BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘be friends’

Argument frame: X (be friends) with Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is friends with M .
Predicate label Ru: дружить
Argument frame Ru: X (дружить) с Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. дружит с М .

Abaza nbž’aʕʷ

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl murád d-jə́-nbž’aʕʷ-ṗ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io -friend- npst . dcl
‘Rasul is friends with Murad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Adyghe (West Circassian) nəbǯʼeʁʷə

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
dirjekterə-r č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-m jə-nəbǯʼeʁʷ
director- abs teacher- obl poss -friend
‘The teacher is friends with the director.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Aghul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan=na meʜemed dustː-ar e
pn =and pn friend- pl cop
‘Aslan and Muhammad are friends.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Alik Kryz dustuval varic

Valency pattern: ERG_INS
X: ERG
Y: INS
Locus: Y
terlan-ir rasul-zina dust-uval yi-re
pn - erg pn - ins friend- nmlz do. ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan is friends with Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: GEN_COM
X: GEN
Y: COM
Locus: XY
paša-n halmaχ-kul i moħommad-li-ɬːu
pn - gen friend- nmlz 4.cop pn - obl - com
‘Pasha is friends with Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic avəd +xorvayta

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
yala +xorvayta vad=əl mən švav-u
boy( m ) friendship( f ) do. prog =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘The boy is friends with his neighbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

Avar hudulɬi buk’ine

Valency pattern: GEN_GENgun
X: GEN
Y: GENgun
Locus: XY
ʕali-l hudul-ɬi b-ugo aħmad-il gun
pn - gen friend- nmlz n - cop pn - gen with
‘Ali is friends with Ahmad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Azerbaijani dostluq etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la dostluq ed-ir
pn pn -with friendship do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is friends with Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

Bambara bɛ́/tɛ́ tériya` lá

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù ni Fùséni bɛ́ tériya` lá
pn and pn be friendship\ art in
‘Seku and Fuseyni are friends.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP. Non-verbal predicate.

Brazilian Portuguese ter amizade

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro tem amizade com Maria
pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs friendship( f ) with pn ( f )
‘Pedro is friends with Maria.’

Catalan ser amic

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
en Pere és amic de la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind friend( m ) of def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere is friends with Maria.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Chirag dustː ze

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʡa̰li=ra rasul=ra dustː-re ze
pn ( abs )= add pn ( abs )= add friend- pl ( abs ) cop . prs .3
‘Ali and Rasul are friends.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP. Non-verbal predicate.

Czech kamarádit se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se kamarádí s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc be_friends( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is friends with Michal.’

Danish være venner

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Peter er venn-er med Marie
pn be. prs friend- indf . pl with pn
‘Peter is friends with Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Dutch vrienden zijn

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet is vriend-en met Marie
pn (С) cop .3 sg friend( c )- pl with pn (С)
‘Piet is friends with Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Eastern Maninka yé/tɛ́ tériɲɔɔnma

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù ní Fónbà yé tériɲɔɔnma lè dí.
pn and pn be friend foc with
‘Seku and Fomba are friends.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP. Non-verbal predication.

English be friends

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter is friends with Mary.
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Estonian sõber olema

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peeter on Mareti-ga sõber
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg pn - com friend. sg . nom
‘Peeter is friends with Maret.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Finnish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pekka ja Matti ovat ystäv-i-ä
pn . nom and pn . nom be. prs .3 pl friend- pl - part
‘Pekka is friends with Matti.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da nɔʔ pɔj-ziʔ sɔjza ɛ-ubi-ʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg with relationship- nom . pl .3 du good be( ipfv )- hab -3 pl . s
‘My friend usually has good relations with Vasja’.
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

French être ami

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul est ami avec Michel
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg friend( m ) with pn ( m )
‘Paul is friends with Michel.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Georgian Ø-megobr-ob-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.SOC
X: ERG
Y: DAT.SOC
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s-tan Ø-megobr-ob-s
pn - nom pn - dat - pstp : soc s 3-be_friends- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is friends with Masho.’

German befreundet sein

Valency pattern: NOM_mitDAT
X: NOM
Y: mitDAT
Locus: Y
Karl ist mit Marie befreundet
pn [ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg with pn [ dat . sg ] make.friends. ptcp 2
‘Karl is friends with Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Icari Dargwa juldaš w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN
X: ABS
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-ra juldaš ca=w
pn . abs pn - gen friend. abs cop = m
‘Islam is friends with Nadir.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish is cairde

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Is cairde Pól agus Máire.
cop . prs friend. pl pn and pn
‘Pól is friends with Máire.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Italian essere amico

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Leo è amic-o di Maria
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg friend- sg . m of pn ( f )
‘Leo is friends with Maria.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
meħamad=ra rasul=ra b-al-b-irk-ur
pn = add pn = add n -suitable- n -fall. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad is friends with Rasul.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Kalderash Romani družyl

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a družy-l la Marijk-asa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg be_friends- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - ins . sg
‘Murša is friends with Marijka.’

