BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘be short’

Argument frame: X (be short) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. wants to buy a ticket. He counts his money and finds out that) P. is short / lacks one euro .
Predicate label Ru: недоставать
Argument frame Ru: X -у (недоставать) Y -a
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. хочет купить билет. Он посчитал деньги и выяснилось, что) П. недостает одного доллара .

Abaza gχa

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
murád ẑa–som-ḳ jə-gχ-ə́j-d
pn ten–rouble- unit 3 sg . m . io -lack- prs - dcl
‘Murad is short ten roubles.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) f-jə-qʷə + NEG

Valency pattern: BEN_ABS
X: BEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
č̣ʼale-m som-jə-pṣ̂ fə-r-jə-qʷə-r-ep
guy- obl rouble- lnk -ten( abs ) ben - lnk - loc : cont -be_enough- dyn - neg
‘The guy is ten roubles short.’

Aghul hurk’.u + NEG

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s sa manat hurk’.u-ndawa
pn - dat one ruble suffice. pf - aor : neg
‘Aslan is short one ruble.’

Alik Kryz aksug xhiyic

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
za şidri sa-d dullar aksug-e
1. gen sister. gen one- n dollar missing- cop . n
‘My sister is one dollar short.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The structure is tentatively classified as involving a clause-level genitive (by analogy with other languages). To be checked.

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s os dollar b-aχˁ be-ke-r-ši b-i-tʼu
pn - dat one dollar 3-be.sufficient 3-become- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 3-be- neg
‘Pasha is one dollar short.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic NEG + xazə

Valency pattern: ka_SBJ
X: ka
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
ka +Ašur la xzi-lun zuyzə (zavən bilet)
to pn neg see. pst - ls .3 pl money( pl ) buy. prs ticket(?)
‘Ashur lacks the money to buy a ticket.’

Avar ʕeze + NEG

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-e co dollar ʕol-e-b heč’o
pn - dat one dollar reach. ipf - ptcp - n neg . cop
‘Ali is one dollar short.’

Azerbaijani çatmaq + NEG

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-ın bir dollar-ı çat-mır
pn - gen one dollar- poss 3 reach- neg . ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is one dollar short.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Bambara jɛ̀

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
dɔ́rɔmɛ mùgan ka wári` jɛ̀
5.francs twenty ipfv 1 sg poss money\ art lack
‘I am short 100 francs.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Brazilian Portuguese faltar

Valency pattern: para_SBJ
X: para
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
falt-a um dólar para Pedro
lack-3 sg . prs indf dollar( m ) towards pn ( m )
‘Pedro is one dollar short.’

Catalan faltar

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li falt-en deu euro-s
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) 3 sg . dat lack-3 pl . prs . ind ten euro( m )- pl
‘Pere is short ten euros.’

Chirag hatːaqi

Valency pattern: GEN_ABS
X: GEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-la daršː qːuruš hatːiq-l-akːu
pn - gen hundred ruble( abs ) reach: ipf - dur - prs . neg .3
‘Ali is short of one hundred rubles.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Czech chybit

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi chybí dolar
pn ( m )- dat . sg lack( ipfv ). prs .3 sg dollar( m )[ nom . sg ]
‘Petr is one dollar short.’

Danish mangle

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter mangle-r en euro
pn lack- prs one euro( c )
‘Peter lacks one euro.’

Dutch tekortkomen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet kom-t één dollar tekort
pn ( c ) come-3 sg one dollar( c ) shortage( n )
‘Piet is one dollar short.’

Eastern Maninka dɛ́sɛ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù lá wóri dɛ́sɛ-nin wàa kélen ná.
pn poss money fail- ptcp . res thousand one at
‘Seku is short 1000 francs.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

English lack

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter lacks one euro.

Estonian puudu jääma

Valency pattern: ADESS_NOM
X: ADESS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peetri-l jää-b üks euro puudu
pn - adess stay- prs .3 sg one. sg . nom euro. sg . nom missing
‘Peeter is short one euro.’
Note: Phrasal verb (puudu is not a flagging device).

