BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

Slovenian

Contributed by Mladen Uhlik (Academia.edu profile) and Andreja Žele

M.U.'s photo A.Z.'s photo

Mladen Uhlik and Andreja Žele provided the data in 2017 and 2021 in the capacity of native speakers of Slovenian. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Uhlik, Mladen & Andreja Žele. 2021. Bivalent patterns in Slovenian. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on January 21, 2021; last revised on February 12, 2021.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Slovenian generally exhibits the nominative-accusative alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the nominative, and the P-argument in the accusative. The word order is relatively free. For the majority of bivalent predicates, the SVO order is unmarked, other combinations of information structure having communicative and pragmatic functions.

Differential object marking is correlated to negation: the direct object (P-argument) in non-negative sentences is coded by the accusative, while it is expressed by the genitive in negative sentences.


(1) Peter       je       vze-l               knjig-o.
    PN[NOM.SG]  AUX.3SG  take:PFV-LPT[M.SG]  book-ACC.SG
    ‘Peter took a book.’

(2) Peter       ni           vze-l               knjig-e.
    PN[NOM.SG]  NEG.AUX.3SG  take:PFV-LPT[M.SG]  book-GEN.SG
    ‘Peter didn't take book.’

The predicate always agrees with the canonical nominative subject in number and person. The analytical predicate containing the l-participle (past and future tenses) or the n- and t-participles (passive constructions) also agrees in gender. Non-subjects are never indexed on the predicate. Some bivalent predicates expressing physical or emotional states display the Experiencer in the dative (3) or the accusative (4), that, unless expressed by pronominal clitics, takes the thematic position.


(3) Petr-u     se    toži               po  An-i.
    PN-DAT.SG  RFL   miss:IPFV.PRS.3SG  by  PN-LOC
    ‘Peter misses Ana.’

(4) An-o       boli               glav-a.
    PN-ACC.SG  ache:IPFV.PRS.3SG  head-NOM.SG
    ‘Ana has a headache.’

Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers and prepositions. The same preposition can be used with different cases. For instance, for prepositional phrases with pred ‘in front of’ the choice of the case expresses the distinction between direction (5) and location (6).


(5) postaviti    pred         vrat-a
    put:PFV.INF  in_front_of  door-ACC.PL
    ‘to put in front of the door’

(6) stati           pred         vrat-i
    stand:IPFV.INF  in_front_of  door-INS.PL
    ‘to stand in front of the door’

Case system

There are 6 full-fledged cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, and instrumental. Instrumental and locative are always used with a preposition.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited in their infinitive form specified for aspect (perfective or imperfective).

Glossing abbreviations

3 — 3rd person; ACC — accusative; AUX — auxiliary; DAT — dative; F — feminine; GEN — genitive; INS — instrumental; IPFV — imperfective; LOC — locative; LPT — l-participle; M — masculine; N — neuter; NOM — nominative; PFV — pefective; PL — plural; PN — person name; PRS — present; RFL — reflexive; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( boleti ):

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-o boli glav-a
pn - acc . sg ache: ipfv . prs .3 sg head- nom . sg
‘Ana has a headache.’

2. have (illness) ( imeti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ima grip-o
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg flu- acc . sg
‘Ana has the flu.’

3. be afraid ( bati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se malo boji ps-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl a_little be_afraid: ipfv . prs .3 sg dog- gen . sg
‘Peter is a little afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( vreči ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je vrge-l kamen
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg throw: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter threw a stone.’

5. have enough ( imeti dovolj ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
An-a ima dovolj denarj-a
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg enough money- gen . sg
‘Ana has enough money.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + adnominal modifier).

6. resemble ( biti podoben ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a je podobn-a Katarin-i
pn - nom . sg be. prs .3 sg similar- nom . sg . f pn - dat . sg
‘Ana resembles Katarina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe ( verjeti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a verjame očet-u
pn - nom . sg believe: ipfv . prs .3 sg father- dat . sg
‘Ana believes her father.’

8. take ( vzeti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je vze-l knjig-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg take: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] book- acc . sg
‘Peter took a book.’

9. see ( videti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel vidi hiš-o
pn [ nom . sg ] see: ipfv . prs .3 sg house- acc . sg
‘Pavel sees a house.’

10. influence ( vplivati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
starost vpliva na spomin
age[ nom . sg ] influence: ipfv . prs .3 sg on memory[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter ( srečati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je sreča-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg meet: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel ran into Ana.’

