BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘be different’

Argument frame: X (be different) from Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. told P. that they have identical shirts. P. answered her,) ‘No, my shirt is different from yours (, it is darker).’
Predicate label Ru: отличаться
Argument frame Ru: X (отличаться) от Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. сказал П., что у них одинаковые рубашки. П. отвечает ему: «Нет,) моя рубашка отличается от твоей (она более темная").

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) fe-de + NEG

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
s-jə-ǯʼane wewjəje-m fe-d-ep
1 sg . pr - poss -shirt( abs ) yours- obl ben -similar- neg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Aghul ǯüre-f + COP

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
ze berʜem ǯüre-f e we-tː.i-l-as
я: gen shirt separate- nmlz cop you- nmlz - super - elat
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Alik Kryz curad xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
za pirem vaʕac-kar cura-d-yu
1. gen shirt( f ) yours. n - part separate- subst . nn . nom - prs . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_COMP
X: NOM
Y: COMP
Locus: Y
b-is χˁošon utːo-m-mi-χur χːˁoro-ši b-i
3- i . gen shirt your-3- obl - comp be.different- cvb . ipfv 3-be
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic parəš

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+sudra di praš=əla mən d-e diyy-ux
shirt( f ) obl . pron .1 sg separate. prog =3 f from obl - dem 4. f obl . pron - p .2 m
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Avar bat’ija buk’ine

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
dir gorde dur-al-dasa bat’ija-b b-ugo
my shirt your- obl . n - el different- n n - cop
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Azerbaijani fǝrqlǝnmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
mǝnim köynǝyim sǝn-in-ki-ndǝn fǝrqlǝn-ir
1. gen shirt. poss 1 sg 2- gen -that- abl be_different- ipfv (3)
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Bambara bɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bɔ́-len bɛ́ Fùséni lá
pn go.out- ptcp . res be pn in
‘Seku is different from Fuseyni.’

Brazilian Portuguese ser diferente

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
minha camisa é diferente da sua
poss .1 sg . f shirt( f ) cop _ hab .3 sg . prs different of+ def . f poss .3. f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan ser diferent

Valency pattern: SBJ_que
X: SBJ
Y: que
Locus: Y
no, la meva camisa és diferent que la teva
no def . sg . f poss .1 sg . f . sg shirt( f ) be.3 sg . prs . ind different than def . sg . f poss .2 sg . f . sg
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Chirag b-ač’aze

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
di-la kːurtːe aˤ-la-kan-n-i-rka b-ač’a-ze ze
i - gen shirt( abs ) you. sg - gen - subst - obl - super - elat n . sg -different- atr cop .3
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech jiný + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_nezNOM
X: NOM
Y: nezNOM
Locus: Y
moj-e košil-e je jin-á než tvoj-e
my- f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg other- f . nom . sg than your- f . nom . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Danish være forskellig

Valency pattern: SBJ_fra
X: SBJ
Y: fra
Locus: Y
Nej, min skjorte er forskellig fra din
no my. c . sg shirt( c ) be. prs different. c . sg from your. c . sg
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Dutch verschillen

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
mijn hemd verschil-t van die van jou
poss .1 sg shirt( n ) be.different-3 sg from dem . c . sg from 2 sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Eastern Maninka bɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_ma
X: SBJ
Y: ma
Locus: Y
ná fàanin bɔ́-nin tá mà.
1 sg poss clothes exit- ptcp . res 2 sg part adr
‘My clothes are different from yours.’

English be different

Valency pattern: SBJ_from
X: SBJ
Y: from
Locus: Y
No, my shirt is different from yours.
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Estonian erinema

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
ei, minu särk erine-b sinu oma-st
no, 1 sg . gen shirt. sg . nom differ- prs .3 sg 2 sg . gen poss . refl - ela
‘No, my shirt differs from yours.’

Finnish erota

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
minun paita-ni ero-aa sinun paida-sta-si
1 sg . gen shirt. nom - poss .1 sg differ- prs .3 sg 2 sg . gen shirt- ela - poss .2 sg
‘My shirt is different from your shirt.’

