BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

Slovenian

Contributed by Mladen Uhlik (Academia.edu profile) and Andreja Žele

M.U.'s photo A.Z.'s photo

Mladen Uhlik and Andreja Žele provided the data in 2017 and 2021 in the capacity of native speakers of Slovenian. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Uhlik, Mladen & Andreja Žele. 2021. Bivalent patterns in Slovenian. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on January 21, 2021; last revised on January 17, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Slovenian generally exhibits the nominative-accusative alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the nominative, and the P-argument in the accusative. The word order is relatively free. For the majority of bivalent predicates, the SVO order is unmarked, other combinations of information structure having communicative and pragmatic functions.

Differential object marking is correlated to negation: the direct object (P-argument) in non-negative sentences is coded by the accusative, while it is expressed by the genitive in negative sentences.

(1) Peter       je       vze-l               knjig-o.
    PN[NOM.SG]  AUX.3SG  take:PFV-LPT[M.SG]  book-ACC.SG
    ‘Peter took a book.’

(2) Peter       ni           vze-l               knjig-e.
    PN[NOM.SG]  NEG.AUX.3SG  take:PFV-LPT[M.SG]  book-GEN.SG
    ‘Peter didn't take book.’

The predicate always agrees with the canonical nominative subject in number and person. The analytical predicate containing the l-participle (past and future tenses) or the n- and t-participles (passive constructions) also agrees in gender. Non-subjects are never indexed on the predicate. Some bivalent predicates expressing physical or emotional states display the Experiencer in the dative (3) or the accusative (4), that, unless expressed by pronominal clitics, takes the thematic position.

(3) Petr-u     se    toži               po  An-i.
    PN-DAT.SG  RFL   miss:IPFV.PRS.3SG  by  PN-LOC
    ‘Peter misses Ana.’

(4) An-o       boli               glav-a.
    PN-ACC.SG  ache:IPFV.PRS.3SG  head-NOM.SG
    ‘Ana has a headache.’

Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers and prepositions. The same preposition can be used with different cases. For instance, for prepositional phrases with pred ‘in front of’ the choice of the case expresses the distinction between direction (5) and location (6).

(5) postaviti    pred         vrat-a
    put:PFV.INF  in_front_of  door-ACC.PL
    ‘to put in front of the door’

(6) stati           pred         vrat-i
    stand:IPFV.INF  in_front_of  door-INS.PL
    ‘to stand in front of the door’

Case system

There are 6 full-fledged cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, and instrumental. Instrumental and locative are always used with a preposition.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited in their infinitive form specified for aspect (perfective or imperfective).

Glossing abbreviations

3 — 3rd person; ACC — accusative; AUX — auxiliary; DAT — dative; F — feminine; GEN — genitive; INS — instrumental; IPFV — imperfective; LOC — locative; LPT — l-participle; M — masculine; N — neuter; NOM — nominative; PFV — pefective; PL — plural; PN — person name; PRS — present; RFL — reflexive; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain boleti

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-o boli glav-a
pn - acc . sg ache: ipfv . prs .3 sg head- nom . sg
‘Ana has a headache.’

2. have (illness) imeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ima grip-o
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg flu- acc . sg
‘Ana has the flu.’

3. be afraid bati se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se malo boji ps-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl a_little be_afraid: ipfv . prs .3 sg dog- gen . sg
‘Peter is a little afraid of the dog.’

4. throw vreči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je vrge-l kamen
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg throw: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter threw a stone.’

5. have enough imeti dovolj

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
An-a ima dovolj denarj-a
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg enough money- gen . sg
‘Ana has enough money.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + adnominal modifier).

6. resemble biti podoben

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a je podobn-a Katarin-i
pn - nom . sg be. prs .3 sg similar- nom . sg . f pn - dat . sg
‘Ana resembles Katarina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe verjeti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a verjame očet-u
pn - nom . sg believe: ipfv . prs .3 sg father- dat . sg
‘Ana believes her father.’

8. take vzeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je vze-l knjig-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg take: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] book- acc . sg
‘Peter took a book.’

9. see videti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel vidi hiš-o
pn [ nom . sg ] see: ipfv . prs .3 sg house- acc . sg
‘Pavel sees a house.’

10. influence vplivati

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
starost vpliva na spomin
age[ nom . sg ] influence: ipfv . prs .3 sg on memory[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter srečati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je sreča-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg meet: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel ran into Ana.’

