BivalTyp

‘be glad’

Argument frame: X (be glad) about Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. received a letter from M.) P. was glad about the letter .
Predicate label Ru: радоваться
Argument frame Ru: X (радоваться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. получил письмо от М.). П. обрадовался письму .

Abaza aj.gʷərʁ’a

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád a-saɮámŝʔa d-áj.gʷərʁ’a-d
pn def -letter 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io +rejoice( aor )- dcl
‘Murad was glad about the letter.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) č̣ʼe-gʷəṣ̂ʷə(-č̣ʼə)

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.BEHIND
X: ABS
Y: LOC.BEHIND
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r pisme-m č̣ʼe-gʷəṣ̂ʷə-č̣ʼə-ʁ
guy- abs letter- obl loc : behind -rejoice- elat - pst
‘The guy was glad about the letter.’

Aghul šad-x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan k’eǯ.ü-s šad-x.u-ne
pn letter- dat glad-become. pf - aor
‘Aslan was glad about the letter.’

Alik Kryz şad xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan mexhtub-ciz şad xhiy-id
pn letter( f )- obl . dat happy be. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
paša kaʁal-li-tː-iš χːʷar i<w>tːi
pn paper- obl - sup - el be.glad 1.become. pfv
‘Pasha was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative" + 'become').

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic xadə

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
brata xdi-la bi ctava
girl( f ) rejoice. pst - ls .3 f with letter( m )
‘The girl was glad about the letter.’

Avar boχize

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
ʕali kaʁti-dasa w-oχ-ana
pn paper. obl - el m -rejoice- aor
‘Ali was glad about the letter.’

Azerbaijani sevinmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan mǝktub-a sevin-di
pn letter- dat / lat be_glad- pst (3)
‘Aslan was glad about the letter.’

Bafut dórə̀tᵼ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_mbi7i
X: SBJ
Y: mbi7i
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ dórə̀tᵼ́ mbᵼ́ʔᵼ́ ŋwàʔànɨ̀ já
pn sm p 2 be_glad about letter def
‘Ambe was glad about the letter.’

Bambara nísɔndiya

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
lɛ́tɛrɛ` ye Sékù nísɔndiya
letter\ art pfv . tr pn gladden
‘Seku is glad about the letter.’

Brazilian Portuguese alegrar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro alegr-ou-se com a carta
pn ( m ) gladden-3 sg . pst - refl with def . f letter( f )
‘Pedro was glad about the letter.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan ğüxhü mektub-ca nuğa saxha-ci
pn come. pf letter- loc happy ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan estar content

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
en Pere est-ava content per la carta
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be-3 sg . ipfv . ind glad( m ) for def . sg . f letter( f )
‘Pere was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Chirag χːʷare b-uχi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le qaʁar-r-i χːʷare uχ-ub-le
pn ( abs ) letter- obl - super glad ( m . sg )become: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech zaradovat se

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Petr se nad dopis-em zaradova-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc above letter( m )- ins . sg rejoice( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr rejoiced over the letter.’

Danish blive glad

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Peter blev glad for brev-et
pn become. pst glad. c . sg for letter( n )- def . sg
‘Peter became glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Dutch blij zijn

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet was blij met de brief
pn ( c ) cop . pst .3 sg glad with art . def . c letter( c )
‘Piet was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Eastern Maninka sɛ́wa

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bára sɛ́wa lá tù`/nɔ́ti` lá.
pn prf rejoice 3 sg poss note\ art at
‘Seku is happy about his note.’

English be glad

Valency pattern: SBJ_about
X: SBJ
Y: about
Locus: Y
Peter was glad about the letter.
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Estonian rõõmustama

Valency pattern: NOM_GENule
X: NOM
Y: GENule
Locus: Y
Peeter rõõmusta-s kirja üle
pn . sg . nom be_glad- pst .3 sg letter. sg . gen over
‘Peeter was glad about the letter.’

Finnish iloinen + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka oli iloinen kirjee-stä
pn . nom be. pst .3 sg glad. nom letter- ela
‘Pekka was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Forest Enets ɛdiu

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ pazu-go-da ɛdema
i man- nom . sg .1 sg paper- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg become_glad( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend was glad about the letter’.

