at this gift.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir mа̄lijuori=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn tu-ŋ nǝlǝčǝ-lǝ mа̄li-j-uo-ri-m
pn prxm - at gift- acc aff get_surprised- pf - res - appl - tr .3 sg
‘Semien was surprised at this gift.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bli overrasket

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Per ble overraske-t over gav-en
pn become. pst surprise- ptcp over gift- def . m . sg
‘Per was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Polish zdziwić się

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Michał zdziwi-ł się tym prezent-em
pn [ nom . sg ] surprise: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] refl this. m . ins . sg gift- ins . sg
‘Michał was surprised at this gift.’

Russian udivitʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja udivi-l-sja èt-omu podark-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg surprise( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl this- m . dat . sg gift( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja was surprised at this gift.’

Serbian iznenaditi se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petar se iznenadi-o t-om poklon-u
pn . nom . sg refl surprise- part . perf . m . sg this- dat . sg . m gift- dat . sg
‘Petar was surprised at this gift.’

Shinaz Rutul mahaˁt'al h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir mahaˁt'al ɨj ha-d peškeš-a
pn surprised cop med - attr gift- super
‘Basir was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni ayrůn rêdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim wi padarka=qati ayrůn red
pn d 3. m . sg . obl gift= ins surprised remain. pst
‘Azim was surprised at the gift.’

Skolt Saami õõmtõõššâd

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt õõmtõõžž-i sǩiâŋk diõtt
pn . sg . nom be.surprized- pst .3 sg gift. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete was surprised at the gift.’

Slovak prekvapený + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter bo-l z darček-a prekvapen-ý
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] be( ipfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from gift( m )- gen . sg surprised- m . nom . sg
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Slovenian začuditi

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a je začudi-l-o daril-o
pn - acc . sg aux .3 sg surprise: pfv - lpt - n . sg gift- nom . sg
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’

Sorani Kurdish ser sur̂man

Valency pattern: EXT_le
X: EXT
Y: le
Locus: XY
Hîwa le-ew diyarî-e ser=î sur̂ma bû-Ø
pn from-this gift- dem head=3 sg . pc spinning be- pst .3 sg
‘Hiwa was surprised at this gift.’

Southern Rutul mat yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad mi-di pay-aa mat yişi-r
pn prox - attr present- super surprised m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish sorprender

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Pedro lo/le ha sorprendi-do el regalo
dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . m ] he. dir . obj . anm aux .3 sg surprise- ptcp : prf art . def . sg . m gift[ sg . m ]
‘This gift surprised Pedro.’
Note:

Standard Arabic taʕaǧǧaba

Valency pattern: NOM_minGEN
X: NOM
Y: minGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un taʕaǧǧaba min hāḏihi l-hadiyyat-i
pn - nom be_surprised. pf .3 m from this. f def -gift( f )- gen
‘Badr was surprised at this gift.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s lile-š-xän-ka sačukar-Ø at-[x]-sak'wrel-ǝn
pn - dat pn - abl - el gift- nom prv : dist -[ io 3]-be_surprised- pst
‘Maizer was surprised at the gift from Lile.’

Swedish att bli överraskad

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
Björn blev överraska-d av present-en
pn become. pst surprise- ptcp . c . sg of gift- def . c . sg
‘Björn was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_CAUSE
X: ACT
Y: CAUSE
Locus: Y
Na-gulat si Pedro sa regalo sa kaniya
av . pfv -get_surprised pers . subj pn dat gift dat 3. sg . dat
‘Pedro was surprised at this gift.’
Note: The Y-argument i) can be introduced by an explicit causal marker and ii) can be promotoed to subject in the causal voice construction.

Telugu āšcaryapōvu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pravīṇ ā bahumati-ni cūsi āšcaryapōyāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom dem . dist gift( n ). sg . obl - acc see. cvb . ant get_surprised. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Tsakhur matхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad i-ni pay-ıle mat-хha-na
pn prox - attr . obl share- superel surprised- aux . pf - h
‘Murad was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsudakhar Dargwa tamaša b-iχ-iz/b-irχ-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
il podarok-li-z uršːi tamaša iχ-ub
this gift- obl - dat boy amazing ( m )be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsugni Dargwa tamaša b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ xunnela-ge-w tamaša w-iχ-ub
boy gift- super - m . ess amazing m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish şaşmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet bu hediye-ye şaş-tı
pn this gift- dat be_surprised- pst
‘Mehmet was surprised at this gift.’

Turoyo midawmər

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_m
X: SBJ.SS
Y: m
Locus: Y
Maryam mdawmr-o m-u dəšno
pn be_surprised. pfv - ss .3 f from- art . f present( m )
‘Maryam was surprised by the gift.’

Ulcha pəskə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama min daru-wa-j kət pəskə-xə-n
father my gift- acc -1 sg very wonder- pst -3 sg
‘Father was surprised at my gift.’

Uzbek hayron bo’lmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya bu sovɣa-ga hayron bo’l-di
pn this present- dat surprised be- pst .3 sg
‘Petja was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

West Central Oromo adʒaaʔibsiisata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n kennaa kana adʒaaʔib-siif-at-e
pn - nom gift. abs this. abs surprise- caus - mid -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa was surprised at this gift.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib in ppadarkka-da-l mehttel xha-na
pn this gift- obl - sup surprised become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib was surprised at this gift.’

Zilo Andi tamaʃa-ɬ.i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati tamaʃa-ɬ.i he-de-b padarkal-ʔa
pn [ f ][ nom ] amazement- inch . pst ( aor ) dem - sl - inan 1 gift. obl - super
‘Patimat was surprised by this gift.’