12. enter vstopiti

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pavel je vstopi-l v hiš-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg enter: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in house- acc . sg
‘Pavel entered the house.’

13. win premagati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je premaga-l Petr-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg win: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel beat Peter.’

14. go out izstopiti

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Peter je izstopi-l iz hiš-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg go_out: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] from house- gen . sg
‘Peter went out of the house.’

15. drive gnati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter žene krav-o
pn [ nom . sg ] drive: ipfv . prs .3 sg cow- acc . sg
‘Peter is driving the cow.’

16. bend upogniti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je upogni-l vej-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg bend: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] branch- acc . sg
‘Pavel bent the branch.’

17. tell povedati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je poveda-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg tell: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter told Ana.’

18. hold držati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter drži knjig-o
pn [ nom . sg ] hold: ipfv . prs .3 sg book- acc . sg
‘Peter is holding a book.’

19. catch up dohiteti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
patrulj-a je dohite-l-a Petr-a
patrol- nom . sg aux .3 sg catch_up: pfv - lpt - f . sg pn - acc . sg
‘The patrol caught up with Peter.’

20. milk pomolzti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je pomolz-l-a krav-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg milk: pfv - lpt - f . sg cow- acc . sg
‘Ana milked the cow.’

21. reach doseči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
nemc-i so doseg-l-i obal-o
g erman- nom . pl aux .3 pl reach: pfv - lpt - m . pl bank- acc . sg
‘The Germans reached the bank.’

22. touch dotakniti se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se je dotakni-l sten-e
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg touch: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] wall- gen . sg
‘Peter touched the wall.’
Note: Involuntary action is implied.

23. fight tepsti se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se tepe s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl beat: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is fighting with Pavel.’

24. be friends prijateljevati

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter prijateljuje s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] be_friends: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is friends with Pavel.’

25. think razmišljati

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter razmišlja o An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] think: ipfv . prs .3 sg about pn - loc . sg
‘Peter is thinking about Ana.’

26. eat pojesti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je pojede-l jabolk-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg eat: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] apple- acc . sg
‘Peter ate an apple.’

27. fry speči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je speke-l rib-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg fry: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fish- acc . sg
‘Peter fried the fish.’

28. wait čakati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Аn-a čaka sestričn-o
pn - nom . sg wait: ipfv . prs .3 sg female_cousin- acc . sg
‘Ana is waiting for her cousin.’

29. forget pozabiti

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter je pozabi-l na pot
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg forget: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] on road[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter forgot about the road.’

30. depend biti odvisen

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
spomin je odvisen od starost-i
memory[ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg dependent[ nom . sg . m ] from age- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call poklicati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je poklica-l zet-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg call: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] son_in_law- acc . sg
‘Peter called his son-in-law.’

32. get to know spoznati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se je lani spozna-l s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg year_ago learn: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter got to know Pavel a year ago.’

33. know poznati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter pozna Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] know: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter knows Pavel.’

34. play (instrument) igrati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter igra kitar-o
pn [ nom . sg ] play: ipfv . prs .3 sg guitar- acc . sg
‘Peter is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid izogibati se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter se izogiba Pavl-u
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl avoid: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Peter avoids Pavel.’

36. make narediti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je naredi-l bomb-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg make: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] bomb- acc . sg
‘Peter made a bomb.’

37. make fun norčevati se

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Peter se norčuje iz Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl make_fun: ipfv . prs .3 sg from pn - gen . sg
‘Peter is making fun of Pavel.’

38. have imeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mož ima avt-o
husband[ nom . sg ] have: ipfv . prs .3 sg car- acc . sg
‘Husband has a car.’

39. look for iskati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a išče ključ-e
pn - nom . sg look_for: ipfv . prs .3 sg key- acc . pl
‘Ana is looking for her keys.’

40. paint pobarvati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je pobarva-l ograj-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg paint: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fence- acc . sg
‘Peter painted the fence.’

41. bite ugrizniti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pes je ugrizni-l mam-o
dog[ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg bite: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] mother- acc . sg
‘A dog bit the mother.’

42. forfeit ostati

Valency pattern: NOM_brezGEN
X: NOM
Y: brezGEN
Locus: Y
Pavel je osta-l brez dom-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] without house- gen . sg
‘Pavel lost his house.’

43. try to catch loviti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
deklic-a lovi mačk-o
girl- nom . sg try_to_catch: ipfv . prs .3 sg cat- acc . sg
‘The girl is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break zlomiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je zlomi-l palčk-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg break: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] stick- acc . sg
‘Peter broke a stick.’

