BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘attack’

Argument frame: X (attack) Y
Stimulus sentence: A bear attacked a fisherman .
Predicate label Ru: напасть
Argument frame Ru: X (нападать) на Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: Медведь напал на рыбака .

Abaza [gʷə.kʷ-]sə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCgwekwe
X: ABS
Y: LOCgwekwe
Locus: Y
á-mŝ a-pslaĉaḳʕʷə́ j-gʷə́.kʷ-s-d
def -bear def -fisherman 3 sg . n . abs +3 sg . m . io - loc -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) tje-bene

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.TOP
X: ABS
Y: LOC.TOP
Locus: Y
məŝe-r pegʷaše-m qə-tje-bena-ʁ
bear- abs fisherman- obl csl - loc : top -struggle- pst
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Aghul alčiš.i-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʕurčaqban.di-l bengiš alčiš.i-ne
hunter- super bear { super . lat }jump. pf - aor
‘A bear attacked a hunter.’

Alik Kryz ʕaxhric

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN7adig
X: NOM
Y: GEN7adig
Locus: Y
svar baluğçi-c ʕadi-ğ ʕaxhur-du
bear fisherman- gen surface- super f .arrive. pfv - aor . f
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUP.LAT
Locus: Y
χːams χaˁbχˁ-du sa-r-tːu-m-mu-tː-ik tʼankʼ bo
bear fish- pl npl .catch- ipfv - attr -1- obl - sup - lat jump say. pfv
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic napəl

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
dəbba pəl-la +al d-o naša
bear( f ) fall. pst - ls .3 f on obl - dem 4. m person( m )
‘A bear attacked a man.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar k’anc’ize

Valency pattern: NOM_LATtade
X: NOM
Y: LATtade
Locus: Y
ččuʕiqan-as-de t’ade ci k’anc’-ana
fisherman- m . obl - lat on. lat bear jump- aor
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Azerbaijani hücum etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
ayı balıqçı-ya hücum et-di
bear fisherman- dat / lat attack do- pst (3)
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
nààŋgwé kɨ̀ fúrᵼ̀tə̀ tákwúrə̀
lion sm p 2 attack leopard
‘A lion attacked a leopard.’

Bambara bìn

Valency pattern: SBJ_kan
X: SBJ
Y: kan
Locus: Y
wùlu` bìn-na dén` kàn
dog\ art fall- pfv . intr child\ art on
‘The dog attacked a child.’

Brazilian Portuguese atacar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
o urso atac-ou o pescador
def . m bear( m ) attack-3 sg . pst def . m fisherman( m )
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_LOCada
X: ERG
Y: LOCada
Locus: Y
sor-uldu-r ba'luğ-ça' ʕada' ħucum siʔir-ci
bear- obl - erg fisherman. loc on attack( n ) n .do. pf - nar
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Catalan atacar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un os va atac-ar un pescador
indf . sg . m bear( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind attack- inf indf . sg . m fisherman( m )
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Chirag če-b-iči

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
sːika awči-l-i če-b-ič-ib
bear( abs ) hunter- obl - super super - n . sg -fall: pf - aor .3
‘A bear attacked the hunter.’

Czech napadnout

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medvěd napad-l rybář-e
bear( m )[ nom . sg ] attack( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fisherman( m )- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Danish angribe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
En bjørn angreb en fisker
indf . sg bear( c ) attack. pst indf . sg fisherman( c )
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Dutch aanvallen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
de beer viel de visser aan
art . def . c bear( c ) fall. pst art . def . c fisherman( c ) on
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Eastern Maninka kɛ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_kan
X: SBJ
Y: kan
Locus: Y
Wùlu` báda kɛ́ dén` kàn.
dog\ art prf 3 sg pour child\ art on
‘The dog has attacked a child.’

English attack

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
A bear attacked a fisherman.

Estonian ründama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
karu ründa-s kalamees-t
bear. sg . nom attack- pst .3 sg fisherman- sg . part
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Finnish hyökätä

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkimppuun
X: NOM
Y: GENkimppuun
Locus: Y
karhu hyökkä-si kalastaja-n kimppuun
bear. nom attack- pst .3 sg fisherman- gen to
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French attaquer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un ours a attaqué un pêcheur
indf . sg . m bear( m ) have. prs .3 sg attack. pst . ptcp . m . indf . sg . m fisherman( m )
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Georgian tav-s da-Ø-e-sxm-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
metevze-s datv-i tav-s da-Ø-e-sx-a
fisherman- dat bear- nom refl - dat prv :downward- io 3- ver : r -attack- s 3 sg . pst
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

German angreifen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ein Bär griff ein-en Fischer an
indf . m . nom . sg bear[ nom . sg ] grab. pst .3 sg indf - m . acc . sg fisherman[ acc . sg ] on
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Guinean Kpelle wólo

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
yílê àa wólo Tòkpa ɓà
dog 3 sg . prf attack pn on1
‘The dog attacked Tokpa.’