Forest Enets dʲɔgode

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi lubaxa-jʔ uuʔ lubaxa-xazo-d dʲɔgode
i cloth- nom . sg .1 sg you cloth- abl . sg - obl . sg .2 sg another
‘My shirt is different from your shirt’.
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

French se distinguer

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
ma chemise se distingue de la tienne, elle est plus foncée
my. sg . f shirt( f ) refl distinguishю. prs .3 sg of def . sg . f your. sg . f she be. prs .3 sg more dark. sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours, it is darker.’

Georgian gan-Ø-sxvav-d-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN.ABL
X: NOM
Y: GEN.ABL
Locus: Y
ara, čem-i p'erang-i šen-is-gan gan-Ø-sxvav-d-eb-a
neg my- nom shirt- nom your- gen - pstp : abl prv :outward- s 3-be_different- intr - sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’

German sich unterscheiden

Valency pattern: NOM_vonDAT
X: NOM
Y: vonDAT
Locus: Y
mein Hemd unterscheide-t sich von dein-em
my[ n . nom . sg ] shirt[ nom . sg ] differ- prs .3 sg refl of your- n . dat . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Icari Dargwa dik'ar-ci b=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_ELAT
X: ABS
Y: ELAT
Locus: Y
di-la kːurti i-la-ci-li-r dik'ar-ci ca=b
i - gen shirt. abs you- gen - atr - obl - elat different- atr cop = n
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Irish bí difriúil

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Thá mo léine=sin difriúil le d’=cheann=sa.
be. prs poss .1 sg shirt= dem different with poss .2 sg =head= dem
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian essere diverso

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
la mi-a camici-a è divers-a dalla tu-a
def . sg . f poss .1 sg - sg . f shirt- sg . f be-3 sg . prs different- sg . f by. def . sg . f poss .2 sg - sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_COMP
X: NOM
Y: COMP
Locus: Y
dija ħawa dik'ar-il ca_i-b- ħa-a-li-kem
i . gen shirt different- atr cop n -you. obl - obl . pl - obl - comp
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kalderash Romani ći mʼa(zo)l

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
muř-o gad ći mʼa-l pe tir-o
my- m . dir . sg shirt[ nom . sg ] neg resemble- prs .3 sg on your- m . dir . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure would be NOM_peLOC.

Karata

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
di-b gordi du-ɬ-jagal minaro-b idja
1. obl - n shirt 2. obl - obl - el different- n cop
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kaytag Dargwa дик1арцабикара

Valency pattern: NOM_INTEREL
X: NOM
Y: INTEREL
Locus: Y
dila penžek dik’arcabič:-ivca ilal-c:ir
my jacket n .differ. pf - perf other. pl . obl - interel
‘My jacket is different from yours.’

Kazakh basqa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Menіŋ žeyde-m senіŋ žeyde-nen basqa
i . gen shirt- poss 1 sg you. gen shirt- abl different
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe ǀkhara

Valency pattern: SBJ_xu
X: SBJ
Y: xu
Locus: Y
Ti hem-s ge sa-s-a xu a ǀkhara
1 sg . poss shirt-3 f . sg decl 2 sg . poss -3 f . sg - obl from cop other
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Khwarshi bat'ija/j j/e:ča

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.EL
X: ABS
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
kʷeč’abe-sa leƛ'a kʷet'abe-qo-žo bat'ija-r l-e:ča
left- atr hand( iv ) right- cont - el different- iv iv -be\ gnt
‘The left hand is different the right one.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kina Rutul maddɨ wiɁi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
iz-dɨ uχun mad-dɨ w-iɁi wɨ-dɨ-ji-la
i - attr shirt( nom ) other- attr 3- cop you. sg - attr - obl ( sup )- el
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kumyk bašʁa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
men-i göleg-im sen-i-ki-n-den bašʁa
i - gen shirt-1 sg you- gen - nmlz - obl - abl different
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Latin differo

