BivalTyp

Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘be surprised’

Argument frame: X (be surprised) at Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. made P. an expensive gift.) P. was surprised at this gift .
Predicate label Ru: удивляться
Argument frame Ru: X (удивляться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. сделала П. дорогой подарок). П. удивился этому подарку .

Abaza

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád awə́j a-sawʕá ǯ’a-j-š’á-ṭ
pn dist def -gift loc -3 sg . erg -wonder( aor )- dcl
‘Murad was surprised with this gift.’

Aghul

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan ʡalamat x.u-ne [uč.i-s aq’.u peškeš.i-l]
pn amazing become. pf - aor self- dat do. pf ( ptcp ) gift- super
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift that he received.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
ana +uǧǧəb-li b d-a pəštəš
i be_surprised. pst - ls .1 sg with obl - dem 1. sg gift( f )
‘I was surprised at this gift.’
Note: pəštaš is a dialect realization of pašcaš or pəšcaš.

Forest Enets

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ mɛzesi-xozo-da dʲɔkee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg gift- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_surprised( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend was surprised at the gift’.

Modern Hebrew

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas hufta me ha matana ha z-o
pn be.surprised[ pst .3 sg . m ] from def gift def this- sg . f
‘Pinchas was surprised at this gift.’

Norwegian Bokmål

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Per ble overraske-t over gav-en
pn become. pst surprise- ptcp over gift- def . m . sg
‘Per was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Russian

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja udivi-l-sja èt-omu podark-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg surprise( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl this- m . dat . sg gift( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja was surprised at this gift.’

Rutul

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul taˤʔǯib jiši-r=a ha-d amanat-a-s hɨwɨ-d saʔat-a
pn ( nom ) amazed 1.become. pfv - cvb =be this- attr gift- obl - dat 4.give. pfv - attr watch- obl ( sup )
‘Rasul was surprised at the watch that was given to him as a present.’

Skolt Saami

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt õõmtõõžž-i sǩiâŋk diõtt
pn . sg . nom be.surprized- pst .3 sg gift. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete was surprised at the gift.’

Slovenian

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a je začudi-l-o daril-o
pn - acc . sg aux .3 sg surprise: pfv - lpt - n . sg gift- nom . sg
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’

Turkish

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet bu hediye-ye şaş-tı
pn this gift- dat be_surprised- pst
‘Mehmet was surprised at this gift.’

Zilo Andi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati tamaʃa-ɬ.i he-de-b padarkal-ʔa
pn [ f ][ nom ] amazement- inch . pst ( aor ) dem - sl - inan 1 gift. obl - super
‘Patimat was surprised by this gift.’