BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘be afraid’

Argument frame: X (be afraid) of Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. has to go out of the house, but there is a dog barking in the yard). P. is afraid of the dog .
Predicate label Ru: бояться
Argument frame Ru: X (бояться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. нужно выйти из дома, но во дворе лает собака). П. боится собаки .

Abaza [ĉ-]ŝa

Valency pattern: ABS_MAL
X: ABS
Y: MAL
Locus: Y
á-č̣’ḳʷən a-lá d-a-ĉ-ŝ-ə́j-ṭ
def -boy def -dog 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - mal -be_afraid- prs - dcl
‘The boy is afraid of the dog.’

Aghul guč’a-

Valency pattern: DAT_POST.ELAT
X: DAT
Y: POST.ELAT
Locus: XY
aslan.a-s χuj.i-q-as guč’a-a
pn - dat dog- post - elat be.afraid- prs
‘Aslan is afraid of the dog.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +zadə

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
yala mən calba +bəzday=əl
boy( m ) from dog( m ) be_afraid. prog =3 m
‘The boy is afraid of the dog.’

Brazilian Portuguese ter medo

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro tem medo de cachorro
pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs fear( m ) of dog( m )
‘Pedro is afraid of a dog.’

Catalan tenir por

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere por del gos
def . sg . m pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs . ind fear( f ) of. def . sg . m dog( m )
‘Pere is afraid of the dog.’

Czech bát se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petr se bojí ps-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc be_afraid( ipfv ). prs .3 sg dog( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr is afraid of the dog.’

Danish være bange

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Peter er bange for hund-en
pn be. prs afraid for dog( c )- def . sg
‘Peter is afraid of the dog.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Dutch bang zijn

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
Piet is bang van de hond
pn (С) cop .3 sg afraid of art . def . c dog( c )
‘Piet is afraid of the dog.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Estonian kartma

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter karda-b koera
pn . sg . nom fear- prs .3 sg dog. sg . part
‘Peeter is afraid of the dog.’

Finnish pelätä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka pelkä-ä koira-a
pn be.afraid- prs .3 sg dog- part
‘Pekka is afraid of the dog.’

Forest Enets piis

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ buniki-jʔ piiʔɛ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg dog- nom . sg .1 sg be_afraid( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is afraid of my dog’.

German Angst haben

Valency pattern: NOM_vorDAT
X: NOM
Y: vorDAT
Locus: Y
Karl hat Angst vor Hund-en
pn [ nom . sg ] have. prs .3 sg fear[ acc . sg ] in.front dog- dat . pl
‘Karl is afraid of dogs.’

Italian aver paura

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo ha paur-a del can-e
pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs fear- sg . f of. def . sg . m dog- sg . m
‘Leo is afraid of the dog.’

Kazakh qorq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya it-ten qorq-adï
pn dog- abl be_afraid- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya is afraid of the dog.’

Kazym Khanty păλti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMewelt
X: NOM
Y: NOMewelt
Locus: Y
petˊa-j-en amp-ǝλ ewǝλt păλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg dog- poss .3 sg from be_afraid. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is afraid of the dog.’

Latin timeo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
miser magn-um inpende-ns time-t aer-e sax-um Tantal-us
poor. nom . sg . m big- acc . sg . n hang- prs . ptcp . act . acc . sg fear[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg air( m )- abl . sg stone( n )- acc . sg t antalus( m )- nom . sg
‘And poor Tantalus fears the big stone hanging in the air.’
Note: (Carus. De Rerum Natura. III, 980)

Modern Hebrew mefaχed

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas mefaχed me ha kelev
pn be.afraid[ sg . m ] from def dog
‘Pinchas is afraid of the dog.’

Nanai ŋəələ-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia enda-ǯi ŋəələ-j-ni
pn dog- ins be_afraid- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is afraid of the dog.’

Nivkh kʰlud

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Irgun qanŋ + xlu-d
pn dog + be.afraid- ind
‘Irgun is afraid of the dog.’

Norwegian Bokmål å være redd

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Per er redd for hund-en
pn be. prs afraid for dog- def . m . sg
‘Per is afraid of the dog.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Polish bać się

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Jacek trochę boi się ps-a
pn [ nom . sg ] a_little fear: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl dog- gen . sg
‘Jacek is a little afraid of the dog.’

Russian bojatʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja bo-it-sja sobak-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_afraid( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl dog( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja is afraid of the dog.’

Rutul gič’era

Valency pattern: DAT_SUP.EL
X: DAT
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s gič’e-r=a tɨlɨja-la
pn - obl - dat fear. ipfv - cvb =be dog. obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul is afraid of the dog.’

Serbian plaše se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petar se plaši ps-a
pn . nom . sg refl пугать. prs .3 sg собака- gen . sg
‘Петар боится собаки.’

Shughni x̌oǰ δêrtow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed as kūd x̌oǰ δêr-t
pn el dog fear aux -3 sg
‘Ahmed is afraid of the dog.’

Skolt Saami põõllâd

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt pââll piânnj-est
pn . sg . nom fear. prs .3 sg dog- sg . loc
‘Pete is afraid of the dog.’

Slovenian bati se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se malo boji ps-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl a_little be_afraid: ipfv . prs .3 sg dog- gen . sg
‘Peter is a little afraid of the dog.’

Spanish temer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro tem-e a=l perro
pn [ sg . m ] fear- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm = art . def . sg . m dog[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro is afraid of the dog.’

Swedish att vara rädd

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Björn är rädd för hund-en
pn be. prs afraid for dog- def . c . sg
‘Björn is afraid of the dog.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish korkmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet köpek-ten kork-uyor
pn dog- abl be_afraid- prs
‘Mehmet is afraid of the dog.’

Ulcha ŋə̄ləči-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
əj xusə piktə iŋda-ǯi ŋə̄lə-č-i-n
this male child dog- ins fear- iter - prs -3 sg
‘This boy is afraid of the dog.’

Zilo Andi sːir.i

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ali χʷe-tʃ’u sːir.i-r
pn [ m ][ nom ] dog. obl - cont fear. pst - prog
‘Ali fears the dog.’