French se réjouir

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul s’ est réjouit du succès de Michel
pn ( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg gladden. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m success( m ) of pn ( m )
‘Paul was delighted with Michel’s success.’

Georgian ga-Ø-u-xar-d-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s c'eril-i ga-Ø-u-xar-d-a
pn - dat letter- nom prv :outward- io 3- ver : o -be_glad- intr - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre was glad about the letter.’

German sich freuen

Valency pattern: NOM_uberDAT
X: NOM
Y: uberDAT
Locus: Y
Karl freu-t sich über den Brief
pn [ nom . sg ] gladden- prs .3 sg refl over def . m . acc . sg letter[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is glad about the letter.’

Guinean Kpelle kwèi nɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe kwèi nɛ̀ɛ́-ì zɛ̀ɓɛ́-ì ɲɛ́i màa mɛ́nî ɓà
pn stomach. loc be_nice- pred def \book- art dem surface issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is glad about this letter.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa razij=w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam kaʁar-rij razij=w=ih-ub
pn . abs letter- suplat joy= m = lv : pf - aor
‘Islam was glad about the letter.’

Irish bí an-shásta

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Do=bhí Pól an-shásta leis an leitir.
pst =be. pst pn int -content with def letter
‘Pól was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian essere felice

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
Leo era felic-e per la letter-a
pn ( m ) be. impf happy- m . sg for def . sg . f letter- sg . f
‘Leo was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kadar Dargwa razi-CL-uh-es / razi-CL-ur-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad razi-0-uh-ub kaʁat-i-ke
pn glad- m -become. pfv - pret paper- obl - super
‘Muhammad was glad about the letter.’

Kalderash Romani raduilpe

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
o Murš-a radui-sajl-o kata la Marijk-ak-o pisʼmo
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg rejoice- pst -3 sg . m from art . f . obl . sg pn - gen . sg - m . dir . sg letter. nom . sg
‘Murša was glad about Marijka’s letter.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the ablative case (ABL) would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad kaʁaz.i-z šad ʁa-x-nu
pn ( abs ) letter- dat glad pf -( h . sg )become- pst
‘Mahamad was glad about the letter.’

Karata becceχχaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali kaʁat-wa w-occeχχ-a
pn paper- dat m -be_glad- pf
‘Ali was glad about the letter.’

Kaytag Dargwa razi vihara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
petja kaʁar-ži razi v-ih-aˁv
pn letter- super content m -be. pf - aor
‘Petja was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh quan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya xat-qa quwan-dï
pn letter- dat rejoice- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya was glad about the letter.’

Kazym Khanty amǝtti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en piśma-j-a amt-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg letter- ep - dat rejoice- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja was glad about the letter.’

Khoekhoe ǃgâiaǂgao

Valency pattern: SBJ_!aroma
X: SBJ
Y: !aroma
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge sîǂkhani-s ǃaroma ra ǃgâiaǂgao
pn -3 m . sg decl letter-3 f . sg because_of ipfv be_happy
‘Peter is glad about the letter.’

Khwarshi ʁeʁu j/aha

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.TRANS
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.TRANS
Locus: Y
da ʁeʁu j-ajša q'aʁat-ƛ'o-jža
1 sg . abs joy ii -rise\ pst . w letter- super - trans
‘I was glad about the letter.’
Note: The verb agrees with the person who becomes joyful despite the presence of another absolutive NP ‘joy’.

Kina Rutul šad jišira

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul kaʁad-a-s šad jiši-r=a
pn ( nom ) letter- obl - dat joyful 1.become. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul was glad about the letter.’

Kumyk süjünmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul kaʁɨz-ʁa süün-d-ü
pn letter- dat rejoice- pst -3 sg
‘Rasul was glad about the letter.’