Icari Dargwa či=b=u:q-anaj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
sːika baliqːči-lij či=b=u:q-un
bear. abs fisherman- suplat on = n =attack: pf - aor
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Irish ionsaigh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
D’=ionsaigh béar iascaire.
pst =attack bear fisherman
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Italian aggredire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
l’ ors-o ha aggredito un pescator-e
def . sg . m bear- sg . m aux .3 sg . prs attack. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m fisherman- sg . m
‘The bear attacked a fisherman.’

Kadar Dargwa aqu-CL-ik-es / aqu-CL-irk-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
sinka aqu-b-ik-ib riˤbak-i-ke
bear up- n -fall. pfv - pret fisherman- obl - super
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Kalderash Romani xuťol

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
o riś xut-il-o p-o Murš-a
art . m . dir . sg bear. nom . sg jump- pst -3 sg . m on- art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg
‘A bear attacked Murša.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the locative case (LOC) would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
š̊eʔ maˁhaˁmed.ʔ-in ala<b>q-nu
bear( abs ) pn - super < n . sg >attack- pst
‘The bear attacked Mahamad.’

Karata k’anc’aaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
sin ččuʕiqan-š:w-a kaʔa-r k’anc’e-e
bear fisherman- obl . m - dat up- lat jump- pf
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’
Note: Here, “kaʔar” has some properties of a predicate-related element.

Kaytag Dargwa č:ibuqana

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
sika baˁliqč:e-j č:ibuq-un
bear fisherman. obl - datlat n .attack. pf - aor
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Kazakh šabwïl žasa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Ayu balïqšï-ɣa šabwïl žasa-dï
bear fisherman- dat attack do- pst 1.3 sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Kazym Khanty nǎpǝtti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pǔpi weλpǝs χǫ-j-a nǎpt-ǝs
bear hunt man- ep - dat attack- pst [3 sg ]
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Khoekhoe ǁnāǂam

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
ǀAo-b ge ǁauǃkhōao-b-a go ǁnāǂam
snake-3 m . sg decl fisherman-3 m . sg - obl rpst attack
‘A snake attacked a fisherman.’

Khwarshi k'oƛa

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
boc'-ba k'ojƛa iho-ƛ'o
wolf( iii )- pl . abs attack\ pst . w shepherd( i )- super
‘Wolves attacked the shepherd.’

Kina Rutul lowčir

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
si edemij-a l-o<w>či-r
bear( nom ) man- obl ( sup ) pv -<3>attack. pfv - cvb
‘A bear attacked a man.’

Kumyk atɨlmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ajuw balɨqčɨ-ʁa at-ɨl-d-ɨ
bear fisherman- dat throw- pass - pst -3 sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Latin invadeo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
leon-es invad-unt greg-es
lion( m )- nom . pl attack[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl herd( m )- acc . pl
‘Lions attack the herds.’
Note: (Ov. Fasti. 2, 210)

Laz o-gab-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
tut-i Käzim-i-s ko-n-a-gab-u
bear- nom pn - b - dat aff - io 3- ver : r -attack- s 3 sg . pst
‘A bear attacked Käzim.’

Mandarin Chinese xíjī

Valency pattern: bei_SBJ
X: bei
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
yúfū bèi yì-zhī xióng xíjī le
fisherman pass one- clf bear attack pfv
‘The fisherman was attacked by a bear.’
Note: The passive construction is normally used when there is a sense of misfortune or adversity.

Mano yà

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
lɛ̄ yà-pɛ̀lɛ̀ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . exi sit- inf 3 sg on
‘S/he attacks me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
sinka aqu b-uq-un k'usreʡaj-če
bear on.top( lat ) n -go: pfv - aor fisherman- super ( lat )
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Mingrelian dud-s gi-Ø-a-ntx-ap-un-Ø (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
tunt-i-k mečxome-s du(d)-s gi-Ø-a-ntx-u
bear- b - erg fisherman- dat refl - dat prv - io 3- ver : r -attack- s 3 sg . pst
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Modern Hebrew takaf

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
dav takaf dajag
bear attack[ pst .3 sg . m ] fisherman
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Mukhad Rutul et'utxun

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
si baluʁčij-e-χda et'upxu-ri
bear fisherman- obl - apud a .attack. pf - aor
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Nanai xukču-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
mapa bota-mǯi-či xukču-xə-ni
bear fish- ag - dir attack- pst - p .3 sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Nivkh vоlud

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
cʰxəf cʰо-ŋanʁ-nivŋ vоlu-d
bear fish-look.for-man fell- ind
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Northern Akhvakh ƛ’ada k’ooruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
šin č:uʕiqqass-u-ga ƛ’ada k’a-ari
bear fisherman- obl - lat on grab- aor
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’
Note: ƛ’ada and ƛ’a are synonyms. Here, ƛ’ada functions as a preverb.

Northern Mansi porijmaste

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMlalt
X: NOM
Y: NOMlalt
Locus: Y
wōrtōlnōjka xūl puw-ne ōjka l’al’t porijm-as-t-e
bear fish catch- ptcp . npst man on jump- pst -3 sg . o -3 sg . s
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Northern Yukaghir köčǝgǝjrǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
hаjčiǝ-tǝgǝ sа̄bаndˈǝ ǝjū-nu-j-rukun-ǝ-k köčǝgǝ-j-rǝ-m-lǝ
grandpa- aug net get_caught_in_net- ipf - ptcl -thing-0- foc pounce- pf - caus - tr - of .3 sg
‘A bear pounced on whatever was caught in the net.’

