BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘answer’

Argument frame: X (answer) Y
Stimulus sentence: (The teacher asked P. what his parents’ names are.) P. answered the teacher .
Predicate label Ru: отвечать
Argument frame Ru: X (отвечать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Учитель спросил у П., как зовут его родителей). П. ответил учителю .

Abaza ǯawap tə

Valency pattern: ERG_IO
X: ERG
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád arə́pχ’aʕʷ ǯawap lə-j-t-ṭ
pn def +teacher answer 3 sg . f . io -3 sg . m . erg -give( aor )- dcl
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ǯʼewap je-tə

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-m jə-č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe ǯʼewap r-jə-tə-žʼə-ʁ.
guy- obl poss -teacher answer( abs ) 3 sg . io + dat -3 sg . erg -give- re - pst
‘The guy answered the teacher.’

Aghul ǯuwab i-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a müʡelim.di-s ǯuwab i-ne
pn ( erg ) teacher- dat answer give: pf - aor
‘Aslan answered the teacher.’

Alik Kryz cuğab vuyic

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan-ir meʕlim-ciz cuğab vu-du
pn - erg teacher- obl . dat answer( f ) give. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan answered the teacher.’

Archi

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
paša-mu učitel-li-s žawab ʟo
pn - obl ( erg ) teacher- obl - dat answer 4.give. pfv
‘Pasha answered the teacher.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic yavvəl +ǧuvvab

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
yala yuvvəl-lə +ǧuvvab ka +rabi
boy( m ) give. pst - ls .3 m answer( m ) to teacher( m )
‘The boy answered the teacher.’

Avar žawab ƛ’eze

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca muʕalim-as-e žawab ƛ’-una
pn - erg teacher- m . obl - dat answer give- ipf
‘Ali answered the teacher.’

Azerbaijani cavab vermək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan müǝllim-ǝ cavab ver-di
pn teacher- dat / lat answer give- pst (3)
‘Aslan answered the teacher.’

Bambara jáabi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye kàramɔgɔ` jáabi
pn pfv . tr teacher\ art answer
‘Seku answered the teacher.’

Brazilian Portuguese responder

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pedro respond-eu ao professor
pn ( m ) answer-3 sg . pst to+ def . m professor( m )
‘Pedro answered the teacher.’

Catalan contestar

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT
X: SBJ
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
en Pere va contest-ar al professor
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind answer- inf to. def . sg . m teacher( m )
‘Pere answered the teacher.’
Note: Cf. "en Pere li va contestar"

Chirag žuwab b-ičːi

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le učit’il-l-i žuwab b-ičː-ib
pn - erg teacher- obl - super answer( abs ) n . sg -give: pf - aor .3
‘Ali answered the teacher.’

Czech odpovědět

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr učitel-i odpovědě-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] teacher( m )- dat . sg answer( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr answered the teacher.’

Danish svare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter svare-de lærer-en
pn answer- pst teacher(С)- def . sg
‘Peter answered the teacher.’

Dutch antwoorden

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de leraar ge-antwoor-d
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . def . c teacher( c ) ptcp -answer- ptcp
‘Piet answered the teacher.’

Eastern Maninka jèbi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà kàramɔɔ` jèbi.
pn prf teacher\ art answer
‘Seku answered the teacher.’

English answer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter answered the teacher.

Estonian vastama

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Peeter vasta-s õpetaja-le
pn . sg . nom answer- pst .3 sg teacher- all
‘Peeter answered the teacher.’

Finnish vastata

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka vasta-si opettaja-lle
pn . nom answer- pst .3 sg teacher- all
‘Pekka answered the teacher.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French répondre

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Paul a répondu au professeur
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg answer. pst . ptcp . m to. def . sg . m teacher( m )
‘Paul answered the teacher.’

Georgian Ø-u-p'asux-eb-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-m masc'avlebel-s Ø-u-p'asux-a
pn - erg teacher- dat io 3- ver : o -answer- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre answered the teacher.’

German antworten

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl antworte-te dem Lehrer
pn [ nom . sg ] answer- pst .3 sg def . m . dat . sg teacher[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl answered the teacher.’

Icari Dargwa žawab b=iːkː-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam-il učitil-lij žawab b=iːčː-ib
pn - erg teacher- suplat answer. abs n =give: pf - aor
‘Islam answered the teacher.’

Irish freagair

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
D’=fhreagair Pól an múinteoir.
pst =answer pn def teacher
‘Pól answered the teacher.’