45. flatter se dobrika

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Katarin-a se dobrika An-i
pn - nom . sg rfl flatter: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Katarina is flattering Ana.’

46. love (person) ljubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ljubi Petr-a
pn - nom . sg love: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Ana loves Peter.’

47. wave mahati

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Pavel maha z robčk-om
pn [ nom . sg ] wave: ipfv . prs .3 sg with handkerchief- ins . sg
‘Pavel is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream sanjati

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter sanja o avt-u
pn [ nom . sg ] dream: ipfv . prs .3 sg about car- loc . sg
‘Peter is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash umiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je umi-l skodelic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg wash: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] cup- acc . sg
‘Peter washed the cup.’

50. put on obleči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je obleke-l hlač-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg put_on: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] trousers- acc . pl
‘Pavel put on his trousers.’

51. be called imenovati se

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
ta predmet se imenuje kompas
this. nom . sg . m thing[ nom . sg ] rfl call: ipfv . prs .3 sg compass[ nom . sg ]
‘This tool is called a compas.’

52. punish kaznovati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je kaznova-l sin-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg punish: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] son- acc . sg
‘Peter punished his.’

53. attack napasti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medved je napade-l ribič-a
bear[ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg attack: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fisherman- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) napolniti se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
vedr-o se je napolni-l-o z vod-o
bucket- nom . sg rfl aux .3 sg fill: pfv - lpt - n . sg with water- ins . sg
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find najti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je naše-l ključ-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg find: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] key- acc . pl
‘Peter found his keys.’

56. be short manjkati

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-i manjka en dolar
pn - dat . sg lack: ipfv . prs .3 sg one. nom . sg . m dollar[ nom . sg ]
‘Ana is short one dollar.’

57. hate sovražiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter sovraži An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] hate: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter hates Ana.’

58. like biti všeč

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u je všeč ta srajc-a
pn - dat . sg be. prs .3 sg pleasant this. nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg
‘Peter likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

59. need potrebovati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a potrebuje denar
pn - nom . sg need: ipfv . prs .3 sg money[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana needs money.’

60. surround obdajati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mest-o obdaja obzidj-e
city- acc . sg surround: ipfv . prs .3 sg wall- nom . sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain ostati

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-i je osta-l-o deset dolarj-ev
pn - dat . sg aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt - n . sg 10[ nom ] dollar- gen . pl
‘Ana has 10 dollars left.’

62. answer odgovoriti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je odgovori-l učitelj-u
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg answer: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] teacher- dat . sg
‘Peter answered the teacher.’

63. open odpreti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je odpr-l bank-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg open: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] can- acc . sg
‘Peter opened a can.’

64. be different razlikovati se

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
moj-a srajc-a se razlikuje od tvoj-e
my- nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg rfl be_different: ipfv . prs .3 sg from your- gen . sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

65. fall behind zaostati

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
An-a je zaosta-l-a za Pavl-om
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt - f . sg behind pn - ins . sg
‘Ana fell behind Pavel.’

66. plough orati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a orje polj-e
pn - nom . sg plough: ipfv . prs .3 sg field- acc . sg
‘Ana is ploughing the field.’

67. smell dišati

Valency pattern: NOM_poLOC
X: NOM
Y: poLOC
Locus: Y
moj-e rok-e dišijo po bencin-u
my- nom . pl . f hand- nom . pl smell: ipfv . prs .3 pl by gasoline- loc . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross prečkati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je prečka-l cest-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg cross: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] road- acc . sg
‘Peter crossed the road.’

69. sing zapeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je zape-l lep-o pesem
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg sing: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] beautiful- acc . sg . f song[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter sang a beautiful song.’

70. write napisati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je napisa-l-a pism-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg write: pfv - lpt - f . sg letter- acc . sg
‘Ana wrote a letter.’

71. drink spiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je spi-l mlek-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg drink: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] milk- acc . sg
‘Peter drank the milk.’

72. melt razstopiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je razstopi-l kos svinc-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg melt: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] piece[ acc . sg ] lead- gen . sg
‘Peter melted a piece of lead.’