Valency pattern: NOM_abABL
X: NOM
Y: abABL
Locus: Y
German-i multum ab hac consuetudin-e differ-unt
g erman( m )- nom . pl very from this. abl . sg . f custom( f )- abl . sg differ[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘The Germans differ in many ways from this custom.’
Note: (Caes. Gall. VI, 21)

Laz gamikat-Ø o-r-in-u

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
po(r)ča-čkim-i skan-išen gamikat-Ø Ø-[r]-en-Ø
shirt- poss 1- nom poss 2- abl different- nom s 3-[be]- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mandarin Chinese bù yīyàng

Valency pattern: SBJ_he
X: SBJ
Y: he
Locus: Y
wǒ-de chènshān nǐ-de yīyàng
i - de shirt with you- de not same
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mano kɛ̄ gbɛ̄ɛ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
kɛ̄ gbɛ̄ɛ̄ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . pst be different 1 sg on
‘S/he was different from me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
di-la ħawa ħa-la-j-če-b dek'ari le-b
i . obl - gen shirt you. sg . obl - gen - obl - super - n ( ess ) different be- n
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian gino-Ø-rt-al-an-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
čkim osare-Ø gino-Ø-rt-al-an-s sk'an osare-še(n)
my shirt- nom prv - s 3-divide- r . ext - sm - s 3 sg your. sg shirt- abl
‘My shirt is different from your shirt.’

Modern Hebrew ʃone

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
lo ha χultsa ʃel-i ʃone mi ʃel-χa
no def shirt poss -1 sg different from poss -2 sg . m
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’

Mukhad Rutul kivikara diš

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
iz-dı rubaška vıdı-dik kivika-ra diš
my- attr shirt( a ) yours- obl - cont ( a )resemble. ipf - simul neg . cop
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’

Nanai xaŋisila bi-

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
mi tətuə-i si-ŋgi-ǯia xaŋe.se-la bi
1 sg garment- p .1 sg 2 sg - poss . pred - abl side. dir - adv be. npst
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
di-be ƛ’onko du-ɬ:i-gune b-ahada gwede
1. obl - n shirt 2. obl - obl - el n -different n . cop
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir wiǝdǝ ban=

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
mǝt urbа̄hа tǝt-lˈǝ-ɣаt wiǝ-dǝ bаn-i
1 sg . poss shirt 2 sg - poss - abl other- adv be- intr .3 sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Norwegian Bokmål å være annerledes

Valency pattern: SBJ_enn
X: SBJ
Y: enn
Locus: Y
min skjorte er annerledes enn din
my. sg shirt be. prs different than your. sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Polish odróżniać się

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
moj-a koszul-a odróżnia się od twoj-ej
my- f . nom . sg shirt- nom . sg differ: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl from your- f . gen . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Russian otličatʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_otGEN
X: NOM
Y: otGEN
Locus: Y
mo-ja rubašk-a otliča-et-sja ot tvo-ej
my- f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg differentiate( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl from your- f . gen . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Serbian razlikovati se

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
moj-a košulj-a se razlikuje od tvoj-e
my- nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg refl differ. prs .3 sg from.near your- gen . sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Shinaz Rutul kečevkɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
iz-dɨ vɨχɨn kevkar-džiš vɨdij-di-kj
my- attr shirt( a ) a .resemble. ipf -( prs ) neg yours- obl - cont
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Shughni farq vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
mu kurtā as tu kurtā farq
1 sg . obl shirt el 2 sg shirt difference
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami leeʹd jeeʹresnallšem

Valency pattern: NOM_ko
X: NOM
Y: ko
Locus: Y
ij muu päiʹdd lij jeeʹresnallšem ko tuu päiʹdd
neg .3 sg 1 sg . gen shirt. sg . nom be. prs .3 sg different than 2 sg . gen shirt. sg . nom
‘No, my shirt is different from your shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Slovak iný + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_akoNOM
X: NOM
Y: akoNOM
Locus: Y
Moj-a košeľ-a je in-á ako tvoj-a
my- f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg other- f . nom . sg than your- f . nom . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Slovenian razlikovati se

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
moj-a srajc-a se razlikuje od tvoj-e
my- nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg rfl be_different: ipfv . prs .3 sg from your- gen . sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Sorani Kurdish ciyawaz bûn

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
na, kiras-eke-î min ciyawaz-e le hîto
no, shirt- def - izf i different-be. prs .3 sg from yours
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul kiyıkın + NEG

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
yixhdi uxun ğu-du-naa-k kivirka-ş
my shirt( a ) 2- attr - obl - cont a .resemble. ipf - neg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: The k- preverb in the verb is cognate to the CONT marker.