Finnish puuttua

Valency pattern: ABL_NOM
X: ABL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lta puuttu-u yksi euro
pn - abl lack- prs .3 sg one. nom euro. nom
‘Pekka is short one euro.’

Forest Enets tɔɔri + NEG

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ ŋo-lʲu bɛse-za nʲi tɔɔri-ʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg one- restr iron- nom . sg .3 sg neg .3 sg . s be_enough( ipfv )- conn
‘My friend lacks one rouble’.

French manquer

Valency pattern: a_SBJ
X: a
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
un dollar manque à Paul pour acheter un billet
indf . sg . m dollar( m ) be_missing. prs .3 sg to pn ( m ) for buy. inf indf . sg . m ticket( m )
‘Paul needs one dollar to buy a ticket.’

Georgian Ø-a-k'l-i-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s ert-i dolar-i Ø-a-k'l-i-a
pn - dat one- nom dollar- nom io 3- ver : sup -lack- stat - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre is one dollar short.’

German fehlen

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Karl fehl-t ein Euro
pn [ dat . sg ] lack- prs .3 sg one[ m . nom . sg ] euro[ nom . sg ]
‘Karl is one euro short.’

Icari Dargwa či-hatː-iq-araj

Valency pattern: GEN_ABS
X: GEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-la ca manat či-hatː-iq-atːi akːu
pn - gen one. abs manat. abs on - up -suffice: ipf - conv be. neg
‘Islam is one manat short.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish bí gearra

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE
X: SBJ
Y: BARE
Locus: Y
Pól euro gearra.
be. prs pn euro short
‘Pól is one euro short.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. Unusual structure (calqued from English).

Italian mancare

Valency pattern: a_SBJ
X: a
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo manc-a un dollar-o
to pn ( m ) lack-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m dollar- sg . m
‘Leo is one dollar short.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-i-s ca dollar ħa-b-iʁ-ur
pn - obl - dat one dollar neg - n -reach. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad is one euro dollar.’

Kalderash Romani ći arəsəl

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
les-te ći arəs-ľ-a les jekh řubl-a
he- loc neg suffice- pst -3 sg he. cl one. nom rouble- nom . sg
‘He was one rouble short.’
Note: The verb has always the 3SG form.

Karata

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja ceb dollar kanɬ-ebχwa idja
pn . dat one. n dollar miss- pf . n . cv cop
‘Ali is one dollar short.’

Kaytag Dargwa чиагьахъара

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-j č:iʔahiq-uldi ca dоllar
pn - datlat neg .be_enough. ipf - imperf one dollar
‘Petja is one dollar short.’

Kazakh žet-pe

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petya-ɣa bіr dollar žet-pe-y tur
pn - dat one dollar have_enough- neg - cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya is one dollar short.’

Kazym Khanty tărǝmti + NEG

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pet’a-j-en-a jaŋ šɔjt ǎn tǎrm-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg - dat ten rouble neg suffice- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is 10 roubles short.’
Note: This is an active construction, more natural here (cf. 5 for the passive).

Khoekhoe ǃnuwu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǀgui euro-b-a ra ǃnuwu
pn -3 m . sg decl one euro-3 m . sg - obl prog be_short_of
‘Peter is one euro short.’

Khwarshi j/uwa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
di-l j-uw-aj q'uni ʁuruš
1 sg . o - dat v -be.enough- neg . pst . w two rouble( v )
‘I am two roubles short.’

Kina Rutul ʁewirq’ardiš

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ʁe-w-irq’a-r-diš sa manut
pn - obl - dat pv -3-be.enough. ipfv - cvb - neg one rouble( nom )
‘Rasul is short one rouble.’

Kumyk jetišmek

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ni bir dollar aqča-sɨ et-iš-me-j
pn - gen one dollar money-3 sg arrive- rec - neg -3 sg
‘Basir is one dollar short.’