73. match iti

Valency pattern: NOM_kDAT
X: NOM
Y: kDAT
Locus: Y
ta pas gre k moj-emu plašč-u
this. nom . sg . m belt[ nom . sg ] go: ipfv . prs .3 sg to my- dat . sg . m dress- dat . sg
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave zapustiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je zapusti-l rojstn-o mest-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg leave: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] native- acc . sg . n city- acc . sg
‘Peter left his native city.’

75. cover pokrivati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
preprog-a pokriva cel-a tl-a
carpet- nom . sg cover: ipfv . prs .3 sg whole- acc . pl . n floor- acc . pl
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember spominjati se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se dobro spominja dom-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl well remember: ipfv . prs .3 sg house- gen . sg
‘Peter remembers the house well.’

77. help pomagati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je pomaga-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg help: pfv / ipfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter helped Ana.’

78. understand (language) razumeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter razume francosk-i jezik
pn [ nom . sg ] understand: ipfv . prs .3 sg f rench- acc . sg . m language[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter understands French.’

79. hit (target) udariti

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
v hiš-o je udari-l-a strel-a
in house- acc . sg aux .3 sg hit: pfv - lpt - f . sg lightning- nom . sg
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself urezati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se je ureza-l z britvij-o
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg cut: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with razor- ins . sg
‘Peter cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck prilepiti se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
kozarec se je prilepi-l na miz-o
glass[ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg stick: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] on table- acc . sg
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) izgubiti

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je izgubi-l s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg lose: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter lost to Pavel.’

83. be glad razveseliti se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
general se je razveseli-l pism-a
general[ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg rejoice: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] letter- gen . sg
‘The general was glad about the letter.’

84. speak pogovarjati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se pogovarja s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl speak: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is speaking with Pavel.’

85. give birth roditi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je rodi-l-a sin-a
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg give_birth- lpt - f . sg son- acc . sg
‘Ana gave birth to a son.’

86. drop spustiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je spusti-l-a kozarec
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg drop: pfv - lpt - f . sg glass[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana dropped the glass.’

87. govern upravljati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a upravlja naš-o vas
pn - nom . sg govern. prs .3 sg our- acc . sg . f village[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana runs our village.’

88. miss tožiti se

Valency pattern: DAT_poLOC
X: DAT
Y: poLOC
Locus: XY
Petr-u se toži po An-i
pn - dat . sg rfl miss: ipfv . prs .3 sg by pn - loc . sg
‘Peter misses Ana.’

89. follow slediti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter sledi Pavl-u
pn [ nom . sg ] follow: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Peter follows Pavel.’

90. dismount zlesti

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter je zleze-l s konj-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg dismount: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] from horse- gen . sg
‘Peter got down from the horse.’

91. listen poslušati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a posluša radi-o
pn - nom . sg listen: ipfv . prs .3 sg radio- acc . sg
‘Ana is listening to radio.’

92. obey ubogati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a uboga mam-o
pn - nom . sg obey: ipfv . prs .3 sg mother- acc . sg
‘Ana obeys her mother.’

93. hear slišati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a sliši glasb-o
pn - nom . sg hear: ipfv . prs .3 sg music- acc . sg
‘Ana hears the music.’

94. mix zmešati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
med se je zmeša-l z mlek-om
honey[ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg mix: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with milk- ins . sg
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look gledati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a gleda oblak-e
pn - nom . sg look: ipfv . prs .3 sg cloud- acc . pl
‘Ana is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off sleči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je slek-l-a bluz-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg take_off: pfv - lpt - f . sg shirt- acc . sg
‘Ana took off her shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) sanjati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je sanja-l Devic-o Marij-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg dream: ipfv - lpt [ m . sg ] virgin- acc . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter dreams about Virgin Mary.’

98. agree strinjati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
An-a se je strinja-l-a s Pavl-om
pn - nom . sg rfl aux .3 sg agree: pfv - lpt - f . sg с pn - ins . sg
‘Ana agreed with Pavel.’

99. have a quarrel spreti se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Katarin-a se je spr-l-a z An-o
pn - nom . sg rfl aux .3 sg quarrel: pfv - lpt - f . sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Katarina had a quarrel with Ana.’

100. cost stati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ta skodelic-a stane en-o kron-o
this. nom . sg . f cup- nom . sg cost: ipfv . prs .3 sg one- acc . sg . f crown- acc . sg
‘This cup costs one crown.’

101. shoot at ustreliti

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pavel je ustreli-l v ptic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg shoot: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in bird- acc . sg
‘Pavel shot at the bird.’