Norwegian Bokmål å angripe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
bjørn-en angrep fisker-en
bear- def . m . sg attack. pst fisherman- def . m . sg
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Polish napaść

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
niedźwiedź napad-ł na rybak-a
bear[ nom . sg ] attack: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] on fisherman- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Russian napastʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
medvedʹ napa-l na rybak-a
bear( m )[ nom . sg ] attack( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on fisherman( m )- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Serbian napasti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medved je napa-o pecaroš-a
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg attack- part . perf . m . sg fisherman- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Shinaz Rutul hajvɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
sirɨ-r hajvɨ-r baluʁči-ja-χda
bear. obl - erg attack. pf - aor fisherman- obl - apud
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Shughni firīptow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
xirs=i wi ribak-ti firīp-t
bear=3 sg d 3. m . sg . obl fisherman- sup reach- pst
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Skolt Saami kõrmmled

Valency pattern: NOM_GENool
X: NOM
Y: GENool
Locus: Y
kueʹbǯǯ kõrmml-i kueʹllšiili ool
bear. sg . nom attack- pst .3 sg fisherman. sg . gen onto
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Slovak napadnúť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Medveď napado-l rybár-a
bear( m )[ nom . sg ] attack( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fisherman( m )- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Slovenian napasti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medved je napade-l ribič-a
bear[ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg attack: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fisherman- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Sorani Kurdish pelamardan

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
wirç-êk pelamar-î masîgir-êk=î da-Ø
bear- indf attack- izf fisherman- indf =3 sg . pc give. pst -3 sg
‘A bear attached a fisherman.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul aç'ıtxın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
q'at'ay ilsındıı aç'ıbxı-r
dog human. obl . super a .attack. pf - aor
‘A dog attacked a man.’

Spanish atacar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un oso atac-ó a=l pescador
art . ndef . sg . m bear[ sg . m ] attack- aor .3 sg dir . obj . anm = art . def . sg . m fisherman[ sg . m ]
‘A bear attacked the fisherman.’

Standard Arabic haǧama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Ɂad-dubb-u haǧama ṣ-ṣayyād-a
def -bear( m )- nom attack. pf .3 m def -fisherman- acc
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
metxwiär-s däšdw-Ø la-x-kaːl-äːn
hunter- dat bear- nom prv : slightly - io 3-fly- vpl
‘A bear attacked (lit. ‘flew/rushed upon’) a hunter.’

Swedish att anfalla

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en björn anföll en fiskare
indf . c . sg bear attack. pst indf . c . sg fisherman
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
<In>atake ng oso ang mangingisda
< pv > pfv .attack gen bear subj fisherman
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Telugu dāḍicēyu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLmidaki
X: NOM
Y: OBLmidaki
Locus: Y
oka cēpavāḍi mīda-ki oka elugubaṁṭi dāḍicēsiṁdi
one fisherman( m ). sg . obl on- dat one bear( n ). sg . nom attack. pst .3 sg . nm
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Tsakhur keč’uvkiy

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
baluğči-y-qha syo k’eč’ivku
fisherman- obl - lat bear a .attack. pf
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa če-b-uq-iz/če-b-ulq-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
χʷaˤ uršːi-ja če-b-uq-un
dog boy- super ( lat ) on - n -fall. pfv - pret (3)
‘A dog attacked the boy.’

Tsugni Dargwa če-b-ič-i / če-b-irč-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
χʷe durħaˤ-ge če-b-ič-ib
dog boy- super ( lat ) on - n -fall. pfv - pret
‘A dog attacked the boy.’

Turkish saldırmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ayı balıkçı-ya saldır-dı
bear fisherman- dat attack- pst
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Turoyo hoǧəm

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_7al
X: SBJ.SS
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
hərče haǧim-o ʕal ṣayodo d nun-e
bear( f ) attack. pfv - ss .3 f on hunter( m ) rel fish- pl
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Ulcha xukču-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
buju bəjč-i ńī-ti xukču-xə-ni
bear hunt- prs person- lat attack- pst -3 sg
‘A bear attacked a hunter.’

Uzbek hužum qilmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ayiq baliqči-ga hužum qil-di
bear fisherman- dat attack do- pst .3 sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

West Central Oromo haleela

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
risaa-n adamsituu sana haleel-e
bear- nom hunter. abs that. abs attack-3 sg . m . pfv
‘A bear attacked the hunter.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
sev-re ǧetter qa-zaa-d-a-l hüdjum-na
bear- erg fish. pl catch. ipfv - prsprt - sbst - obl - sup attack- aor
‎‎‎‘The bear attacked a fisherman.’

Zilo Andi ɬib.i-j hiʔo

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
sej ɬib.i-j hiʔo χʷammi b-itʃː.i-r-sːi hek’ʷaʃ-ʔo
bear[ an ][ nom ] jump. pst - pf up. lat fish[ an ][ nom ] an -catch. pst - prog - atr person. obl - super . lat
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’