Italian rispondere

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Leo ha risposto all’ insegnant-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs answer. pst . ptcp to. def . sg . m teacher- sg . m
‘Leo answered the teacher.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: ERG_IN
X: ERG
Y: IN
Locus: Y
meħamad-li b-ur-ib učiti-j-ze
pn - erg n -tell. pfv - pret teacher( r us)- obl - in
‘Muhammad answered the teacher.’

Kalderash Romani *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
o Murš-a phen-ď-a la ućiteľnic-akə
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg say- pst -3 sg art . f . obl . sg teacher(female)- dat . sg
‘Murša answered the (female) teacher.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Karata

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l ušter-š:w-a džwab b-ekk-e
pn - erg teacher- obl . m - dat answer n -give- pf
‘Ali answered the teacher.’

Kaytag Dargwa жабавбеккара

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
petja-l uč:itelь-ži žabav b-eč:-iv
pn - erg teacher- super answer n -give. pf - aor
‘Petja answered the teacher.’

Kazakh žawap ber

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya muwɣalіm-ge žawap ber-dі
pn teacher- dat answer give- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya answered the teacher.’

Kazym Khanty jǒχi lǒpti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en uśit’el’-a jǒχi lǒp-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg teacher- dat home say- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja answered the teacher.’

Khoekhoe ǃeream

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǁgauǃnâao-s-a go ǃeream
pn -3 m . sg decl teacher-3 f . sg - obl rpst answer
‘Peter answered the teacher.’

Khwarshi žawab tiƛa

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
di-lo uža učitele-l žawab tiƛ-na
1 sg . o - gen 2 son\ erg teacher- dat answer( iii ) give- pst . u
‘My son answered the teacher.’

Kina Rutul ǯiwab hɨwɨr

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a ǯiwab hɨ<w>ɨ-r maʔalim-a-s
pn - erg answer( nom ) <3>give. pfv - cvb teacher- obl - dat
‘Rasul answered the teacher.’

Kumyk žawap bermek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat mualim-ge žawap ber-d-i
pn teacher- dat answer give- pst -3 sg
‘Patimat answered the teacher.’

Latin respondeo

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
his Caesar ita respond-it
this. dat . pl pn ( m ) nom . sg so reply[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘To these Caesar replied the following’
Note: (Caes. Gall. I, 14, 1)

Laz ǯumap-iš me-č-am-u

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k muelːim-i-s ǯumap-i me-Ø-č-u
pn - b - erg teacher- b - dat answer- nom prv - io 3-give- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim answered the teacher.’

Mandarin Chinese huídá

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān huídá le lǎoshī-de wèntí
pn answer pfv teacher- de question
‘Zhangsan answered the teacher′s question. ’
Note: Classified as TR because using a simple noun "lǎoshī" as the DO is also acceptable.

Mano wè là nìà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà ŋ̄ wè là nìà
3 sg . prf 1 sg speech surface turn
‘S/he has responded to me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT.LAT
X: ERG
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam-ini učitij-ze žawab g-ib
pn - erg teacher- cont ( lat ) answer give: pfv - pst
‘Islam answered the teacher.’

Mingrelian Ø-u-gam-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k magurale-s Ø-u-gam-(u)
pn - erg teacher- dat io 3- ver : o -answer-( s 3 sg . pst )
‘Chelo answered the teacher.’

Modern Hebrew ana

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas ana le more
pn respond[ pst .3 sg . m ] to teacher
‘Pinchas answered the teacher.’

Mukhad Rutul džıvab vın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a maʔˤlim-e-s džıvab vı-ri
pn - erg teacher- obl - dat answer( a ) give. pf - aor
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

Nanai taodago-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Pətjə alo-si-mǯi-či taoda-go-xa-ni
pn teach- ipfv - ag - dir answer- rep - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia answered the teacher.’

Nivkh itt

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik raw-r̥aŋɢ-rоχ it-t
pn teach-woman- dat / add tell- ind
‘Kaskazik answered the teacher.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pataħi-de učiƛ:ƛ:-s:wa džawa ox-ari
pn - erg teacher. obl - m . dat answer give- aor
‘Patahi answered the teacher.’

Northern Mansi akwjuwl’e lawǝs

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
n’āwram ēkwa-n akwjuwl’e law-ǝs
child woman- lat back say- pst [3 sg ]
‘The child answered the woman’

Northern Yukaghir īmǝrǝj=

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn urа-ri-dˈа̄-jǝ-ŋinˈ mǝr īmǝrǝ-j-lˈǝl-u-m
pn study- caus - mult - nlzr - dat aff answer- pf - evid -0- tr .3 sg
‘Semien answered the teacher.’

Norwegian Bokmål å svare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per svar-te lærer-en
pn answer- pst teacher- def . m . sg
‘Per answered the teacher.’

