BivalTyp

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Turkish

Contributed by Maria Ovsjannikova (Academia.edu profile)

M.O.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2016 in St. Petersburg, Russia, with Enes Taştan, then a master's student at the Department of Russian Language and Literature at St. Petersburg State University. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Ovsjannikova, Maria. . Bivalent patterns in Turkish. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on November 29, 2020; last revised on February 12, 2021.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, accessed on .)

Basic info

Turkish belongs to the Oghuz sub-branch of the Turkic branch of the assumed Altaic language family. The examples are given using the standard orthograthy except that the apostrophes between the stems of proper names and case suffixes are omitted.

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

In the transitive construction, nominal subjects are used in the unmarked form and direct objects are used either in the unmarked form (1) or in the accusative case (2) depending on their animacy and referentiality (Differential Object Marking).

(1) Mehmet  ilginç      bir kitap   oku-du.
    PN      interesting one book    read-PST
    ‘Mehmet read an interesting book.’

(2) Mehmet  kitab-ı     raf-tan     al-dı.
    PN      book-ACC    shelf-ABL   take-PST
    ‘Mehmet took the book from the shelf.’ 

The predicate agrees with the subject in person and number. 3rd person singular agreement markers have zero exponents and are not reflected in the glosses. Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique cases or by postpositions. The comitative marker can be realized either as a suffix or as a postposition. All the postpositions attested in the questionnaire take the unmarked or the genitive form of the noun. The genitive case can mark clause-level constituents standing in a possessive relationship with the subject (3). These constituents can be freely separated from their (semantic) possessees, the possessees can be pronominalized, etc.

(3) Mehmed-in   şimdi   on  lira-sı     kal-dı.
    PN-GEN      now     ten lira-P.3    remain-PST
    ‘Now Mehmet has 10 liras left.’ 

The verbal tense forms in the examples are glossed as present (marked with -yor), past (-dı) or aorist (-r). The tense form traditionally called aorist is used to describe habitual events, permanent states and (some) future events.

Case system

The case system includes five cases for nouns, viz. the unmarked nominative, genitive, accusative, dative, locative and ablative.

Verb lemmas

The verbs are shown in the form of the infinitive in -mak.

Glossing abbreviations

1, 3 — 1st, 3rd person; ABL — ablative case; ACC — accusative case; ADJ — adjectivizer; AOR — aorist; COM — comitative; COP — copula; DAT — dative case; GEN — genitive case; IMP — imperative; INF — infinitive; LOC — locative case; NEG — negative marker; NMLZ — nominalization; P — possessive marker; PL — plural; PN — proper name; PRS — present tense; PST — past; PTCP — participle; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( ağrımak ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-in baş-ı ağrı-yor
pn - gen head- p .3 ache- prs
‘Mehmet has a headache.’

2. have (illness) ( grip olmak ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-ın grib-i var
pn - gen flu- p .3 there_is
‘Mehmet has the flu.’

3. be afraid ( korkmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet köpek-ten kork-uyor
pn dog- abl be_afraid- prs
‘Mehmet is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( atmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet taş-ı at-tı
pn stone- acc throw- pst
‘Mehmet threw his stone.’

5. have enough ( yetmek ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-e para şimdi yet-iyor
pn - dat money now be_enough- prs
‘Now Mehmet has enough money.’

6. resemble ( benzemek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet dede-si Kemal-e benzi-yor
pn grandfather- p .3 pn - dat be_similar- prs
‘Mehmet resembles his grandfather Kemal.’

7. believe ( inanmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e inan-iyor
pn pn - dat believe- prs
‘Mehmet believes Filiz.’

8. take ( almak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet kitab-ı raf-tan al-dı
pn book- acc shelf- abl take- pst
‘Mehmet took the book from the shelf.’

9. see ( görmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ev-i gör-üyor
pn house- acc see- prs
‘Mehmet sees the house.’

10. influence ( etkilemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
yaş akl-ı etkile-r
age mind- acc affect- aor
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter ( rastlamak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e rastla-dı
pn pn - dat come_across- pst
‘Mehmet encountered Filiz’.

12. enter ( girmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet ev-e gir-di
pn house- dat enter- pst
‘Mehmet entered the house.’

