BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘avoid’

Argument frame: X (avoid) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. owes M. a huge sum of money, which he cannot return. Instead of this) P. avoids M .
Predicate label Ru: избегать
Argument frame Ru: X (избегать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. должен М. крупную сумму денег, которую не может вернуть. Поэтому) П. избегает М .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) zə-šʼə-ʒəje

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
dirjekterə-m č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-m zə-šʼ-j-e-ʒə-je
director- obl teacher- obl rfl . abs - loc -3 sg . erg - dyn -throw- lat
‘The director avoids the teacher.’

Aghul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Alik Kryz çekinmiş xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
terlan rasul-kar çekinmiş şe-re
pn pn - part withdraw be. ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan avoids Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
paša moħommad-li-s w-akːu-s w-e<r>qʼə-r-ši w-i-tʼu
pn pn - obl - dat 1-see- inf 1-< ipfv >reach- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be- neg
‘Pasha avoids Muhammad.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭašə gana

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+Ašur gan-u +ṭašuy-o=l mən švav-u
pn refl ( f )- p .3 m hide(tr). prog - p .3 f =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur avoids his neighbor’ (lit. ‘hides himself from his neighbor’).

Avar ɬutize

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
ʕali ɬut-ule-w w-ugo aħmad-i-dasa
pn flee- ipf . ptcp - m m - cop pn - obl - el
‘Ali avoids Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani çəkinmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan çǝk-in-ir
pn pn - abl pull- refl - ipfv (3)
‘Aslan avoids Rasul.’

Bambara fɛ́ngɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù Fántà fɛ́ngɛ
pn ipfv pn avoid
‘Seku avoids Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese evitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro evit-a Miguel
pn ( m ) avoid-3 sg . prs pn ( m )
‘Pedro avoids Miguel.’

Catalan evitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere evit-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) avoid-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere avoids Marc.’

Chirag *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Czech vyhýbat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se vyhýbá Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc avoid( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr avoids Michal.’

Danish undgå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter prøve-r at undgå Marie
pn try- prs to avoid. inf pn
‘Peter tries to avoid Marie.’

Dutch ontlopen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet ontloop-t Marie
pn (С) avoid-3 sg pn (С)
‘Piet avoids Marie.’

Eastern Maninka mála

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé Fántà mála-la.
pn be pn avoid- inf . la
‘Seku avoids Fanta.’

English avoid

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter avoids Mary.

Estonian vältima

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter väldi-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom avoid- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter avoids Maret.’

Finnish vältellä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka vältt-el-ee Matti-a
pn . nom avoid- freq - prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka avoids Matti.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
vasʲa tɔju entʃe-goz kudʲiku-on kanʲe-ga
pn that person. obl - abl . sg far- prol . sg leave( pfv )- disc .3 sg . s
‘Vasja keeps leaving farther from that person’.
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

French éviter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul évite Marie
pn ( m ) avoid. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul avoids Marie.’

Georgian tav-s Ø-a-rid-eb-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s tav-s Ø-a-rid-eb-s
pn - nom pn - dat refl - dat do 3- fact -avoid- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre avoids Masho.’

German meiden

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl meide-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] avoid- prs .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl avoids Marie.’

Icari Dargwa gu-r-irxː-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_ANTE.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: ANTE.ELAT
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-ri-sa-r gu-r-irxː-a-ca=w
pn . abs pn - obl - ante - elat sub - elat -( m )hide: ipf - prs - cop = m
‘Islam avoids Nadir.’

Irish déan sheachaint

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Dein-eann Pól Máire a sheachaint.
make- prs pn pn trans avoid
‘Pól avoids Máire.’
Note: This translation contains a nominalized clause. However, the use of "a" (with lenition) indicates that the verb is transitive.

Italian evitare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo evit-a Maria
pn ( m ) avoid-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo avoids Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
meħamad ha-w-0-ur-ar rasu-j-zaka
pn away - m - m -become. ipfv - th pn - obl - el
‘Muhammad avoids Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani našəl

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
o Murš-a našə-l kata Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg run- prs .3 sg from pn - nom . sg
‘Murša avoids Marijka.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the ablative case (ABL) would be used.

