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Shughni

Contributed by Daria Chistiakova (Academia.edu profile) and Daria Ryzhova (Academia.edu profile)

D.Ch.'s photo D.R.'s photo

How to cite

Chistiakova, Daria & Daria Ryzhova. 2023. Bivalent patterns in Shughni. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on January 1, 2023; last revised on June 6, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Glossing abbreviations

ADD – additive; ADV – adverbializer; AUX – auxiliary verb; D – demonstrative; DIM – diminutive; EL – elative; EM – emphasizer; EQ – equative; F – feminine; IMPER – imperative; INF – infinitive; INS – instrumental; LAT – lative; LOC – locative; M – masculine; NEG – negative; OBL – oblique; P.LOC – possessive locative; PF – perfect; PL – pluralis; PN – personal name; PREP.DOWN - preposition of downward direction; PREP.UP - preposition of upward direction; PST – past; REFL – reflexive; SG – singular; SUB – sublative; SUBST – substantivizer; SUP – superessive.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain dārδ čīdow

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Ahmed-and wi kāl dārδ kix̌-t
pn - loc d 3. m . sg . obl head pain do-3 sg
‘Ahmed has a headache.’

2. have (illness) vidow

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Lola-yand rāk kasali
pn - loc cancer illness
‘Lola has cancer.’
Note: In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

3. be afraid x̌oǰ δêrtow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed as kūd x̌oǰ δêr-t
pn el dog fear aux -3 sg
‘Ahmed is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw šič δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmat=i yakum žīr šič δod
pn =3 sg first stone throw give. pst
‘Ahmat threw a stone first.’

5. have enough firīptow

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Ahmed-and wi pūl wi-rd firop-t
pn - loc d 3. m . sg . obl money d 3. m . sg . obl - lat reach-3 sg
‘Ahmed has enough money.’

6. resemble mūnand vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Ahmat tar xu bob mūnand
pn eq refl grandfather similar
‘Ahmat resembles his grandfather.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

7. believe bowar δêdow1

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Ahmat Azim-ard bowari δī-d
pn pn - lat trust give-3 sg
‘Ahmed believes Azim.’

8. take zêx̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i kitob as tažerka-ti zox̌-t
pn =3 sg book el shelf- sup take- pst
‘Azim took a book from the shelf.’

9. see wīntow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim čīd wīn-t
pn house see-3 sg
‘Azim sees a house.’

10. influence tāsīr čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
sol wux̌-ti tāsīr kix̌-t
years memory- sup influence do-3 sg
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter wīntow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmat=i Azim půnd-ti wīn-t
pn =3 sg pn road- sup see- pst
‘Ahmat encountered Azim on the road.’

12. enter dedow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Ahmed tar čīd ded
pn eq house enter. pst
‘Ahmed entered the house.’

13. win yêdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed=i as Karamšo yod
pn =3 sg el pn bring. pst
‘Ahmed beat Karamsho.’

14. go out nax̌tīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Azim as čīd nax̌tūy-d
pn el house go.out- pst
‘Azim went out of the house.’

15. drive ay čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i wam žow ay čūd wox̌ xīd
pn =3 sg d 3. f . sg . obl cow expulsion do. pst grass eat. inf
‘Azim is driving the cow to graze.’

16. bend xām δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i wi xêx̌čak xām δod
pn =3 sg d 3. m . sg . obl branch bend give. pst
‘Ahmed bent the branch.’

17. tell lůvdow

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Azim=i Lola-yard lůd: te tar čīd-aθ
pn =3 sg pn - lat say. pst go. imper eq house- adv
‘Azim told Lola: go home.’

18. hold anǰīvdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i mu kitob anǰūv-d
pn =3 sg 1 sg . obl book hold- pst
‘Ahmed was holding my book.’

19. catch up daryov čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i Karamšo daryov čūd
pn =3 sg pn capture do. pst
‘Ahmed caught up with Karamsho.’