Latin desum

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
si quibus argent-um deesse-t
if who. dat . pl silver( n )- nom . sg lack[ ipfv . sbjv ]- act .3 sg
‘... whenever money is not available to someone.’
Note: (Liv. XXII, 60, 4)

Laz o-k'or-om-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s a(r) li(r)a-Ø da-Ø-u-k'o(r)-om-s
pn - b - dat one l ira- nom prv - io 3- ver : o -wish- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is short of one Lira.’

Mandarin Chinese chà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān hái chà yí-kuài qián
pn still lack one- clf money
‘Zhangsan still lacks one yuan.’

Mano lépāà + COP.NEG

Valency pattern: kele_ka
X: kele
Y: ka
Locus: XY
lépāà wáá ká wáá vṵ̀ dōó ká pèé kɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg completeness cop . neg >3 sg with thousand ten one with pn hand
‘Pe lacks ten thousand (Guinean Francs).’ Lit.: ‘Its completeness isn’t with it with ten thousand in Pe’s hand.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The Y argument is obligatorily expressed as the possessor of the relative noun "lépāà" and also optionally signalled by the postposition "ká".

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is ħa-b-elʔ-an darša-l ʁuruš
pn - dat neg - n -suffice: ipfv - hab hundred- emph rouble
‘Islam is one hundred roubles short.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-rk'-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s art lar-i Ø-o-rk'-u(n)-Ø
pn - dat one l ari- nom io 3- ver : sup -be_short- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo is one Lari short.’

Modern Hebrew χaser

Valency pattern: le_SBJ
X: le
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
χaser le Pinχas juro eχad
is.lacking to pn euro one
‘Pinchas is one euro short.’

Mukhad Rutul ʁidžijq'ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s sa manut ʁijq'ı-r diš
pn - obl - dat one manat n .be_enough. pf - seq neg . cop
‘Murad is one rouble short.’

Nanai aoli-

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: DAT
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: XY
Petia-du əm tiəsə aoli-ni
pn - dat one rouble lack. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is one rouble short.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛa če dollare kamilaj-e godi
pn - dat one dollar be_lacking- pf n . cop
‘Patahi is one dollar short.’

Northern Mansi at towlawe

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
pajel at towl-awe moɕɕa-kw-nuw ōln-əl
pn neg suffice- pass . npst .3 sg a_little- adv - comp money- ins
‘Pasha is short of a little more money.’
Note: This is a passive construction (cf. 5 for the active).

Northern Yukaghir NEG pǝliǝ=

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sǝmiǝn-ŋinˈ mа̄rhа-n solkuobаj ǝl pǝliǝ
pn - dat one- gen rouble neg suffice. neg .3
‘Semien is one rouble short.’

Norwegian Bokmål å mangle

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per mangle-r en dollar
pn lack- prs one. m dollar
‘Per is one dollar short.’

Polish brakować

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Ann-ie brakuje dolar-a
pn - dat . sg lack: ipfv . prs .3 sg dollar- gen . sg
‘Anna is one euro short.’

Russian nedostavatʹ

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Pet-e nedosta-et odn-ogo dollar-a
pn ( m )- dat . sg lack( ipfv )- prs .3 sg one- m . gen . sg dollar( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja is one dollar short.’

Serbian faliti

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u fali jedan dolar
pn - dat . sg lack. prs .3 sg one. nom . sg dollar. nom . sg
‘Petar is one dollar short.’

Shinaz Rutul kam h-iši-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs kam-ɨvɨ sa dollar
pn - dat few- cop . a one dollar
‘Basir is one dollar short.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni na-firīptow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Šamil-ard aray somoni=ga na-firop-t
pn - lat 3 somoni=more neg -reach-3 sg
‘Shamil is three somoni short.’

Skolt Saami *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Slovak chýbať

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi chýba jedn-o eur-o
pn ( m )- dat . sg lack( ipfv ). prs .3 sg one- n . nom . sg euro( n )- nom . sg
‘Peter is one euro short.’

