BivalTyp

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Skolt Saami

Contributed by Alena Blinova and Ksenia Shagal (Academia.edu profile)

A.B.'s photo K.S.'s photo

The data were obtained in 2018-2020 from a 80-year-old speaker from Sevettijärvi (Inari, Finland) with kind assistance of Tim Feist. The English version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Shagal, Ksenia & Alena Blinova. . Bivalent patterns in Skolt Saami. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on August 23, 2020; last revised on August 23, 2020.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Skolt Saami is an endangered Finno-Ugric language spoken primarily in the Municipality of Inari, in the northeast of Finland, by less than 300 people. The data presented here were collected from a speaker living in the village of Sevettijärvi, the main cultural hub of Skolt Saami life. In addition, around 20 Skolt Saami speakers live in Russia, on the Kola Peninsula.

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Case marking displays the nominative-accusative alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the subject (A- or S-argument) is in the nominative, and the object (P-argument) is in the accusative. Similarly to most other Saami languages (and unlike South Saami), Skolt Saami does not show any differential object marking. The verb agrees with the nominative argument in person and number. The neutral word order is SV(O). An example of the transitive construction can be found in (1).

(1) Peâtt      laaʹpp-i      lokkčouddj-id
    PN.SG.NOM  lose-PST.3SG  key-PL.ACC
    ‘Pete lost the keys.’

Non-core arguments are typically flagged by oblique cases or by postpositions, which require genitive marking on the noun. For a comprehensive description of Skolt Saami, see Feist (2015).

Feist, Timothy. 2015. A grammar of Skolt Saami (Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia 273). Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.

Case system

Skolt Saami has nine cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, comitative, locative, illative, essive, partitive, and abessive. Partitive, which is extensively used for argument encoding in some other Finno-Ugric languages, mostly occurs after quantifiers and numerals greater than six.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are shown in the infinitive form (ending in -âd, -ad or -ed).

Glossing abbreviations

1, 2, 3 — 1st, 2nd, 3rd person; ACC — accusative; CNG — connegative; COM — comitative; COMP — complementizer; COND — conditional; CONT — continuative; DIST — distal; ESS — essive; GEN — genitive; ILL — illative; INCH — inchoative; INF — infinitive; LOC — locative; NEG — negation; NOM — nominative; PART — partitive; PL — plural; PN — person name; POSS — possessive; PROG — progressive; PRS — present; PST — past; PTCP — participle; REFL — reflexive; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( leeʹd -kõpp ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Peâtt-ast lij vueiʹvv-kõpp
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 sg head-disease. sg . nom
‘Pete has a headache.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + root in a compound).

2. have (illness) ( leeʹd ):

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peâtt-ast lij nuõpp-kõpp
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 sg cold(disease)-disease. sg . nom
‘Pete has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

3. be afraid ( põõllâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt pââll piânnj-est
pn . sg . nom fear. prs .3 sg dog- sg . loc
‘Pete is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( kõõškeed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kõõšk-i ǩieʹđj
pn . sg . nom throw- pst .3 sg rock. sg . acc
‘Pete threw a stone.’

5. have enough ( leeʹd nokk ):

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ååʹn Peâtt-ast lie nokk tieʹǧǧ
now pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 pl enough money. pl . nom
‘Now Pete has enough money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

6. resemble ( leeʹd vuâkka ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
päʹrnn lij ääʹjj-es vuâkka
boy. sg . nom be. prs .3 sg grandfather. sg . gen - poss .3 sg type. sg . ill
‘The boy resembles his grandfather.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

7. believe ( åskkad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt åskk suu
pn . sg . nom believe. prs .3 sg 3 sg . acc
‘Pete believes her.’

8. take ( väʹldded ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vaaʹld-i ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom take- pst .3 sg book. sg . acc
‘Pete took a book.’

9. see ( vueiʹnned ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vuäinn põõrt
pn . sg . nom see. prs .3 sg house. sg . acc
‘Pete sees a house.’