Karata

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ʕali-l aħmat’-i-k’el čoq’aɬer ge-da idja
pn - erg pn - obl - com friendship do- ipf cop
‘Ali is friends with Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa цангьерххвара

Valency pattern: NOM_INTEREL
X: NOM
Y: INTEREL
Locus: Y
petja canherχχ-urca miša-c:ir
pn be_friend. pf - perf pn - interel
‘Petja is friends with Misha.’

Kazakh dostas

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-men dosta-s-adï
pn pn - ins be_friends- rec - prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya is friends with Masha.’

Kazym Khanty λǫχǝs wԑrti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpila
X: NOM
Y: NOMpila
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-en piλ-a λǫχǝs wԑr-λ-ǝt
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg with- dat friend make- npst -3 pl
‘Petja is friends with Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǀhōgu

Valency pattern: SBJ_kha
X: SBJ
Y: kha
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s ǀkha ǀhōgu
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg with be_friends pfv
‘Peter is friends with Maria.’

Khwarshi halmaʁłi l-uwa

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER
X: ERG
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
šamil-i muχamade-ł halmaʁłi l-u-ho gołe
pn - erg pn - inter friendship( iv ) iv -make- prs aux . prs
‘Shamil is making friends with Muhammad again.’

Kina Rutul ara χa

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-kan ara χ-a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com inside pv -be
‘Rasul is friends with Ramazan’ (lit. ‘Rasul is together with Ramazan’).
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kumyk qurdaš bolmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMbulan
X: NOM
Y: NOMbulan
Locus: Y
basir musa bulan qurdaš bol-ʁan
pn pn with friend be- pf
‘Basir is friends with Musa.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Latin amicus + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
cui sum amic-us
which. dat . sg be. prs . ind . act .1 sg friend( m )- nom . sg
‘... who I am friends with’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. (Cic. Phil. I, 11, 4)

Laz Ø-i-maneb-am-s

Valency pattern: NOM_SOC
X: NOM
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Mehmet'-k'ala Ø-i-maneb-am-s
pn - nom pn - pstp : soc s 3- ver : s -be_friends- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is friends with Mehmet.’
Note: A more neutral alternative is the one where X and Y form an NP and trigger 3PL agreement on the verb.

Mandarin Chinese shì péngyou

Valency pattern: SBJ_he
X: SBJ
Y: he
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān Lǐsì shì péngyou
pn with pn be friend
‘Zhangsan is friends with Lisi.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mano dà

Valency pattern: SBJ_pie
X: SBJ
Y: pie
Locus: Y
Kɔ̀ɔ́ dà lúlɔ̀ nì píé
k o 3 sg . pst fall 2 sg sister pl behind
‘Ko became friends with your sisters.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMwara
X: NOM
Y: NOMwara
Locus: Y
Pajzula urtaq' le-w Musa=wara
pn friend be- m pn =and
‘Patimat is friends with Musa.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian Ø-ǯima-k'oč-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_SOC
X: ERG
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-c'k'ǝma Ø-ǯima-k'oč-en-s
pn - nom pn - pstp : soc s 3-brother-man- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo is friends with Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew χaver

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pinχas χaver ʃel Menaχem
pn friend poss pn
‘Pinchas is friends with Menachem.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mukhad Rutul dustvaldı vıʔın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-xvan dustvaldı vaʔa-ra a
pn pn - obl - com friendship( a ) a -do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is friends with Kurban.’

Nanai andalača-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia Vasia-ǯi anda-la-ča-j-ni
pn pn - ins friend- pfv - res - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is friends with Vasia.’