12. enter ( vstopiti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pavel je vstopi-l v hiš-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg enter: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in house- acc . sg
‘Pavel entered the house.’

13. win ( premagati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je premaga-l Petr-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg win: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel beat Peter.’

14. go out ( izstopiti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Peter je izstopi-l iz hiš-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg go_out: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] from house- gen . sg
‘Peter went out of the house.’

15. drive ( gnati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter žene krav-o
pn [ nom . sg ] drive: ipfv . prs .3 sg cow- acc . sg
‘Peter is driving the cow.’

16. bend ( upogniti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je upogni-l vej-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg bend: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] branch- acc . sg
‘Pavel bent the branch.’

17. tell ( povedati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je poveda-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg tell: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter told Ana.’

18. hold ( držati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter drži knjig-o
pn [ nom . sg ] hold: ipfv . prs .3 sg book- acc . sg
‘Peter is holding a book.’

19. catch up ( dohiteti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
patrulj-a je dohite-l-a Petr-a
patrol- nom . sg aux .3 sg catch_up: pfv - lpt - f . sg pn - acc . sg
‘The patrol caught up with Peter.’

20. milk ( pomolzti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je pomolz-l-a krav-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg milk: pfv - lpt - f . sg cow- acc . sg
‘Ana milked the cow.’

21. reach ( doseči ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
nemc-i so doseg-l-i obal-o
g erman- nom . pl aux .3 pl reach: pfv - lpt - m . pl bank- acc . sg
‘The Germans reached the bank.’

22. touch ( dotakniti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se je dotakni-l sten-e
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg touch: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] wall- gen . sg
‘Peter touched the wall.’
Note: Involuntary action is implied.

23. fight ( tepsti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se tepe s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl beat: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is fighting with Pavel.’

24. be friends ( prijateljevati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter prijateljuje s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] be_friends: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is friends with Pavel.’

25. think ( razmišljati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter razmišlja o An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] think: ipfv . prs .3 sg about pn - loc . sg
‘Peter is thinking about Ana.’

26. eat ( pojesti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je pojede-l jabolk-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg eat: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] apple- acc . sg
‘Peter ate an apple.’

27. fry ( speči ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je speke-l rib-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg fry: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fish- acc . sg
‘Peter fried the fish.’

28. wait ( čakati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Аn-a čaka sestričn-o
pn - nom . sg wait: ipfv . prs .3 sg female_cousin- acc . sg
‘Ana is waiting for her cousin.’

29. forget ( pozabiti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter je pozabi-l na pot
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg forget: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] on road[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter forgot about the road.’

30. depend ( biti odvisen ):

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
spomin je odvisen od starost-i
memory[ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg dependent[ nom . sg . m ] from age- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call ( poklicati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je poklica-l zet-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg call: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] son_in_law- acc . sg
‘Peter called his son-in-law.’

32. get to know ( spoznati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se je lani spozna-l s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg year_ago learn: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter got to know Pavel a year ago.’

33. know ( poznati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter pozna Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] know: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter knows Pavel.’

34. play (instrument) ( igrati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter igra kitar-o
pn [ nom . sg ] play: ipfv . prs .3 sg guitar- acc . sg
‘Peter is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid ( izogibati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter se izogiba Pavl-u
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl avoid: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Peter avoids Pavel.’

36. make ( narediti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je naredi-l bomb-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg make: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] bomb- acc . sg
‘Peter made a bomb.’

37. make fun ( norčevati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Peter se norčuje iz Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl make_fun: ipfv . prs .3 sg from pn - gen . sg
‘Peter is making fun of Pavel.’

38. have ( imeti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mož ima avt-o
husband[ nom . sg ] have: ipfv . prs .3 sg car- acc . sg
‘Husband has a car.’

39. look for ( iskati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a išče ključ-e
pn - nom . sg look_for: ipfv . prs .3 sg key- acc . pl
‘Ana is looking for her keys.’

40. paint ( pobarvati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je pobarva-l ograj-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg paint: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fence- acc . sg
‘Peter painted the fence.’

41. bite ( ugrizniti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pes je ugrizni-l mam-o
dog[ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg bite: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] mother- acc . sg
‘A dog bit the mother.’

42. forfeit ( ostati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_brezGEN
X: NOM
Y: brezGEN
Locus: TR
Pavel je osta-l brez dom-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] without house- gen . sg
‘Pavel lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( loviti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
deklic-a lovi mačk-o
girl- nom . sg try_to_catch: ipfv . prs .3 sg cat- acc . sg
‘The girl is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break ( zlomiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je zlomi-l palčk-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg break: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] stick- acc . sg
‘Peter broke a stick.’