Polish odpowiedzieć

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Marek odpowiedzia-ł nauczyciel-owi
pn [ nom . sg ] answer: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] teacher- dat . sg
‘Marek answered the teacher.’

Russian otvetitʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja otveti-l učitel-ju
pn ( m )- nom . sg answer( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] teacher( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja answered the teacher.’

Serbian odgovoriti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petar je odgovori-o učitelj-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg answer- part . perf . m . sg teacher- dat . sg
‘Petar answered the teacher.’

Shinaz Rutul dživab qhɨvɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir dživab qhɨvɨ-r maˁlim-a-s
pn ( erg ) answer give_back. pf - aor teacher- obl - dat
‘Basir answered the teacher.’

Shughni ǰawob δêdow1

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Azim=i molim-ard ǰawob δod
pn =3 sg teacher- lat answer give. pst
‘Azim answered the teacher.’

Skolt Saami vaʹstteed

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt vaʹstti-i uʹčteel-a
pn . sg . nom answer- pst .3 sg teacher- sg . ill
‘Pete answered the teacher.’

Slovak odpovedať

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter odpoveda-l učiteľ-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] answer( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] teacher( m )- dat . sg
‘Peter answered the teacher.’

Slovenian odgovoriti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je odgovori-l učitelj-u
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg answer: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] teacher- dat . sg
‘Peter answered the teacher.’

Sorani Kurdish wiɫam danewe

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa wiɫam-î mamosta-ke=î da-Ø-we
pn answer- izf teacher- def =3 sg . pc give. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa answered the teacher.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul cavab vın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a melime-s cavab vı-r
pn - erg teacher- dat answer give. pf - aor
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

Spanish contestar

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Pedro contest-ó a=l profesor
pn [ sg . m ] answer- aor .3 sg ndir . obj = art . def . sg . m teacher[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro answered the teacher.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaǧāba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n Ɂaǧāba l-muʕallim-a
pn - nom - indef answer. pf .3 m def -teacher- acc
‘Badr answered the teacher.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-d wičit'el-s la-x-t'ix
pn - erg teacher- dat prv : slightly - io 3-return
‘Maizer answered (lit. ‘returned to’) the teacher.’

Swedish att svara

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn svara-de lärare-n
pn answer- pst teacher- def . c . sg
‘Björn answered the teacher.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
S<in>agot ni Pedro ang guro
< pfv .answer>[ lv ] pers . gen pn subj teacher
‘Pedro answered the teacher’

Telugu javābu ivvu

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pravīṇ tana gurugāri-ki javābu iccāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom own teacher. hon ( m ). sg . obl - dat reply( n ). sg . nom give. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen answered the teacher.’

Tsakhur džavab qheliy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee maˁʔlim-ı-s džavab qheli
pn - erg teacher- obl - dat answer re . n .give. pf
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi-le tːutːešː-i-cːe ʁaj ʔ-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) father- obl - inter ( lat ) word say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy answered his father.’

Tsugni Dargwa žabaw b-ičː-i / b-ulučː-i (to 3 pers.); žabaw čː-i / lučː-i (to 1 and 2 pers.)

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li tatːi-cːe žabaw b-ičː-ib
boy- erg father- inter ( lat ) answer n -give. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy answered his father.’

Turkish cevap vermek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet öğretmen-e cevap ver-di
pn teacher- dat answer give- pst
‘Mehmet answered the teacher.’

Turoyo obe funoyo

Valency pattern: SBJ_IO
X: SBJ
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Gabriyel hu-le funoyo l-u məlfon-ayḏe
pn give. pfv - ls .3 m answer( m ) to- art . m teacher( m )- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel answered his teacher.’

Ulcha ǯarali-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
əldəŋgə, əldəŋgə, xawli ńī-ti ǯaral-i ta-m o-či-ni
interesting interesting anyway human- lat answer- prs do- cvb . sim . sg become- pst -3 sg
‘Interesting, interesting, [he] even learned how to speak (lit. became the one who answers the man).’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek žavob bermoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya o’qituvči-ga žavob ber-di
pn teacher- dat answer give- pst .3 sg
‘Petja answered the teacher.’

West Central Oromo deebii kenna

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
obsaa-n bar-siis-ittʃaa-f deebii kenn-e
pn - nom learn- caus - def - dat answer. abs give-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa answered the teacher.’

Zilo Andi dʒawab itʃː.i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ali-di utʃitelʃːu-j dʒawab itʃː.i
pn - erg teacher. obl - dat answer[ inan 1][ nom ] give. pst ( aor )
‘Ali answered the teacher.’