Karata

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTEL
X: NOM
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
ʕali č’:warč’:-ada idja aħmat’-i-č’ogal
pn avoid- ipf cop pn - obl - contel
‘Ali avoids Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa теклица

Valency pattern: NOM_ANTEL
X: NOM
Y: ANTEL
Locus: Y
petja miša-sar tekli-ca
pn pn - antel separate- cop
‘Petja avoids Misha.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh qaš

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-dan qaš-ïp žür
pn pn - abl avoid- cvb go.3 sg
‘Petya avoids Masha.’

Kazym Khanty χǒntǝtˊλǝti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMewelt
X: NOM
Y: NOMewelt
Locus: Y
petr-en was’a-j-ǝλ ewǝλt χǒntǝtˊλ-ǝλ
pn - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg from avoid- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja avoids Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǂgō-sen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ra ǂgō-sen
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl ipfv hide_behind- refl
‘Peter avoids Maria.’

Khwarshi j/iča

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.EL
X: ABS
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
fatima j-ič-ha šamil-qo-žo
pn ii -run.away- prs pn - cont - el
‘Fatima avoids Shamil.’

Kina Rutul gʲaʁaˁbʁura

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-la: gʲa-ʁaˁbʁu-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl ( sup )- el pv -1.avoid. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul avoids Ramazan.’

Kumyk baš qačɨrmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
basir musa-dan baš qač-ɨr-a
pn pn - abl head flee- caus -3 sg
‘Basir avoids Musa.’

Latin vito

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
nec ego Brut-um vit-o
and_not i . nom pn ( m )- acc . sg avoid[ prs . ind ]- act .1 sg
‘I am not avoiding Brutus.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Att. 12, 29)

Laz o-kt-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-s g-Ø-a-kt-en-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat prv - io 3- ver : r -avoid- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim avoids Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese duǒ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān duǒ zhe Lǐsì
pn avoid dur pn
‘Zhangsan avoids Lisi.’

Mano mɛ́ kpɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ mɛ́ kpɔ̄
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg prev put: ipfv
‘S/he avoids me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ilʔʷana Pajzula-li-ni Musa ħa-gʷ-es res b-iq'-uwe le-b
therefore pn - obl - erg pn neg -see: pfv - inf possibility n -do: ipfv - cvb be- n
‘Pajzula is looking for a possibility to not see Musa.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Mingrelian dud-s Ø-u-čilit-u-an-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s du(d)-s Ø-u-čilit-u-an-s
pn - nom pn - dat refl - dat io 3- ver : o -avoid- r . ext - sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo avoids Anuchia.’
Note: This verb phrase is a recent borrowing from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew mitχamek

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas mitχamek mi Menaχem
pn avoid[ ptcp . sg . m ] from pn
‘Pinchas avoids Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul q'ul geevin

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPEREL
X: ERG
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ııla q'ul geeve-re
pn - erg pn - superel head( a ) a .withdraw. ipf - hab
‘Murad avoids Kurban.’

Nanai xoliači-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa xole-a-či-ni
pn pn - obl walk_around- intr - ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia avoids Masha.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pataħi musa wuk’-iɬ:a wuχ:-ero guƛa
pn pn m .be- cv :where m .remain- ipf . ptcp . m m . cop . neg
‘Patahi doesn’t stay (in the place) where Musa is.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Northern Mansi ūrjalaxti

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
am ūrjal-axt-ej-um ti ēlmxolas-ǝl
i keep- refl this person- el
‘I avoid this person.’

Northern Yukaghir halɣudu=

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаt hаlɣu-du-j
pn pn - abl aff run_away- mult - intr .3 sg
‘Semien avoids Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å unngå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per unngå-r Ola
pn avoid- prs pn
‘Per avoids Ola.’