Spanish ser diferente

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
mi camisa es diferente de la tuy-a
my[ sg . f ] shirt[ sg . f ] be_ hab . prs .3 sg different[ sg . f ] from art . def . sg . f your- sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Standard Arabic Ɂiḫtalafa

Valency pattern: NOM_anGEN
X: NOM
Y: anGEN
Locus: Y
qamīs-ī yaḫtalifu ʕan qamīs-i-ka
shirt( m )/ nom - p .1 sg differ. ipf .3 m off shirt( m )- gen - p .2 sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL.EL
X: NOM
Y: ABL.EL
Locus: Y
al č'ik-Ø č'ik-xän-ka naxumsäːr-Ø l-i
dem . prox cup- nom dem . dist cup- abl - el particular- nom s 3-be
‘This cup is different from that cup.’
Note: The translation, albeit grammatically correct, sounds somewhat artificial.

Swedish NEG + att vara likadan

Valency pattern: SBJ_som
X: SBJ
Y: som
Locus: Y
nej, min tröja är inte likadan som din
no my. c . sg shirt be. prs not similar. indf . c . sg as your. c . sg
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Na-i~iba ang damit ko sa iyo
< ipfv > stem - ipfv ~be_different[ av ] subj shirt 1. sg . gen dat yours
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

Telugu vēru + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLkante
X: NOM
Y: OBLkante
Locus: Y
cokka nīdāni kaṁṭē vēru
1 sg . obl shirt( n ). sg . nom yours_one( n ). sg . obl than other
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsakhur badaldaхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
yızın gurt yığı-nčı-le badal-da vo-d
my. n jacket yours- obl . nom - superel different- a . nom cop - n
‘My jacket is different from yours.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL2
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL2
Locus: Y
dila mašina beħ sur-se=sab uršːi-la-ja-kanra
1. gen car face reverse- atr = cop : n (3) boy- gen - super ( lat )- abl 2
‘My car is different from the boy’s.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsugni Dargwa b-ik'ar-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_COMP
X: NOM
Y: COMP
Locus: Y
dila mašin ela=lerka b-ik'ar-le=cabi
1. gen car 2. gen = comp n -different- adv = cop : n
‘My car is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish farklı olmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
benim gömleğ-im senin-ki-nden farklı
i . gen shirt- p .1 sg thou. gen - adj - abl different
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turoyo šobəh + NEG

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_IO
X: SBJ.SS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
u gumlak-ayḏi k-šobəh l diḏ-ux
art . m shirt( m )- p .1 sg neg prs -be_similar. ipfv .3 m to p -2 m
‘My shirt does not look similar to yours.’

Ulcha xaŋsi bi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
min tətu-j siŋgi-ǯi xaŋsi bī-n
my garment-1 sg yours- ins different be. prs -3 sg
‘My gown is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Uzbek bošqača emoq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
meniŋ ko’ylag-im seniki-dan bošqača
my dress- poss .1 sg your- abl different
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate, emoq is 'to be'.

West Central Oromo adda=ɗa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSirraa
X: NOM
Y: ABSirraa
Locus: Y
lakki ʃamizii-n=koo kan=kee irraa adda=ɗa
no shirt- nom =1 sg . poss of=2 sg . poss on. abl different= cop . npst
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zilo Andi bat’a

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
di-r ɡurdo du-r-tʃ’u bat’a
i . obl - inan 2( gen ) shirt[ inan 2][ nom ] thou. obl - inan 2( gen )- cont separate
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.