Latin gaudeo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Tiberi-us) gaud-eba-t oppress-am sedition-em
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_glad- ipfv . ind - act .3 sg oppress. prf . ptcp . pass - acc . sg . f sedition( f )- acc . sg
‘(Tiberius) was glad that the sedition was crushed.’
Note: (Tac. Ann. I, 52)

Laz o-c'on-u

Valency pattern: ERG_ABL
X: ERG
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k mektub-išen k'ai d-Ø-a-c'on-u
pn - b - erg letter- abl good prv - io 3- ver : r -like- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim got happy about the letter.’
Note: Lit. ‘Käzim liked the letter well.’

Mandarin Chinese gāoxìng

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Zhāngsān hěn gāoxìng shōudào zhè-fēng xìn
pn very glad receive this- clf letter
‘Zhangsan is very glad about receiving this letter.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because Y is embedded in a complement clause.

Mano gé lī

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ gé lɛ́ɛ̀ lī píé
1 sg stomach 3 sg . ipfv become.beautiful: ipfv 2 sg to
‘I am glad about you.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Islam-is kaʁar-la ħili b-ik-ib
pn - dat paper- gen joy n -happen- pst
‘Islam was glad about the letter.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Mingrelian Ø-o-xiol-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_ERG
X: DAT
Y: ERG
Locus: X
čelo-s nač'ara-k mangaro(t) Ø-a-xiol-(u)
pn - dat letter- erg greatly io 3- ver : r -be_glad- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo got very pleased by the letter.’

Modern Hebrew samaχ

Valency pattern: SBJ_legabej
X: SBJ
Y: legabej
Locus: Y
Pinχas samaχ legabej ha miχtav
pn be.glad[ pst .3 sg . m ] about def letter
‘Pinchas was glad about the letter.’

Mukhad Rutul šad jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad kaʁat-aa šad jiši-ri
pn paper- super happy m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai agda-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Petia bičxə-či agda-xa-ni
pn letter- dir rejoice- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia was glad about the letter.’

Nivkh ezmud

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik pitɣəŋ-dоχ e-zmu-d
pn letter- dat / add 3 sg -like- ind
‘Kaskazik was glad about the letter.’

Northern Akhvakh beχχuruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_gulo
X: NOM
Y: gulo
Locus: Y
pataħi w-oχχ-ari kaʁa-ɬɬi-guɬo
pn m -rejoice- aor paper- obl -because
‘Patahi was glad about the letter.’

Northern Mansi xotɕajtunkw

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: Not included in the database because this verb can only take clausal complements.

Northern Yukaghir puŋuol=

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn nimǝlǝ-ŋinˈ puŋ-uo-nˈ
pn pattern- dat glad- stat - intr .3 sg
‘Semien was glad about the letter.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bli glad

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Per ble glad for brev-et
pn become. pst glad for letter- def . n . sg
‘Per was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Polish ucieszyć się

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
generał ucieszy-ł się z list-u
general[ nom . sg ] become_glad: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] refl from letter- gen . sg
‘The general was glad about the letter.’

Russian obradovatʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja obradova-l-sja pisʹm-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg gladden( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl letter( n )- dat . sg
‘Petja was glad about the letter.’

Serbian obradovati se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petar se obradova-o pism-u
pn . nom . sg refl gladden- part . perf . m . sg letter- dat . sg
‘Petar was glad about the letter.’

Shinaz Rutul šad h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir šad h-iši-r kaʁɨd-a
pn glad m -be. pf - aor letter. obl - super
‘Basir was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni xuš sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Azim tar wi xāt xuš sut
pn eq d 3. m . sg . obl letter happy go. m . pst
‘Azim was glad about the letter.’

Skolt Saami leeʹd kuärǥast

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt leäi kuärǥast ǩeeʹrj diõtt
pn . sg . nom be. pst .3 sg glad letter. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Slovak mať radosť

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter ma-l z dopis-u radosť
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from letter( m )- gen . sg joy( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter rejoiced over the letter.’

Slovenian razveseliti se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
general se je razveseli-l pism-a
general[ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg rejoice: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] letter- gen . sg
‘The general was glad about the letter.’