Polish unikać

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Dariusz unika Adam-a
pn [ nom . sg ] avoid: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - gen . sg
‘Dariusz avoids Adam.’

Russian izbegatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja izbega-et Maš-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg avoid( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja avoids Maša.’

Serbian izbegavati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar izbegava Marij-u
pn . nom . sg avoid. prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar avoids Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul gɨleč'u-n

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
basir gɨleč'u-j karam-ɨla
pn ( m ).avoid. ipf - evt . m pn - el
‘Basir avoids Karam.’

Shughni zibidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed as Saida zibīn-t
pn el pn jump-3 sg
‘Ahmed avoids Saida.’

Skolt Saami veäʹltted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt veältt Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom avoid. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete avoids Maria’

Slovak vyhýbať sa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter sa vyhýba Mark-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc avoid( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Peter avoids Marek.’

Slovenian izogibati se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter se izogiba Pavl-u
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl avoid: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Peter avoids Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish xo dizînewe

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa xoî le Kamr̂an-î de-diz-êt-ewe
pn himself from pn - obl ind -steal. prs -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa avoids Kamran.’
Note: The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul yexin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad natig-iile yexe-r
pn pn - superel m .run. ipf - prs
‘Murad avoids Natig.’

Spanish evitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro evit-a a María
pn [ sg . m ] avoid- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro avoids Maria.’

Standard Arabic taǧannaba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n yataǧannabu Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef avoid. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr avoids Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-s x-o-käb-i
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : o -avoid- prs
‘Maizer avoids Gegi.’

Swedish att undvika

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn undvik-er Maja
pn avoid- prs pn
‘Björn avoids Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
<Um>i~iwas si Pedro kay Miguel
< av > ipfv ~avoid pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro avoids Miguel.’
Note: The GEN encoding of the Y is not possible. Co-exists with the LV construction.

Telugu tappiṁcukōnu

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ-nuṁci tappiṁcukuṁtū tirugutunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - abl escape. cvb . sim turn. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen avoids Mahesh.’

Tsakhur hiхiy

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTEL
X: NOM
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ı-ke heхva vo-r
pn pn - obl - contel ( m )flee. ipf cop - h
‘Murad avoids Aydin.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
uršːi-li-z unra waˤħ ačː-ible ʡaˤ-b-ikː-ule=sab
boy- obl - dat neighbor m -face hit. pfv - pret . cnv neg - n -like/want- prog . cnv = cop : n (3)
‘The boy does not want to encounter his neighbor.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Tsugni Dargwa gu-rka-b-isː-i / gu-rka-b-ilsː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ANTE.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: ANTE.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-sa-rka gu-rka-ls-unne=caj
boy neighbor- ante - abl . down sub - abl . down -( m )lie. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy avoids his neighbor.’

Turkish kaçmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan kaç-ıyor
pn pn - abl escape- prs
‘Mehmet avoids Orhan’.

Turoyo qoṭəʕ ruḥ-

Valency pattern: SBJ_m
X: SBJ
Y: m
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-qoṭəʕ ruḥ-e me Yuḥanən
pn prs -cut. ipfv .3 m refl - p .3 m from pn
‘Gabriyel avoids Yuḥanən’, lit. ‘Gabriyel cuts himself off from Y.’

Ulcha sirkəči-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
titam min-ǯi sir-kəč-i-ni
therefore i - ins hide- imit - prs -3 sg
‘This is why [he] avoids me (lit. hides himself from).’
Note: Not quite exact translation of the stimulus sentence.

Uzbek qočmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Petya Miša-dan qoč-ip yur-ib-ti
pn pn - abl avoid- cvb walk- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja avoids Maša.’

West Central Oromo ooda

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa ood-a
pn - nom pn . abs avoid-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa avoids Tola.’

Zilo Andi <w>-utʃ’.u-mado

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-tʃ’u-kːu w-utʃ’.u-mado
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - cont - el m -avoid. pst - prog
‘Ali is avoiding Muhammad.’