BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘answer’

Argument frame: X (answer) Y
Stimulus sentence: (The teacher asked P. what his parents’ names are.) P. answered the teacher .
Predicate label Ru: отвечать
Argument frame Ru: X (отвечать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Учитель спросил у П., как зовут его родителей). П. ответил учителю .

Abaza ǯawap tə

Valency pattern: ERG_IO
X: ERG
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád arə́pχ’aʕʷ ǯawap lə-j-t-ṭ
pn def +teacher answer 3 sg . f . io -3 sg . m . erg -give( aor )- dcl
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

Aghul ǯuwab i-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a müʡelim.di-s ǯuwab i-ne
pn ( erg ) teacher- dat answer give: pf - aor
‘Aslan answered the teacher.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic yavvəl +ǧuvvab

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
yala yuvvəl-lə +ǧuvvab ka +rabi
boy( m ) give. pst - ls .3 m answer( m ) to teacher( m )
‘The boy answered the teacher.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pedro respondeu ao professor
‘Педру ответил учителю.’

Czech odpovědět

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr učitel-i odpovědě-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] teacher( m )- dat . sg answer( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr answered the teacher.’

Finnish vastata

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka vasta-si opettaja-lle
pn . nom answer- pst .3 sg teacher- all
‘Pekka answered the teacher.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Latin respondeo

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
his Caesar ita respond-it
this. dat . pl pn ( m ) nom . sg so reply[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘To these Caesar replied the following’
Note: (Caes. Gall. I, 14, 1)

Modern Hebrew ana

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas ana le more
pn respond[ pst .3 sg . m ] to teacher
‘Pinchas answered the teacher.’

Nanai taodago-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Pətjə alo-si-mǯi-či taoda-go-xa-ni
pn teach- ipfv - ag - dir answer- rep - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia answered the teacher.’

Norwegian Bokmål å svare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per svar-te lærer-en
pn answer- pst teacher- def . m . sg
‘Per answered the teacher.’

Polish odpowiedzieć

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Marek odpowiedzia-ł nauczyciel-owi
pn [ nom . sg ] answer: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] teacher- dat . sg
‘Marek answered the teacher.’

Russian otvetitʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja otveti-l učitel-ju
pn ( m )- nom . sg answer( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] teacher( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja answered the teacher.’

Rutul ǯiwab hɨwɨr

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a ǯiwab hɨ<w>ɨ-r maʔalim-a-s
pn - erg answer( nom ) <3>give. pfv - cvb teacher- obl - dat
‘Rasul answered the teacher.’

Skolt Saami vaʹstteed

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt vaʹstti-i uʹčteel-a
pn . sg . nom answer- pst .3 sg teacher- sg . ill
‘Pete answered the teacher.’

Slovenian odgovoriti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je odgovori-l učitelj-u
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg answer: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] teacher- dat . sg
‘Peter answered the teacher.’

Swedish att svara

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn svara-de lärare-n
pn answer- pst teacher- def . c . sg
‘Björn answered the teacher.’

Turkish cevap vermek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet öğretmen-e cevap ver-di
pn teacher- dat answer give- pst
‘Mehmet answered the teacher.’

Ulcha ǯarali-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
əldəŋgə, əldəŋgə, xawli ńī-ti ǯaral-i ta-m o-či-ni
interesting interesting anyway human- lat answer- prs do- cvb . sim . sg become- pst -3 sg
‘Interesting, interesting, [he] even learned how to speak (lit. became the one who answers the man).’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Zilo Andi dʒawab itʃː.i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ali-di utʃitelʃːu-j dʒawab itʃː.i
pn - erg teacher. obl - dat answer[ inan 1][ nom ] give. pst ( aor )
‘Ali answered the teacher.’