102. pour nasuti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je nasu-l sladkor v skodelic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg pour: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] sugar[ acc . sg ] in cup- acc . sg
‘Peter poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose izgubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je izgubi-l ključ-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg lose: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] key- acc . pl
‘Peter lost his keys.’

104. sink potoniti

Valency pattern: NOM_vLOC
X: NOM
Y: vLOC
Locus: Y
Polen-o je potoni-l-o v vod-i
log- nom . sg aux .3 sg sink: pfv - lpt - n . sg in water- loc . sg
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je ubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kill: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter killed Ana.’

106. hit udariti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je udari-l Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg hit: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter hit Pavel.’

107. kiss poljubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je poljubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kiss: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter kissed Ana.’

108. read prebrati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je prebra-l-a zanimiv-o knjig-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg read: pfv - lpt - f . sg interesting- acc . sg . f book- acc . sg
‘Ana read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) migniti

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je migni-l s palc-em
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg move: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with finger- ins . sg
‘Peter moved his finger.’

110. respect spoštovati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Katarin-a spoštuje An-o
pn - nom . sg respect: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Katarina respects Ana.’

111. be squeamish gnusiti se

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u se gnusi umazan-a posod-a
pn - dat . sg rfl be_squeamish: ipfv . prs .3 sg dirty- nom . sg . f dishes- nom . sg
‘Peter is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content biti zadovoljen

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je zadovoljen s sin-om
pn [ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg content[ nom . sg . m ] with son- ins . sg
‘Peter is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love zaljubiti se

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Peter se je zaljubi-l v An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg fall_in_love: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in pn - acc . sg
‘Peter fell in love with Ana.’

114. trust zaupati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter zaupa An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] trust: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg . f
‘Peter trusts Ana.’

115. sympathise smiliti se

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u se mat-i smili
pn - dat . sg rfl mother- nom . sg pity: pfv . prs .3 sg
‘Peter sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy zavidati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a zavida Petr-u
pn - nom . sg envy: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Ana envies Peter.’

117. be angry jeziti se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
An-a se jezi na Petr-a
pn - nom . sg rfl anger: ipfv . prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Ana is angry with Peter.’

118. be surprised začuditi

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a je začudi-l-o daril-o
pn - acc . sg aux .3 sg surprise: pfv - lpt - n . sg gift- nom . sg
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) imeti rad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ima rad-a čaj
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg happy- f . sg tea[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana loves tea.’

120. enjoy uživati

Valency pattern: NOM_vLOC
X: NOM
Y: vLOC
Locus: Y
An-a uživa v čaj-u
pn - nom . sg enjoy: ipfv . prs .3 sg in tea- loc . sg
‘Ana enjoys hot tea.’

121. want želeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a želi nov-i mobilnik
pn - nom . sg want: ipfv . prs .3 sg new- acc . sg . m mobile_phone[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge jeziti se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pavel se jezi na Petr-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl anger: ipfv . prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel is angry with Peter.’

123. take offence zameriti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je zameri-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg resent: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter took offence at Ana.’

124. upset razžalostiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je zelo razžalosti-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg very upset: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel greatly upset Ana.’

125. marvel biti navdušen

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Pavel je bi-l navdušen nad tem mest-om
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg be- lpt [ m . sg ] thrilled[ nom . m . sg ] above this. ins . sg . n city- ins . sg
‘Pavel was marvelled at this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive participle).

126. despise prezirati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel prezira Petr-a
pn [ nom . sg ] despise: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel despises Peter.’

127. get upset biti potrt

Valency pattern: NOM_zaradiGEN
X: NOM
Y: zaradiGEN
Locus: Y
An-a je bi-l-a potrt-a zaradi sin-a
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg be- lpt - f . sg depressed- nom . f . sg because_of son- gen . sg
‘Ana got upset because of ther son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive participle).

128. get irritated razburjati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zaradiGEN
X: NOM
Y: zaradiGEN
Locus: Y
Pavel se razburja zaradi Аn-e
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl upset: ipfv . prs .3 sg because_of pn - gen . sg
‘Pavel is getting irritated with Ana.’

129. be fond biti všeč

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u je všeč An-a
pn - dat . sg be. prs .3 sg pleasant pn - nom . sg
‘Peter is fond of Ana.’

130. be shy sramovati se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se sramuje svoj-e višin-e
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl be_ashamed: ipfv . prs .3 sg one’s- gen . sg . f height- gen . sg
‘Peter is shy about his height.’