20. milk δīwdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Saida=yi žow δūy-d
pn =3 sg cow milk- pst
‘Saida milked the cow.’

21. reach firīptow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Azim=i lodka=qati tar qoq-i firīp-t
pn =3 sg boat= ins eq dry- subst reach- pst
‘Azim reached the bank in a boat.’

22. touch xu δêdow1

Valency pattern: NOM_PREP.UP-LOC
X: NOM
Y: PREP.UP-LOC
Locus: Y
Azim=i pi burǰ-and xu δod xu ɣažd sut
pn =3 sg prep . up wall- loc refl give. pst add dirty go. m . pst
‘Azim touched the wall and got dirty.’

23. fight δêd čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Naǰiba Safina=qati δêd kix̌-t
pn pn = ins quarrel do-3 sg
‘Najiba is fighting with Safina.’

24. be friends *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Ahmat=at Azim=en ox̌no-yen
pn = add pn =3 pl friend- pl
‘Ahmed is friends with Azim.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

25. think fikri čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim Lola fikri kix̌-t
pn pn thought do-3 sg
‘Ahmed is thinking about Lola.’

26. eat xīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i mūn xūd
pn =3 sg apple eat. pst
‘Ahmed ate an apple.’

27. fry pêxtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i gūx̌t pêx-t
pn =3 sg meat cook- pst
‘Azim fried the meat.’

28. wait nīstow

Valency pattern: NOM_PREP.UP
X: NOM
Y: PREP.UP
Locus: Y
Azim pi Lola nūs-č
pn prep . up pn sit. m - pf
‘Azim is waiting for Lola.’

29. forget rinīx̌tow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Azim=i as wi yiga půnd rinūx̌-t
pn =3 sg el d 3. m . sg . obl another road forget- pst
‘Azim forgot about the other road.’

30. depend wobastā vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Pamyat as vozrast wobastā
memory el age dependent
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

31. call qīwdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i xu nān qīw-d
pn =3 sg refl mother call- pst
‘Azim called his mother.’

32. get to know balad sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Ahmed Saida=qati yi sol tar piro balad sut
pn pn = ins one year eq ahead familiar go. m . pst
‘Ahmed got to know Saida a year ago.’

33. know fāmtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed Saida fām-t
pn pn know-3 sg
‘Ahmed knows Saida.’

34. play (instrument) niwêzdow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Ahmed gitar-ti niwoz-d
pn guitar- sup play-3 sg
‘Ahmed is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid zibidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed as Saida zibīn-t
pn el pn jump-3 sg
‘Ahmed avoids Saida.’

36. make čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i pūrg-anǰavīǰ=ak xůbaθ čūd
pn =3 sg mousetrap= dim himself do. pst
‘Azim made a mousetrap himself.’

37. make fun qīn čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed as Saida qīn kix̌-t
pn el pn difficult do-3 sg
‘Ahmed is making fun of Saida.’

38. have vidow

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Ahmed-and mošin
pn - loc car
‘Ahmed has a car.’
Note: In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

39. look for x̌ikīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim xu wix̌īӡ-en x̌ikīr-t
pn refl key- pl look.for-3 sg
‘Azim is looking for his keys.’

40. paint rang čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i xu divi rang čūd
pn =3 sg refl door color do. pst
‘Azim painted the door.’

41. bite pirentow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
yu kūd=i wam vorǰ piren-t
d 3. m . sg dog=3 sg d 3. f . sg . obl horse bite- pst
‘The dog bit the horse.’

42. forfeit redow

Valency pattern: NOM_beOBL
X: NOM
Y: beOBL
Locus: Y
Ahmed be-malā red
pn without-dwelling remain. pst
‘Ahmed lost hist house.’

43. try to catch anǰīvdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed pīš anǰīv-d
pn cat catch-3 sg
‘Ahmed is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break virix̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i wi sêx virux̌-t
pn =3 sg d 3. m . sg . obl stick break- pst
‘Azim broke a stick.’

