BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘attack’

Argument frame: X (attack) Y
Stimulus sentence: A bear attacked a fisherman .
Predicate label Ru: напасть
Argument frame Ru: X (нападать) на Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: Медведь напал на рыбака .

Abaza [gʷə.kʷ-]sə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCgwekwe
X: ABS
Y: LOCgwekwe
Locus: Y
á-mŝ a-pslaĉaḳʕʷə́ j-gʷə́.kʷ-s-d
def -bear def -fisherman 3 sg . n . abs +3 sg . m . io - loc -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Aghul alčiš.i-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʕurčaqban.di-l bengiš alčiš.i-ne
hunter- super bear { super . lat }jump. pf - aor
‘A bear attacked a hunter.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic napəl

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
dəbba pəl-la +al d-o naša
bear( f ) fall. pst - ls .3 f on obl - dem 4. m person( m )
‘A bear attacked a man.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
o urso atacou o pescador
‘Медведь напал на рыбака.’

Czech napadnout

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medvěd napad-l rybář-e
bear( m )[ nom . sg ] attack( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fisherman( m )- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Finnish hyökätä

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkimppuun
X: NOM
Y: GENkimppuun
Locus: Y
karhu hyökkä-si kalastaja-n kimppu-un
bear. nom attack- pst .3 sg fisherman- gen bundle- ill
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Latin invadeo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
leon-es invad-unt greg-es
lion( m )- nom . pl attack[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl herd( m )- acc . pl
‘Lions attack the herds.’
Note: (Ov. Fasti. 2, 210)

Modern Hebrew takaf

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
dav takaf dajag
bear attack[ pst .3 sg . m ] fisherman
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Nanai xukču-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
mapa bota-mǯi-či xukču-xə-ni
bear fish- ag - dir attack- pst - p .3 sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Norwegian Bokmål å angripe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
bjørn-en angrep fisker-en
bear- def . m . sg attack. pst fisherman- def . m . sg
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

Polish napaść

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
niedźwiedź napad-ł na rybak-a
bear[ nom . sg ] attack: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] on fisherman- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Russian napastʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
medvedʹ napa-l na rybak-a
bear( m )[ nom . sg ] attack( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on fisherman( m )- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Rutul lowčir

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
si edemij-a l-o<w>či-r
bear( nom ) man- obl ( sup ) pv -<3>attack. pfv - cvb
‘A bear attacked a man.’

Skolt Saami kõrmmled

Valency pattern: NOM_GENool
X: NOM
Y: GENool
Locus: Y
kueʹbǯǯ kõrmml-i kueʹllšiili ool
bear. sg . nom attack- pst .3 sg fisherman. sg . gen onto
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Slovenian napasti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medved je napade-l ribič-a
bear[ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg attack: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fisherman- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Swedish att anfalla

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en björn anföll en fiskare
indf . c . sg bear attack. pst indf . c . sg fisherman
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Turkish saldırmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ayı balıkçı-ya saldır-dı
bear fisherman- dat attack- pst
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

Ulcha xukču-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
buju bəjč-i ńī-ti xukču-xə-ni
bear hunt- prs person- lat attack- pst -3 sg
‘A bear attacked a hunter.’

Zilo Andi ɬib.i-j hiʔo

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
sej ɬib.i-j hiʔo χʷammi b-itʃː.i-r-sːi hek’ʷaʃ-ʔo
bear[ an ][ nom ] jump. pst - pf up. lat fish[ an ][ nom ] an -catch. pst - prog - atr person. obl - super . lat
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’