BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘be surprised’

Argument frame: X (be surprised) at Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. made P. an expensive gift.) P. was surprised at this gift .
Predicate label Ru: удивляться
Argument frame Ru: X (удивляться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. сделала П. дорогой подарок). П. удивился этому подарку .

Abaza ǯ’a-š’a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád awə́j a-sawʕá ǯ’a-j-š’á-ṭ
pn dist def -gift loc -3 sg . erg -wonder( aor )- dcl
‘Murad was surprised with this gift.’

Aghul ʡalamat x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan ʡalamat x.u-ne [uč.i-s aq’.u peškeš.i-l]
pn amazing become. pf - aor self- dat do. pf ( ptcp ) gift- super
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift that he received.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +aǧǧəb

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
ana +uǧǧəb-li b d-a pəštəš
i be_surprised. pst - ls .1 sg with obl - dem 1. sg gift( f )
‘I was surprised at this gift.’
Note: pəštaš is a dialect realization of pašcaš or pəšcaš.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro ficou surpreso com esse presente
‘Педру удивился этому подарку.’

Czech překvapit

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a ten dárek překvapi-l
pn ( m )- acc . sg this. m . nom . sg gift( m )[ nom . sg ] surprise( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr was surprised at this gift.’

Finnish yllättyä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka yllätty-i tä-stä lahja-sta
pn . nom be.surprised- pst .3 sg this- ela gift- ela
‘Pekka was surprised at this gift.’

Forest Enets dʲɔke

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ mɛzesi-xozo-da dʲɔkee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg gift- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_surprised( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend was surprised at the gift’.

Latin miror

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(host-is) dum mira-tur subit-um advent-um
enemy( m )- nom . sg as_long_as be_surprised[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg sudden- acc . sg . m advance( m )- acc . sg
‘... while (the enemy) was surprised by the sudden advance.’
Note: (Liv. XXXIX, 30, 10)

Modern Hebrew hufta

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas hufta me ha matana ha z-o
pn be.surprised[ pst .3 sg . m ] from def gift def this- sg . f
‘Pinchas was surprised at this gift.’

Nanai ərdəŋgə baa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia əj daŋsa-wa ərdəŋgə baa-xa-ni
pn this book- obl wonderful find- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia was surprised at this book.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bli overrasket

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Per ble overraske-t over gav-en
pn become. pst surprise- ptcp over gift- def . m . sg
‘Per was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Polish zdziwić się

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Michał zdziwi-ł się tym prezent-em
pn [ nom . sg ] surprise: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] refl this. m . ins . sg gift- ins . sg
‘Michał was surprised at this gift.’

Russian udivitʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja udivi-l-sja èt-omu podark-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg surprise( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl this- m . dat . sg gift( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja was surprised at this gift.’

Rutul taˤʔǯib jišira

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul taˤʔǯib jiši-r=a ha-d amanat-a-s hɨwɨ-d saʔat-a
pn ( nom ) amazed 1.become. pfv - cvb =be this- attr gift- obl - dat 4.give. pfv - attr watch- obl ( sup )
‘Rasul was surprised at the watch that was given to him as a present.’

Skolt Saami õõmtõõššâd

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt õõmtõõžž-i sǩiâŋk diõtt
pn . sg . nom be.surprized- pst .3 sg gift. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete was surprised at the gift.’

Slovenian začuditi

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a je začudi-l-o daril-o
pn - acc . sg aux .3 sg surprise: pfv - lpt - n . sg gift- nom . sg
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’

Swedish att bli överraskad

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
Björn blev överraska-d av present-en
pn become. pst surprise- ptcp . c . sg of gift- def . c . sg
‘Björn was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Turkish şaşmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet bu hediye-ye şaş-tı
pn this gift- dat be_surprised- pst
‘Mehmet was surprised at this gift.’

Ulcha pəskə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama min daru-wa-j kət pəskə-xə-n
father my gift- acc -1 sg very wonder- pst -3 sg
‘Father was surprised at my gift.’

Zilo Andi tamaʃa-ɬ.i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati tamaʃa-ɬ.i he-de-b padarkal-ʔa
pn [ f ][ nom ] amazement- inch . pst ( aor ) dem - sl - inan 1 gift. obl - super
‘Patimat was surprised by this gift.’