Nivkh ŋafq mud

Valency pattern: SBJ_COM
X: SBJ
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Largun-ɣin ŋafq + mu-d
pn pn - com . sg friend + become- ind
‘Kaskazik is friends with Largun.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: POSS_COM
X: POSS
Y: COM
Locus: XY
patħudi-be hanže c’:eɬe godi musa-k’ena
pn - n now friendship. nom n . cop pn - com
‘Pathudi is now friends with Musa.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Mansi ruməŋ

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMjot
X: NOM
Y: NOMjot
Locus: Y
pājel kol’a jot rum-əŋ ōl-ēj
pn pn with friend- prop be- npst .3 du
‘Pasha is friends with Kolja.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Yukaghir ŋorī=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ wаlˈbǝ ŋo-r-ī-m
pn pn - acc friend be- caus - caus - tr .3 sg
‘Semien is friends with Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å være venn

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Per er venn med Ola
pn be. prs friend with pn
‘Per is friends with Ola.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Polish przyjaźnić się

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
król Maciuś przyjaźni się z Bum-Drum-em
king[ nom . sg ] pn [ nom . sg ] be_friends: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl with pn - ins . sg
‘King Maciuś is friends with Bum-Drum.’

Russian družitʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja druž-it s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_friends( ipfv )- prs .3 sg with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is friends with Maša.’

Serbian družiti se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petar se druži sa Marij-om
pn . nom . sg refl be.friends. prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Petar is friends with Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul nuhuˁbat v-iši-n

Valency pattern: ATTR_COM
X: ATTR
Y: COM
Locus: XY
basir-dɨ hamıʔ nuhuˁbat a karam-ɨxvan
pn - attr now friendship( a ) exist pn - com
‘Basir is now friends with Karam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Shughni *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Ahmat=at Azim=en ox̌no-yen
pn = add pn =3 pl friend- pl
‘Ahmed is friends with Azim.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Skolt Saami leeʹd taaurõš

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Peâtt lij Määrʹj taaurõš
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg pn . sg . gen friend. sg . nom
‘Pete is Maria’s friend.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Slovak kamarátiť sa

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Peter sa kamaráti s Mark-om
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc be_friends( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Peter is friends with Marek.’

Slovenian prijateljevati

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter prijateljuje s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] be_friends: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is friends with Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish r̂efîq bûn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa r̂efîq-î Kamran-î-e
pn friend- izf pn - obl -be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa is friends with Kamran.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul hambazvaldı havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_COM
X: ERG
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad-a natig-xhvan hambaz-valdı vaʔa-r
pn - erg pn - com companionship( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is friends with Natig.’

Spanish ser amigo

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pedro es amigo de María
pn [ sg . m ] be_ hab . prs .3 sg friend[ sg . m ] from pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro is friends with Maria.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Standard Arabic ṣādaqa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n yuṣādiqu Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef be_friends. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr is friends with Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_SOC
X: NOM
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-caxän Ø-i-mpxng-äːl
pn - nom pn - soc s 3- ver : s -be_comrades- vpl
‘Maizer is friends with Gegi.’

Swedish att vara vän

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Björn är vän med Maja
pn be. prs friend with pn
‘Björn is friends with Maja.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tagalog

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kaibigan ni Pedro si Miguel
friend pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro is friends with Miguel.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Telugu snēhamu cēyu

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ-tō snēhamu cēstunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - com amity( n ). sg . nom do. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is friends with Mahesh.’

Tsakhur hambaz ıхhay

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad iy aydın hambaz-ar vo-b
pn add pn friend- pl cop - hpl
‘Murad and Aydin are friends.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
uršːi unra-cːila juldaš ič-ib
boy neighbor- com friend ( m )fall. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy is friends with the neighbor.’

Tsugni Dargwa juldaš b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rursːi-cːala juldaš w-iχ-ub
boy girl- com friend m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy is friends with the girl.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish arkadaşlık etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-la arkadaşlık ed-ıyor
pn pn - com friendship make- prs
‘Mehmet is friends with Orhan’.

Turoyo ḥawro + COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Gabriyel u ḥawro d Yuḥanən yo
pn art . m friend( m ) rel pn cop .3 sg
‘Gabriel is friends with Yuḥanən.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Ulcha əməǯi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
xusə piktə əktə piktə-ǯi əməǯ-i-ni
male child female child- ins be_friend- prs -3 sg
‘The boy is friends with the girl.’

Uzbek do’st emoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya Maša bilan do’st
pn pn with friend
‘Petja is friends with Maša.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate, emoq is 'to be'.

West Central Oromo hirijaa=ɗa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSwaddzin
X: NOM
Y: ABSwaddzin
Locus: Y
obsaa-n tolaa waddʒin hirijaa=ɗa
pn - nom pn . abs with friend= cop . npst
‘Obsa is friend with Tola.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zilo Andi homoloʁi-ɬir-ʔa

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ali homoloʁi-ɬir-ʔa qχ’urban=noj
pn [ m ][ nom ] friend- abst - super pn = com
‘Ali is friends with Qurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.