45. flatter *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

46. love (person) žīwǰdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i Saida žīwǰ
pn =3 sg pn love
‘Ahmed loves Saida.’

47. wave δust weδdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim lemol-ak=qati δust weδ-d
pn headscarf- dim = ins hand put- pst
‘Azim is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

49. wash zinêdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i xu čīni zino-d
pn =3 sg refl cup wash- pst
‘Ahmed washed the cup.’

50. put on pinīwdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i xu laq-en pinūy-d
pn =3 sg refl pants- pl put.on- pst
‘Shamil put on his trousers.’

51. be called nům vidow

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ik-di kočor nům kumpas
em - d 2. m . sg . obl thing name compass
‘This object is called a compass.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

52. punish kud δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i xu puc kud δod
pn =3 sg refl son dog give. pst
‘Azim punished his son.’

53. attack firīptow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
xirs=i wi ribak-ti firīp-t
bear=3 sg d 3. m . sg . obl fisherman- sup reach- pst
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) pur sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
čalak x̌ac=qati pur sat
pail water= ins much go. f . pst
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find virêdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i čilā virū-d půnd=ti
pn =3 sg ring find- pst road= sup
‘Azim found a ring on the road.’

56. be short na-firīptow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Šamil-ard aray somoni=ga na-firop-t
pn - lat 3 somoni=more neg -reach-3 sg
‘Shamil is three somoni short.’

57. hate bad vidow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Šamil-ard Azim dis=ga bad
pn - lat pn such=more bad
‘Shamil hates Azim.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

58. like xuš vidow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Azim-ard ik-am kurtā xuš
pn - lat em - d 1. sg shirt pleasant
‘Azim likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

59. need darkor vidow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Azim-ard pūl darkor
pn - lat money needed
‘Azim needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

60. surround vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLgarginuxa
X: NOM
Y: OBLgarginuxa
Locus: Y
burǰ-en x̌ār garginūx̌ā
wall- pl city around
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

61. remain redow

Valency pattern: P.LOC_NOM
X: P.LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Azim-ǰā δis som=ga red
pn - p . loc 10 somoni=more remain. pst
‘Azim has ten somoni left.’

62. answer ǰawob δêdow1

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Azim=i molim-ard ǰawob δod
pn =3 sg teacher- lat answer give. pst
‘Azim answered the teacher.’

63. open yet čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i banka yet čūd
pn =3 sg jar open do. pst
‘Azim opened a can.’

64. be different farq vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
mu kurtā as tu kurtā farq
1 sg . obl shirt el 2 sg shirt difference
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

65. fall behind zibo δêdow2

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Azim as Lola zibo δod
pn el pn behind fall. pst
‘Azim fell behind Lola.’

66. plough čīntow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim agorod čůn-t
pn garden dig-3 sg
‘Azim is digging the garden.’

67. smell bůy δêdow2

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
wi δust-en benzin bůy δiy-en
d 3. m . sg . obl hand- pl oil smell fall-3 pl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross naɣ̌ǰīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Azim as půnd naɣ̌ǰī-d
pn el road pass- pst
‘Azim crossed the road.’

69. sing lůdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola=yi xušrūy soz lůd
pn =3 sg beautiful song sing. pst
‘Lola sang a beautiful song.’

70. write nivištow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola=yi xāt niviš-t
pn =3 sg letter write- pst
‘Lola wrote a letter.’

71. drink birêx̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola=yi x̌ūvd birox̌-t
pn =3 sg milk drink- pst
‘Lola drank the milk.’

72. melt ob čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i tillo kande ob čūd
pn =3 sg gold piece water do. pst
‘Azim melted a piece of gold.’

73. match ǰūr yatow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Ik-am tasma mu kurtā=qati ǰūr yoδ-d
em - d 1. sg belt 1 sg . obl dress= ins pair come-3 sg
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave tark čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i xu x̌ār tark čūd
pn =3 sg refl city leave do. pst
‘Azim left his native city.’