45. flatter ( se dobrika ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Katarin-a se dobrika An-i
pn - nom . sg rfl flatter: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Katarina is flattering Ana.’

46. love (person) ( ljubiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ljubi Petr-a
pn - nom . sg love: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Ana loves Peter.’

47. wave ( mahati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Pavel maha z robčk-om
pn [ nom . sg ] wave: ipfv . prs .3 sg with handkerchief- ins . sg
‘Pavel is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream ( sanjati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter sanja o avt-u
pn [ nom . sg ] dream: ipfv . prs .3 sg about car- loc . sg
‘Peter is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash ( umiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je umi-l skodelic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg wash: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] cup- acc . sg
‘Peter washed the cup.’

50. put on ( obleči ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je obleke-l hlač-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg put_on: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] trousers- acc . pl
‘Pavel put on his trousers.’

51. be called ( imenovati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM
X: NOM
Y: NOM
Locus: Y
ta predmet se imenuje kompas
this. nom . sg . m thing[ nom . sg ] rfl call: ipfv . prs .3 sg compass[ nom . sg ]
‘This tool is called a compas.’

52. punish ( kaznovati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je kaznova-l sin-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg punish: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] son- acc . sg
‘Peter punished his.’

53. attack ( napasti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medved je napade-l ribič-a
bear[ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg attack: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] fisherman- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) ( napolniti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
vedr-o se je napolni-l-o z vod-o
bucket- nom . sg rfl aux .3 sg fill: pfv - lpt - n . sg with water- ins . sg
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find ( najti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je naše-l ključ-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg find: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] key- acc . pl
‘Peter found his keys.’

56. be short ( manjkati ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-i manjka en dolar
pn - dat . sg lack: ipfv . prs .3 sg one. nom . sg . m dollar[ nom . sg ]
‘Ana is short one dollar.’

57. hate ( sovražiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter sovraži An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] hate: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter hates Ana.’

58. like ( biti všeč ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u je všeč ta srajc-a
pn - dat . sg be. prs .3 sg pleasant this. nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg
‘Peter likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

59. need ( potrebovati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a potrebuje denar
pn - nom . sg need: ipfv . prs .3 sg money[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana needs money.’

60. surround ( obdajati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mest-o obdaja obzidj-e
city- acc . sg surround: ipfv . prs .3 sg wall- nom . sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain ( ostati ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-i je osta-l-o deset dolarj-ev
pn - dat . sg aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt - n . sg 10[ nom ] dollar- gen . pl
‘Ana has 10 dollars left.’

62. answer ( odgovoriti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je odgovori-l učitelj-u
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg answer: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] teacher- dat . sg
‘Peter answered the teacher.’

63. open ( odpreti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je odpr-l bank-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg open: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] can- acc . sg
‘Peter opened a can.’

64. be different ( razlikovati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
moj-a srajc-a se razlikuje od tvoj-e
my- nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg rfl be_different: ipfv . prs .3 sg from your- gen . sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

65. fall behind ( zaostati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
An-a je zaosta-l-a za Pavl-om
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt - f . sg behind pn - ins . sg
‘Ana fell behind Pavel.’

66. plough ( orati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a orje polj-e
pn - nom . sg plough: ipfv . prs .3 sg field- acc . sg
‘Ana is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( dišati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_poLOC
X: NOM
Y: poLOC
Locus: Y
moj-e rok-e dišijo po bencin-u
my- nom . pl . f hand- nom . pl smell: ipfv . prs .3 pl by gasoline- loc . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross ( prečkati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je prečka-l cest-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg cross: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] road- acc . sg
‘Peter crossed the road.’

69. sing ( zapeti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je zape-l lep-o pesem
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg sing: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] beautiful- acc . sg . f song[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ( napisati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je napisa-l-a pism-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg write: pfv - lpt - f . sg letter- acc . sg
‘Ana wrote a letter.’

71. drink ( spiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je spi-l mlek-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg drink: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] milk- acc . sg
‘Peter drank the milk.’

72. melt ( razstopiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je razstopi-l kos svinc-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg melt: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] piece[ acc . sg ] lead- gen . sg
‘Peter melted a piece of lead.’