Slovenian manjkati

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-i manjka en dolar
pn - dat . sg lack: ipfv . prs .3 sg one. nom . sg . m dollar[ nom . sg ]
‘Ana is short one dollar.’

Sorani Kurdish kemi bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_SBJ
X: EXT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Hîwa êsta yoroyek=î kem-e
pn now euro=3 sg . pc less-be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa is now one euro short.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul kam yişin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ye-s sa manıt kam viʔi
1. obl - dat one manat( a ) lacking a . cop
‘I am one manat short.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish faltar

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Pedro le falt-a dólar
ndir . obj pn [ sg . m ] he. ndir . obj lack- prs .3 sg dollar[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro is one dollar short.’

Standard Arabic kafā + NEG

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
yakfī badr-a-n dūlār-u-n wāḥid-u-n
not be_enough. ipf .3 m pn - acc - indef dollar( m )- nom - indef one( m )- nom - indef
‘Badr is one dollar short.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s ešxu lar-Ø x-a-k'l-i
pn - dat one l ari- nom io 3- ver : sup -be_short- prs
‘Maizer is short of one Lari.’

Swedish att ha för lite

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn ha-r en euro för lite
pn have- prs one. c euro too little
‘Björn is one euro short.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: UND_ACT
X: UND
Y: ACT
Locus: X
K<in>ulang ng piso si Pedro
< pv > pfv .fall_short gen one_peso pers . subj pn
‘Pedro is one peso short.’
Note: The valency label is partially arbitrary, since this verb does not fit the usual scheme: the encoding of arguments is not affected by the contrast between voice markers on the verb.

Telugu takkuva agu

Valency pattern: OBLdaggara_NOM
X: OBLdaggara
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pravīṇ daggara oka yūro takkuv' ayiṁdi
pn ( m ). sg . obl near one euro( n ). sg . nom lack( n ). sg . nom become. pst .3 sg . nm
‘Praveen lacks one euro.’

Tsakhur q:idyabıy

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s sa manat q:idyabı
pn - obl - dat one manat( a ) neg . a .reach. pf
‘Murad is one manat short.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z ca qːuruš ʡaˤ-b-eʁ-ule=sab
boy- dat one ruble neg - n -be_enough. pfv - prog . cnv = cop . n (3)
‘The boy is ten roubles short.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-eʁ-i / b-irʁ-I + NEG

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j wec'al qːuruš ʡaˤ-b-eʁ-a-j
boy- dat ten ruble neg - n -be_enough. pfv - pret . neg -3
‘The boy is ten roubles short.’

Turkish yetmemek

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-in bilet al-mak için bir lira-sı yet-mi-yor
pn - gen ticket take- inf for one lira- p .3 be_enough- neg - prs
‘Mehmet is short of one lira to buy a ticket.’

Turoyo noqəṣ

Valency pattern: OBJAGR_BARE
X: OBJAGR
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
Gabriyel ko-noqaṣ-le waraqto
pn prs -be_few. ipfv .3 m - ls .3 m banknote( f )
‘Gabriyel is one (euro) short.’

Ulcha isi- + NEG

Valency pattern: DAT_DAT
X: DAT
Y: DAT
Locus: XY
ama-du um taŋgu-du is-ə-si-ni
father- dat one hundred- dat reach- conneg - prs . neg -3 sg
‘Father is one hundred [roubles] short.’
Note: Arguably, this is an elliptical structure, the third implicit argument is 'money' (encoded by the nominative case when overt).

Uzbek etmamoq

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petya-ga bir dollar et-ma-y tur-ib-ti
pn - dat one dollar lack- neg - cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is one dollar short.’

West Central Oromo ɗaba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n birrii tokko ɗab-e
pn - nom birr. abs one. abs lack-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa lacks one birr.’

Zilo Andi b-iʔ.u-mado- + NEG

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-ɬu sːe-b som b-iʔ.u-mado-sːu
pn - dat one- inan 1 rouble inan 1-be_enough. pst - prog - neg
‘Ali is missing one rouble.’