75. cover čust čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
pilês fuk pol čust kix̌-t
carpet all floor closed do-3 sg
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember fāmtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Saida di čīd xipaδ fam-t
pn d 2. m . sg . obl house well know-3 sg
‘Saida remembers the house well.’

77. help yordam čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Šamil=i Lola-yard yordam čūd
pn =3 sg pn - lat help do. pst
‘Shamil helped Lola.’

78. understand (language) fāmtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Saida xuɣ̌nůni fam-t
pn s hughni know-3 sg
‘Saida understands Shughni.’

79. hit (target) δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
otex̌ak=ta čīd δod
lightning= em house give. pst
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself xu zaxmi čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim=i xu têɣ-ak=qati zaxmi čūd
pn =3 sg refl razor- dim = ins injured do. pst
‘Azim cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck xax̌ sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
stakan stol-ti xax̌ sut
glass table- sup hard go. m . pst
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) na-yêdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Šamil=i as Azima na-yo-d
pn =3 sg el pn neg -win- pst
‘Shamil lost to Azim.’

83. be glad xuš sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Azim tar wi xāt xuš sut
pn eq d 3. m . sg . obl letter happy go. m . pst
‘Azim was glad about the letter.’

84. speak naqli čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim Lola=qati naqli kix̌-t
pn pn = ins conversation do-3 sg
‘Azim is speaking with Lola.’

85. give birth vīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola=yi puc vūd
pn =3 sg son bring. pst
‘Lola gave birth to a son.’

86. drop pitêwdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i čaška pitêw-d
pn =3 sg cup drop- pst
‘Azim dropped the glass.’

87. govern čīx̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim māš x̌ār čos-t
pn 1 pl city look-3 sg
‘Azim runs our town.’

88. miss dargil sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Azim Lola-ti dargīl suδǰ
pn pn - sup sad go. m . pf
‘Azim misses Lola.’

89. follow tīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdamti
X: NOM
Y: OBLdamti
Locus: Y
Azim Lola dām-ti tīz-d
pn pn back- sup go-3 sg
‘Azim follows Lola.’

90. dismount xāvdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL-SUP
X: NOM
Y: EL-SUP
Locus: Y
Azim as vorǰ-ti xāv-d
pn el horse- sup descend- pst
‘Azim got down from the horse.’

91. listen niɣix̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola radio niɣůɣ̌-d
pn radio listen-3 sg
‘Lola is listening to radio.’

92. obey niɣix̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola xu nān niɣůɣ̌-d
pn refl mother listen-3 sg
‘Lola obeys his mother.’

93. hear x̌īdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim soz x̌īn-t
pn song hear-3 sg
‘Azim hears the music.’

94. mix alalaš sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Asal x̌uvd=qati alalaš sut
honey milk= ins mix go. m . pst
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look čīx̌tow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Azim tar abri-yen čos-t
pn eq cloud- pl look-3 sg
‘Azim is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off weδdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim xu kurtā weδ-d
pn refl shirt take_off- pst
‘Azim took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) xūδm-and wīntow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim Lola xu xūδm-and wīn-t
pn pn refl dream- loc see-3 sg
‘Azim dreams about Lola.’

98. agree rozi sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Ahmed Saida=qati rozi sut
pn pn = ins contented go. m . pst
‘Ahmed agreed with Saida.’

99. have a quarrel δêd sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Naǰiba Safina=qati δêd sat
pn pn = ins quarrel go. f . pst
‘Najiba had a quarrel with Saida.’

100. cost vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
yid garδā 3 som
d 2. sg bread 3 somoni
‘This bread costs three somoni.’

101. shoot at poθ weδdow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Šamil=i wam wiδič-ti poθ weδd at wam-ti na-angix-t
pn =3 sg d 3. f . sg . obl bird- sup shooting put. pst add d 3. f . sg d 3. f . sg . obl - sup neg -hit- pst
‘Shamil shot (let a bullet go) at the bird, but it (the bullet) did not hit it.’