73. match ( iti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_kDAT
X: NOM
Y: kDAT
Locus: Y
ta pas gre k moj-emu plašč-u
this. nom . sg . m belt[ nom . sg ] go: ipfv . prs .3 sg to my- dat . sg . m dress- dat . sg
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave ( zapustiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je zapusti-l rojstn-o mest-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg leave: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] native- acc . sg . n city- acc . sg
‘Peter left his native city.’

75. cover ( pokrivati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
preprog-a pokriva cel-a tl-a
carpet- nom . sg cover: ipfv . prs .3 sg whole- acc . pl . n floor- acc . pl
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( spominjati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se dobro spominja dom-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl well remember: ipfv . prs .3 sg house- gen . sg
‘Peter remembers the house well.’

77. help ( pomagati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je pomaga-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg help: pfv / ipfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter helped Ana.’

78. understand (language) ( razumeti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter razume francosk-i jezik
pn [ nom . sg ] understand: ipfv . prs .3 sg f rench- acc . sg . m language[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter understands French.’

79. hit (target) ( udariti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
v hiš-o je udari-l-a strel-a
in house- acc . sg aux .3 sg hit: pfv - lpt - f . sg lightning- nom . sg
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself ( urezati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se je ureza-l z britvij-o
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg cut: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with razor- ins . sg
‘Peter cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck ( prilepiti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
kozarec se je prilepi-l na miz-o
glass[ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg stick: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] on table- acc . sg
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( izgubiti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je izgubi-l s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg lose: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter lost to Pavel.’

83. be glad ( razveseliti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
general se je razveseli-l pism-a
general[ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg rejoice: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] letter- gen . sg
‘The general was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ( pogovarjati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se pogovarja s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl speak: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is speaking with Pavel.’

85. give birth ( roditi ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je rodi-l-a sin-a
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg give_birth- lpt - f . sg son- acc . sg
‘Ana gave birth to a son.’

86. drop ( spustiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je spusti-l-a kozarec
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg drop: pfv - lpt - f . sg glass[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( upravljati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a upravlja naš-o vas
pn - nom . sg govern. prs .3 sg our- acc . sg . f village[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana runs our village.’

88. miss ( tožiti se ):

Valency pattern: DAT_poLOC
X: DAT
Y: poLOC
Locus: XY
Petr-u se toži po An-i
pn - dat . sg rfl miss: ipfv . prs .3 sg by pn - loc . sg
‘Peter misses Ana.’

89. follow ( slediti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter sledi Pavl-u
pn [ nom . sg ] follow: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Peter follows Pavel.’

90. dismount ( zlesti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter je zleze-l s konj-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg dismount: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] from horse- gen . sg
‘Peter got down from the horse.’

91. listen ( poslušati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a posluša radi-o
pn - nom . sg listen: ipfv . prs .3 sg radio- acc . sg
‘Ana is listening to radio.’

92. obey ( ubogati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a uboga mam-o
pn - nom . sg obey: ipfv . prs .3 sg mother- acc . sg
‘Ana obeys her mother.’

93. hear ( slišati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a sliši glasb-o
pn - nom . sg hear: ipfv . prs .3 sg music- acc . sg
‘Ana hears the music.’

94. mix ( zmešati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
med se je zmeša-l z mlek-om
honey[ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg mix: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with milk- ins . sg
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look ( gledati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a gleda oblak-e
pn - nom . sg look: ipfv . prs .3 sg cloud- acc . pl
‘Ana is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( sleči ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je slek-l-a bluz-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg take_off: pfv - lpt - f . sg shirt- acc . sg
‘Ana took off her shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ( sanjati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je sanja-l Devic-o Marij-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg dream: ipfv - lpt [ m . sg ] virgin- acc . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter dreams about Virgin Mary.’

98. agree ( strinjati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
An-a se je strinja-l-a s Pavl-om
pn - nom . sg rfl aux .3 sg agree: pfv - lpt - f . sg с pn - ins . sg
‘Ana agreed with Pavel.’

99. have a quarrel ( spreti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Katarin-a se je spr-l-a z An-o
pn - nom . sg rfl aux .3 sg quarrel: pfv - lpt - f . sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Katarina had a quarrel with Ana.’

100. cost ( stati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ta skodelic-a stane en-o kron-o
this. nom . sg . f cup- nom . sg cost: ipfv . prs .3 sg one- acc . sg . f crown- acc . sg
‘This cup costs one crown.’

101. shoot at ( ustreliti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pavel je ustreli-l v ptic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg shoot: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in bird- acc . sg
‘Pavel shot at the bird.’