13. win ( galip gelmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Kemal-e galip gel-di
pn pn - dat winner come- pst
‘Mehmet beat Kemal.’

14. go out ( çıkmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet ev-den çık-tı
pn house- abl exit- pst
‘Mehmet went out of the house.’

15. drive ( sürmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ineğ-i sür-üyor
pn cow- acc drive- prs
‘Mehmet is driving the cow.’

16. bend ( bükmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet dal-ı bük-tü
pn branch- acc bend- pst
‘Mehmet bent the branch.’

17. tell ( demek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e de-di ki, “Misafirliğ-e gel-Ø!”
pn pn - dat say- pst that visit- dat come- imp
‘Mehmet told Filiz: “Come to visit me”’.

18. hold ( tutmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet kitap tut-uyor
pn book hold- prs
‘Mehmet is holding a book.’

19. catch up ( yetişmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e yetiş-ti
pn pn - dat catch_up- pst
‘Mehmet caught up with Filiz.’

20. milk ( sağmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Filiz ineğ-i sağ-dı
pn cow- acc milk- pst
‘Filiz milked the cow.’

21. reach ( varmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet kıyı-ya var-dı
pn coast- dat reach- pst
‘Mehmet reached the bank’.

22. touch ( dokunmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet duvar-a dokun-du
pn wall- dat touch- pst
‘Mehmet touched the wall.’

23. fight ( dövüşmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet çocuk-la dövüş-üyor
pn boy- com fight- prs
‘Mehmet is fighting with a boy.’

24. be friends ( arkadaşlık etmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-la arkadaşlık ed-ıyor
pn pn - com friendship make- prs
‘Mehmet is friends with Orhan’.

25. think ( düşünmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i düşün-üyor
pn pn - acc think- prs
‘Mehmet is thinking about Filiz.’

26. eat ( yemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet elma ye-di
pn apple eat- pst
‘Mehmet ate an apple.’

27. fry ( kızartmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet balığ-ı kızart-tı
pn fish- acc fry- pst
‘Mehmet fried the fish.’

28. wait ( beklemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i bekli-yor
pn pn - acc wait- prs
‘Mehmet is waiting for Filiz.’

29. forget ( unutmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet diğer yol-u unut-tu
pn other way- acc forget- pst
‘Mehmet forgot about the other road’.

30. depend ( bağlı olmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
akıl yaş-a bağlı-dır
mind age- dat dependent- cop .3
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call ( çağırmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Filiz Mehmed-i çağır-dı
pn pn - acc call- pst
‘Filiz called Mehmet.’

32. get to know ( tanışmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-le bir yıl önce tanış-tı
pn pn - com one year before get_acquainted- pst
‘Mehmet got to know Filiz a year ago.’

33. know ( tanımak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i tanı-yor
pn pn - acc know- prs
‘Mehmet knows Filiz.’

34. play (instrument) ( çalmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet gitar çal-ıyor
pn guitar strike- prs
‘Mehmet is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid ( kaçmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan kaç-ıyor
pn pn - abl escape- prs
‘Mehmet avoids Orhan’.

36. make ( yapmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet bomba yap-tı
pn bomb make- pst
‘Mehmet made a bomb.’

37. make fun ( alay etmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-le alay ed-ıyor
pn pn - com mockery make- prs
‘Mehmet is making fun of Filiz.’

38. have ( var ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-in araba-sı var
pn - gen car- p .3 there_is
‘Mehmet has a car.’

39. look for ( aramak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet anahtar-lar-ı arı-yor
pn key- pl - acc search- prs
‘Mehmet is looking for his keys’.

40. paint ( boyamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet çit-ler-i boya-dı
pn fence- pl - acc paint- pst
‘Mehmet painted the fence.’

41. bite ( ısırmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
köpek Mehmed-i ısır-dı
dog pn - acc bite- pst
‘A dog bit Mehmet.’

42. forfeit ( kaybetmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ev-i-ni kaybet-ti
pn house- p .3- acc lose- pst
‘Mehmet lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( yakalamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet kedi-yi yakalı-yor
pn cat- acc catch- prs
‘Mehmet is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break ( kırmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet dal-ı kır-dı
pn branch- acc break- pst
‘Mehmet broke a stick.’

