BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘avoid’

Argument frame: X (avoid) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. owes M. a huge sum of money, which he cannot return. Instead of this) P. avoids M .
Predicate label Ru: избегать
Argument frame Ru: X (избегать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. должен М. крупную сумму денег, которую не может вернуть. Поэтому) П. избегает М .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Aghul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭašə gana

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+Ašur gan-u +ṭašuy-o=l mən švav-u
pn refl ( f )- p .3 m hide(tr). prog - p .3 f =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur avoids his neighbor’ (lit. ‘hides himself from his neighbor’).

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro evita Miguel
‘Педру избегает Мигела.’

Czech vyhýbat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se vyhýbá Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc avoid( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr avoids Michal.’

Finnish vältellä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka vältt-el-ee Matti-a
pn . nom avoid- freq - prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka avoids Matti.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
vasʲa tɔju entʃe-goz kudʲiku-on kanʲe-ga
pn that person. obl - abl . sg far- prol . sg leave( pfv )- disc .3 sg . s
‘Vasja keeps leaving farther from that person’.
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Latin vito

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
nec ego Brut-um vit-o
and_not i . nom pn ( m )- acc . sg avoid[ prs . ind ]- act .1 sg
‘I am not avoiding Brutus.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Att. 12, 29)

Modern Hebrew mitχamek

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas mitχamek mi Menaχem
pn avoid[ ptcp . sg . m ] from pn
‘Pinchas avoids Menachem.’

Nanai xoliači-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa xole-a-či-ni
pn pn - obl walk_around- intr - ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia avoids Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å unngå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per unngå-r Ola
pn avoid- prs pn
‘Per avoids Ola.’

Polish unikać

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Dariusz unika Adam-a
pn [ nom . sg ] avoid: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - gen . sg
‘Dariusz avoids Adam.’

Russian izbegatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja izbega-et Maš-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg avoid( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja avoids Maša.’

Rutul gʲaʁaˁbʁura

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-la: gʲa-ʁaˁbʁu-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl ( sup )- el pv -1.avoid. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul avoids Ramazan.’

Skolt Saami veäʹltted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt veältt Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom avoid. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete avoids Maria’

Slovenian izogibati se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter se izogiba Pavl-u
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl avoid: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Peter avoids Pavel.’

Swedish att undvika

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn undvik-er Maja
pn avoid- prs pn
‘Björn avoids Maja.’

Turkish kaçmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan kaç-ıyor
pn pn - abl escape- prs
‘Mehmet avoids Orhan’.

Ulcha sirkəči-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
titam min-ǯi sir-kəč-i-ni
therefore i - ins hide- imit - prs -3 sg
‘This is why [he] avoids me (lit. hides himself from).’
Note: Not quite exact translation of the stimulus sentence.

Zilo Andi <w>-utʃ’.u-mado

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-tʃ’u-kːu w-utʃ’.u-mado
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - cont - el m -avoid. pst - prog
‘Ali is avoiding Muhammad.’