Sorani Kurdish ʂad bûn

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Hîwa be name-ke ʂad bû-Ø
pn to letter- def glad be. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul rağzıne atkın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad mektub-aala rağzı-ne arkı-r
pn letter- superel agree- adv m .remain. pf - aor
‘Murad was glad about the letter.’

Spanish alegrarse

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se alegr-ó de la carta
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg rejoice- aor .3 sg from art . def . sg . f letter[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro was glad about the letter.’

Standard Arabic fariḥa

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un fariḥa bi=r-risālat-i
pn - nom be_glad. pf .3 m by= def -letter( f )- gen
‘Badr was glad about the letter.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s c'eril-Ø ad-x-iːd-ǝn
pn - dat letter- nom prv : dist - io 3-be_glad- pst
‘Maizer was glad about the letter.’

Swedish att bli glad

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Björn blev glad över brev-et
pn become. pst glad over letter- def . n . sg
‘Björn was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_CAUSE
X: ACT
Y: CAUSE
Locus: Y
na-galak si Pedro sa sulat
< pfv > stem -be_glad[ av ] pers . subj pn dat letter
‘Pedro was glad about the letter.’
Note: The Y-argument i) can be introduced by an explicit causal marker and ii) can be promoted to subject in the causal voice construction.

Telugu santōṣiṁcu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLvalla
X: NOM
Y: OBLvalla
Locus: Y
pravīṇ uttāramu valla saṁtōṣiṁcāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom answer( n ). sg . obl by rejoice. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen was glad about the letter.’

Tsakhur šadхhay

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad mektub qadžij-s šad-хha-na
pn letter( n ) n .see. msd - dat glad- aux . pf - h
‘Murad was glad to see the letter.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Tsudakhar Dargwa raˤzi b-iχ-iz/b-irχ-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
uršːi saka χaburta-z raˤzi iχ-ub
boy new news. pl . obl - dat happy ( m )be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was glad about the news.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsugni Dargwa raˤzi b-iχ-i / b-irχ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
χabar-li durħaˤ raˤzi w-iχ-ub
news- erg boy happy m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was glad about the news.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish sevinmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet mektub-a sevin-di
pn letter- dat rejoice- pst
‘Mehmet was glad about the letter.’

Turoyo məfṣəḥ

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_l
X: SBJ.SS
Y: l
Locus: Y
Gabriyel fṣiḥ l-i egarṯo
pn rejoice. pfv .3 m to- art . f letter( f )
‘Gabriyel was glad about the letter.’

Twi ani gye

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kofi ani gye-e krataa no ho
pn eye take- pst letter def about
‘Kofi was rejoiced about the letter.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Ulcha bārači-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
bārač-i piktə-wər, ti xərəkə-wə
be_glad- prs child- refl . pl that frog- acc
‘[They] are glad about their child, this little frog.’
Note: Not included in the database because arguably inanimate Y cannot be overtly expressed. This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek quvonmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya xat-ka quvon-di
pn letter- dat be_happy- pst .3 sg
‘Petja was glad about the letter.’

West Central Oromo gammada

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
obsaa-n t'alajaa sana-tti gammad-e
pn - nom letter. abs that- loc please-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa was glad about the letter.’

Wolof bég

Valency pattern: SBJ_ci
X: SBJ
Y: ci
Locus: Y
dama bég ci seen defaroo b-i
f oc v .s i :1 sg rejoice loc poss :2 pl reconciliation( b ) cl b - def
‘I rejoice at your reconciliation.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib mixhttub-da-l şad xha-na
pn letter- obl - sup glad become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib was glad about the letter.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.INTR_pe.PREP
X: SBJ.INTR
Y: pe.PREP
Locus: Y
oxɨr pe=mɛktubə kɛjfwɛʃ bi
pn with=letter glad be. pst
‘Oxir was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zilo Andi <j>-erh.ann-ij

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
pat’imati pismo-tʃ’u-kːu j-erh.ann-ij
pn [ f ][ nom ] letter- cont - el f -rejoice. pst - pf
‘Patimat rejoiced over the letter.’