45. flatter ( pohpohlamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i pohpohlu-yor
pn pn - acc flatter- prs
Mehmet is flattering Filiz.

46. love (person) ( sevmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i sev-iyor
pn pn - acc love- prs
‘Mehmet loves Filiz.’

47. wave ( sallamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet mendil-i-ni sallı-yor
pn handkerchief- p .3- acc shake- prs
‘Mehmet is waving his handkerchief.’

48. dream ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Mehmet yeni araba al-ma-yı hayal ed-ıyor
pn new car take- nmlz - acc dream make- prs
‘Mehmet is dreaming to buy a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

49. wash ( yıkamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet çay bardağ-ı-nı yıka-dı
pn tea glass- p .3- acc wash- pst
‘Mehmet washed his cup.’

50. put on ( giymek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet pantolon-u-nu giy-di
pn trousers- p .3- acc put_on- pst
‘Mehmet put on his trousers.’

51. be called ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
bu-nun ad-ı pusula-dır
this- gen name- p .3 compass- cop .3
‘This is called a compass.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate (not an argument).

52. punish ( cezalandırmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet oğl-u-nu cezalandır-dı
pn son- p .3- acc punish- pst
‘Mehmet punished his son.’

53. attack ( saldırmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ayı balıkçı-ya saldır-dı
bear fisherman- dat attack- pst
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) ( dolmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
kova suy-la dol-du
bucket water- com fill- pst
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find ( bulmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet anahtar-lar-ı bul-du
pn key- pl - p .3 find- pst
‘Mehmet found his keys.’

56. be short ( yetmemek ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-in bilet al-mak için bir lira-sı yet-mi-yor
pn - gen ticket take- inf for one lira- p .3 be_enough- neg - prs
‘Mehmet is short of one lira to buy a ticket.’

57. hate ( nefret etmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan nefret ed-ıyor
pn pn - abl hatred make- prs
‘Mehmet hates Orhan.’

58. like ( beğenmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet bu gömleğ-i beğen-iyor
pn this shirt- acc like- prs
‘Mehmet likes this shirt.’

59. need ( ihtiyaç olmak ):

Valency pattern: GEN_DAT
X: GEN
Y: DAT
Locus: XY
Mehmed-in para-ya ihtiyac-ı var
pn - gen money- dat need- p .3 there_is
‘Mehmet needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround ( çevrelemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
duvar şehr-i çevreli-yor
wall city- acc encircle- prs
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain ( kalmak ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-in şimdi on lira-sı kal-dı
pn - gen now ten lira- p .3 remain- pst
‘Now Mehmet has 10 liras left.’

62. answer ( cevap vermek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet öğretmen-e cevap ver-di
pn teacher- dat answer give- pst
‘Mehmet answered the teacher.’

63. open ( açmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet şişe-yi aç-tı
pn bottle- acc open- pst
‘Mehmet opened the bottle.’

64. be different ( farklı olmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
benim gömleğ-im senin-ki-nden farklı
i . gen shirt- p .1 sg thou. gen - adj - abl different
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind ( geri kalmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-dan geri kal-dı
pn pn - abl behind remain- pst
‘Mehmet fell behind Orhan.’

66. plough ( sürmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet tarla-yı sür-üyor
pn field- acc plough- prs
‘Mehmet is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( kokmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
el-ler-im bu benzin-den kok-uyor
hand- pl - p .1 sg this gasoline- abl smell- prs
‘My hands smell of this gasoline.’

68. cross ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Mehmet yol-dan karşı-ya geç-ti
pn way- abl opposite- dat pass- pst
‘Mehmet crossed to the other side of the street.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

69. sing ( söylemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet güzel şarkı-yı söyle-di
pn beautiful song- acc sing- pst
‘Mehmet sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ( yazmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet mektup yaz-dı
pn letter write- pst
‘Mehmet wrote a letter.’

71. drink ( içmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet suy-u iç-ti
pn water- acc drink- pst
‘Mehmet drank the water’.

72. melt ( eritmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet buz-u erit-ti
pn ice- acc melt- pst
‘Mehmet melted the ice.’