102. pour čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i qand ar xu čīni čūd
pn =3 sg sugar prep . down refl cup do. pst
‘Shamil poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose binêstow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
yu=yi xu wix̌īӡ-en binês-t
d 3. m . sg =3 sg refl key- pl lose- pst
‘He lost his keys.’

104. sink ɣůt nīstow

Valency pattern: NOM_PREP.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: PREP.DOWN
Locus: Y
yu δorg ar x̌ac ɣůt nūs-t
d 3. m . sg stick prep . down water diving sit- pst
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill zīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i Azim zīd
pn =3 sg pn kill. pst
‘Shamil killed Azim.’

106. hit δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i Azim δod
pn =3 sg pn give. pst
‘Shamil hit Azim.’

107. kiss bā čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i Saida ču
pn =3 sg pn kiss do. pst
‘Ahmed kissed Saida.’

108. read x̌êydow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Karamšo=yi aǰoyīb kitob x̌êyd
pn =3 sg interesting book read. pst
‘Karamsha read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) ǰumbentow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i xu angix̌t ǰumben-t
pn =3 sg refl finger move- pst
‘Shamil moved his finger.’

110. respect urmat čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil Azim urmat kix̌-t
pn pn respect do-3 sg
‘Shamil respects Azim.’

111. be squeamish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

112. be content rozi vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed as xu puc rozi
pn el refl son contented
‘Ahmed is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

113. fall in love ošiq sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Ahmed Saida-ti ošiq suδǰ
pn pn - sup loving go. m . pf
‘Ahmed fell in love with Saida.’

114. trust bowar δêdow1

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Ahmed Saida-ra bowari δī-d
pn pn - lat trust give-3 sg
‘Ahmed trusts Saida.’

115. sympathise rām čīdow

Valency pattern: LAT_EL
X: LAT
Y: EL
Locus: XY
Azim-ard as wi nān rām kix̌-t
pn - lat el d 3. m . sg . obl mother pity do-3 sg
‘Azim sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy qayti čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Naǰiba Safina=qati qayti kix̌-t
pn pn = ins envy do-3 sg
‘Najiba envies Safina.’

117. be angry qār sifentow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Karamšo qār Dovlatšo=qati sifīδ-ǰ
pn anger pn = ins rise- pf
‘Karamsha is angry with Dovlatsho.’

118. be surprised ayrůn rêdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim wi padarka=qati ayrůn red
pn d 3. m . sg . obl gift= ins surprised remain. pst
‘Azim was surprised at the gift.’

119. love (tea) žīwǰdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i čoy žīwǰ
pn =3 sg tea love
‘Azim loves tea.’

120. enjoy ayš čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
mu tāt=i kaš čoy-ti ayš čūd
1 sg . obl father=3 sg hot tea- sup pleasure do. pst
‘My father enjoys hot tea.’

121. want fortow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Ahmed-ard naw telefun for-t
pn - lat new phone want-3 sg
‘Ahmed wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge dar-qār δêdow2

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Šamil tar Lola dar-qār δod
pn eq pn angry fall. pst
‘Shamil holds a grudge against Lola.’

123. take offence malol vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Nizora Safina=qati malol
pn pn = ins offended
‘Nizora took offence at Safina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

124. upset xafā čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Towus=i xu amsoya xafā čūd
pn =3 sg refl neighbour upset do. pst
‘Towus upset her neighbour.’

125. marvel *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

126. despise *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

127. get upset xafā čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Šamil xu puc=qati xafā čūd
pn refl son= ins upset do. pst
‘Shamil got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

129. be fond *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

130. be shy x̌armindā sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Dovlatšo as xu qad x̌armindā sů-d
pn el refl height embarrassed go-3 sg
‘Dovlatsho is embarrased about his height.’