102. pour ( nasuti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je nasu-l sladkor v skodelic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg pour: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] sugar[ acc . sg ] in cup- acc . sg
‘Peter poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose ( izgubiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je izgubi-l ključ-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg lose: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] key- acc . pl
‘Peter lost his keys.’

104. sink ( potoniti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vLOC
X: NOM
Y: vLOC
Locus: Y
Polen-o je potoni-l-o v vod-i
log- nom . sg aux .3 sg sink: pfv - lpt - n . sg in water- loc . sg
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ( ubiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je ubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kill: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter killed Ana.’

106. hit ( udariti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je udari-l Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg hit: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter hit Pavel.’

107. kiss ( poljubiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je poljubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kiss: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter kissed Ana.’

108. read ( prebrati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je prebra-l-a zanimiv-o knjig-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg read: pfv - lpt - f . sg interesting- acc . sg . f book- acc . sg
‘Ana read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( migniti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je migni-l s palc-em
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg move: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with finger- ins . sg
‘Peter moved his finger.’

110. respect ( spoštovati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Katarin-a spoštuje An-o
pn - nom . sg respect: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Katarina respects Ana.’

111. be squeamish ( gnusiti se ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u se gnusi umazan-a posod-a
pn - dat . sg rfl be_squeamish: ipfv . prs .3 sg dirty- nom . sg . f dishes- nom . sg
‘Peter is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content ( biti zadovoljen ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je zadovoljen s sin-om
pn [ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg content[ nom . sg . m ] with son- ins . sg
‘Peter is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love ( zaljubiti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Peter se je zaljubi-l v An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl aux .3 sg fall_in_love: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in pn - acc . sg
‘Peter fell in love with Ana.’

114. trust ( zaupati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter zaupa An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] trust: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg . f
‘Peter trusts Ana.’

115. sympathise ( smiliti se ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u se mat-i smili
pn - dat . sg rfl mother- nom . sg pity: pfv . prs .3 sg
‘Peter sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy ( zavidati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a zavida Petr-u
pn - nom . sg envy: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Ana envies Peter.’

117. be angry ( jeziti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
An-a se jezi na Petr-a
pn - nom . sg rfl anger: ipfv . prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Ana is angry with Peter.’

118. be surprised ( začuditi ):

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a je začudi-l-o daril-o
pn - acc . sg aux .3 sg surprise: pfv - lpt - n . sg gift- nom . sg
‘Peter was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) ( imeti rad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ima rad-a čaj
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg happy- f . sg tea[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana loves tea.’

120. enjoy ( uživati ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vLOC
X: NOM
Y: vLOC
Locus: Y
An-a uživa v čaj-u
pn - nom . sg enjoy: ipfv . prs .3 sg in tea- loc . sg
‘Ana enjoys hot tea.’

121. want ( želeti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a želi nov-i mobilnik
pn - nom . sg want: ipfv . prs .3 sg new- acc . sg . m mobile_phone[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge ( jeziti se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pavel se jezi na Petr-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl anger: ipfv . prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel is angry with Peter.’

123. take offence ( zameriti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je zameri-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg resent: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter took offence at Ana.’

124. upset ( razžalostiti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je zelo razžalosti-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg very upset: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel greatly upset Ana.’

125. marvel ( biti navdušen ):

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Pavel je bi-l navdušen nad tem mest-om
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg be- lpt [ m . sg ] thrilled[ nom . m . sg ] above this. ins . sg . n city- ins . sg
‘Pavel was marvelled at this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive participle).

126. despise ( prezirati ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel prezira Petr-a
pn [ nom . sg ] despise: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel despises Peter.’

127. get upset ( biti potrt ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zaradiGEN
X: NOM
Y: zaradiGEN
Locus: Y
An-a je bi-l-a potrt-a zaradi sin-a
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg be- lpt - f . sg depressed- nom . f . sg because_of son- gen . sg
‘Ana got upset because of ther son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive participle).

128. get irritated ( razburjati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zaradiGEN
X: NOM
Y: zaradiGEN
Locus: Y
Pavel se razburja zaradi Аn-e
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl upset: ipfv . prs .3 sg because_of pn - gen . sg
‘Pavel is getting irritated with Ana.’

129. be fond ( biti všeč ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u je všeč An-a
pn - dat . sg be. prs .3 sg pleasant pn - nom . sg
‘Peter is fond of Ana.’

130. be shy ( sramovati se ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se sramuje svoj-e višin-e
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl be_ashamed: ipfv . prs .3 sg one’s- gen . sg . f height- gen . sg
‘Peter is shy about his height.’