73. match ( uymak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
bu kemer elbise-m-e uy-uyor
this belt dress- p .1 sg - dat fit- prs
‘This belt matches my dress.’

74. leave ( ayrılmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet memleket-i-nden ayrıl-dı
pn hometown- p .3- abl leave- pst
‘Mehmet left his hometown.’

75. cover ( kaplamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
halı bütün yer-i kaplı-yor
carpet whole place- acc cover- prs
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( hatırlamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet büyü-düğ-ü ev-i iyi hatırlı-yor
pn grow- ptcp . pst - p .3 house- p .3 good remember- prs
‘Mehmet remembers the house where he grew up well.’

77. help ( yardım etmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e yardım et-ti
pn pn - dat help make- pst
‘Mehmet helped Filiz.’

78. understand (language) ( anlamak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Fransız dil-i-ni anlı-yor
pn f rench language- p .3- acc understand- prs
‘Mehmet understands the French language.’

79. hit (target) ( düşmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
yıldırım ev-e düş-tü
lightning house- dat fall- pst
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself ( yüzünü kesmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet traş bıçağ-ı-yla yüz-ü-nü kes-ti
pn shaving knife- p .3- com face- p .3- acc cut- pst
‘Mehmet cut his face with a razor.’

81. get stuck ( yapışmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
bardak masa-ya yapış-tı
glass table- dat stick- pst
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( kaybetmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a kaybet-ti
pn pn - dat lose- pst
‘Mehmet lost to Orhan.’

83. be glad ( sevinmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet mektub-a sevin-di
pn letter- dat rejoice- pst
‘Mehmet was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ( konuşmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-la konuş-uyor
pn pn - com talk- prs
‘Mehmet is speaking with Orhan.’

85. give birth ( doğurmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Filiz erkek çocuğ-u doğur-du
pn male child- p .3 give_birth- pst
‘Filiz gave birth to a baby boy.’

86. drop ( düşürmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet bardağ-ı düşür-dü
pn glass- acc drop- pst
‘Mehmet dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( yönetmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet fabrıka-yı yönet-iyor
pn factory- acc manage- prs
‘Mehmet runs the factory.’

88. miss ( özlemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i özlö-yor
pn pn - acc miss- prs
‘Mehmet misses Filiz.’

89. follow ( gitmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENpesinden
X: NOM
Y: GENpesinden
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-ın peşinden gid-iyor
pn pn - gen after go- prs
‘Mehmet is following Orhan.’

90. dismount ( inmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet at-tan in-di
pn horse- abl descend- pst
‘Mehmet got down from the horse.’

91. listen ( dinlemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet radyo-yı dinli-yor
pn radio- acc listen- prs
‘Mehmet is listening to the radio.’

92. obey ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Mehmet anne-si-nin söz-ü-nü dinli-yor
pn mother- p .3- gen word- p .3- acc listen- prs
‘Mehmet obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

93. hear ( duymak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet müziğ-i duy-uyor
pn music- acc hear- prs
‘Mehmet hears the music.’

94. mix ( karışmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
süt bal-la karış-tı
milk honey- com mix- pst
‘The milk got mixed with the honey.’

95. look ( bakmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet yağmur bulut-lar-ı-na bak-ıyor
pn rain cloud- pl - p .3- dat look- prs
‘Mehmet is looking at the rainclouds.’

96. take off ( çıkarmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet gömleğ-i-ni çıkar-dı
pn shirt- p .3- acc extract- pst
‘Mehmet took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ( rüyasında görmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet rüya-sı-nda Filiz-i gör-üyor
pn dream- p .3- loc pn - acc see- prs
‘Mehmet dreams about Filiz.’

98. agree ( katılmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e katıl-dı
pn pn - dat join- pst
‘Mehmet agreed with Filiz.’

99. have a quarrel ( bozuşmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-la bozuş-tu
pn pn - com quarrel- pst
‘Mehmet quarreled with Orhan.’

100. cost ( etmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
bu bardak bir lira ed-iyor
this glass one lira make- prs
‘This glass costs one lira.’

101. shoot at ( ateş etmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet kuş-a ateş et-ti
pn bird- dat fire make- pst
‘Mehmet shot at the bird.’

102. pour ( dökmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet bardağ-a şeker dök-tü
pn glass- dat sugar pour- pst
‘Mehmet poured sugar into the glass.’

103. lose ( kaybetmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet anahtar-lar-ı kaybet-ti
pn key- pl - p .3 lose- pst
‘Mehmet lost his keys.’

104. sink ( batmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
odun parça-sı su-da bat-tı
wood piece- p .3 water- loc sink- pst
‘The piece sank in the water.’

105. kill ( öldürmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Orhan-ı öldür-dü
pn pn - acc kill- pst
‘Mehmet killed Orhan.’

106. hit ( vurmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a vur-du
pn pn - dat strike- pst
‘Mehmet hit Orhan.’

107. kiss ( öpmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i öp-tü
pn pn - acc kiss- pst
‘Mehmet kissed Filiz.’

108. read ( okumak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ilginç bir kitap oku-du
pn interesting one book read- pst
‘Mehmet read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( kıpırdatmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet parmağ-ı-nı kıpırdat-tı
pn finger- p .3- acc wiggle- pst
‘Mehmet moved his finger.’

110. respect ( saygı göstermek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a saygı göster-ir
pn pn - dat respect show- aor
‘Mehmet respects Orhan.’

111. be squeamish ( iğrenmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet bulaşık-lar-dan iğren-iyor
pn dirty_dishes- pl - abl be_disgusted- prs
‘Mehmet is sqeamish about the dirty dishes.’

112. be content ( memnun olmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet oğl-u-ndan memnun
pn son- p .3- abl pleased
‘Mehmet is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love ( âşık olmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e âşık ol-du
pn pn - dat enamoured be- pst
‘Mehmet fell in love with Filiz.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

114. trust ( güvenmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e güven-iyor
pn pn - dat trust- prs
‘Mehmet trusts Filiz.’

115. sympathise ( acımak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet anne-si-ne acı-yor
pn mother- p .3- dat feel_pity- prs
‘Mehmet feels sorry for his mother.’

116. envy ( kıskanmak ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Orhan-ı kıskan-ıyor
pn pn - acc envy- prs
‘Mehmet envies Orhan.’

117. be angry ( öfkelenmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a öfkelen-iyor
pn pn - dat be_angry- prs
‘Mehmet is angry with Orhan.’

118. be surprised ( şaşmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet bu hediye-ye şaş-tı
pn this gift- dat be_surprised- pst
‘Mehmet was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) ( sevmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet çay sev-er
pn tea love- aor
‘Mehmet loves tea.’

120. enjoy ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Mehmet çay-ın tad-ı-nı çıkar-ıyor
pn tea- gen taste- p .3- acc extract- prs
‘Mehmet is enjoying the tea.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

121. want ( istemek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet yeni telefon isti-yor
pn new phone want- prs
‘Mehmet wants a new phone.’

122. have a grudge ( öfkelenmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a öfkelen-iyor
pn pn - dat be_angry- prs
‘Mehmet is angry with Orhan.’

123. take offence ( gücenmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e gücen-di
pn pn - dat take_offence- pst
‘Mehmet took offence at Filiz.’

124. upset ( üzmek ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Orhan Mehmed-i üz-dü
pn pn - acc upset- pst
‘Orhan upset Mehmet.’

125. marvel ( şaşmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet bu şehir-e şaş-tı
pn this city- dat be_surprised- pst
‘Mehmet marvelled at this city.’

126. despise ( hor görmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a hor gör-üyor
pn pn - dat contemptible see- prs
‘Mehmet despises Orhan.’

127. get upset ( üzülmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENuzunden
X: NOM
Y: GENuzunden
Locus: Y
Mehmet oğl-u yüzünden üzül-dü
pn son- p .3 because_of be_upset- pst
‘Mehmet got upset because of his son.’

128. get irritated ( sinirlenmek ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a sinirlen-iyor
pn pn - dat get_irritated- prs
‘Mehmet is getting irritated with Orhan.’

129. be fond ( sempati duymak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e sempati duy-or
pn pn - dat liking feel- aor
‘Mehmet is fond of Filiz.’

130. be shy ( utanmak ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Mehmet boy-u-ndan utan-uyor
pn height- p .3- abl be_shy- prs
‘Mehmet is shy about his height.’