10. influence ( vaikkted ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
ââʹǩǩ vaaikat muštt-u
age. sg . nom influence. prs .3 sg memory- sg . ill
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter ( teeivõõttâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt teeivõõđ-i Määʹrja-in
pn . sg . nom encounter- pst .3 sg pn - sg . com
‘Pete encountered Maria’

12. enter ( pueʹtted ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt puõʹđ-i põʹrtt-e
pn . sg . nom come- pst .3 sg house- sg . ill
‘Pete entered the house.’

13. win ( vueiʹtted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vuõit-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom win- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete beat Maria’

14. go out ( mõõnnâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt mõõn-i põõrt-âst meädda
pn . sg . nom go- pst .3 sg house- sg . loc away
‘Pete went out of the house.’

15. drive ( laiʹddjed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt laiʹddai kuuzz
pn . sg . nom lead. prs .3 sg cow. sg . acc
‘Pete is driving the cow (to the pasture).’

16. bend ( poonnjâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt poonnj-i ååuʹs
pn . sg . nom bend- pst .3 sg branch. sg . acc
‘Pete bent the branch.’

17. tell ( ceäʹlǩǩed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt cieʹlǩ-i Märjj-a:
pn . sg . nom say- pst .3 sg pn - sg . ill
‘Pete told Maria: “...”.’

18. hold ( tuõʹllʼjed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tuõʹlla-i ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom hold. prs .3 sg book. sg . acc
‘Pete is holding a book.’

19. catch up ( tääʹvted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tääʹvt-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom grab- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete caught up with Maria’

20. milk ( pââččad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt pââjja-i kuuzz
pn . sg . nom milk- pst .3 sg cow. sg . acc
‘Pete milked the cow.’

21. reach ( laʹddjed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt laʹddj-i ridd-u
pn . sg . nom reach- pst .3 sg bank. sg . ill
‘Pete reached the bank.’

22. touch ( kuõskkâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt kuõsk-i seinn-a
pn . sg . nom touch. pst .3 sg wall- sg . ill
‘Pete touched the wall.’

23. fight ( tuärrad ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij tuärr-men Määʹrja-in
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg fight- prog . ptcp pn - sg . com
‘Pete is fighting with Maria’

24. be friends ( leeʹd taaurõš ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Peâtt lij Määrʹj taaurõš
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg pn . sg . gen friend. sg . nom
‘Pete is Maria’s friend.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

25. think ( juurdčed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt juurdač Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom think. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is thinking about Maria’

26. eat ( poorrâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt poor-i jaabl
pn . sg . nom eat- pst .3 sg apple. sg . acc
‘Pete ate an apple.’

27. fry ( päʹštted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt paaʹšt-i kueʹl
pn . sg . nom fry- pst .3 sg fish. sg . acc
‘Pete fried the fish.’

28. wait ( vueʹrdded ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vuârdd Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom wait. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is waiting for Maria’

29. forget ( väjldõõvvâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt väjldõõʹv-i tõn nuuʹbb čuõkku
pn . sg . nom forget- pst .3 sg dist . sg . acc other. sg . acc road. sg . acc
‘Pete forgot (about) the other road.’

30. depend ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call ( čuârvvad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuârva-i Määʹrj vieʹǩǩ-en
pn . sg . nom shout- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc help- ess .
‘Pete shouted to Maria for help.’

32. get to know ( tobdstõõttâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt tobdst-õõđ-i Määʹrja-in õhtt eeʹǩǩ mââiårra
pn . sg . nom get.to.know- refl - pst .3 sg pn - sg . com one year. sg . nom ago
‘Pete got to know Maria a year ago.’

33. know ( tobddâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tåbdd Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom know. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete knows Maria’

34. play (instrument) ( siõrrâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt seârr kitara-in
pn . sg . nom play. prs .3 sg guitar- sg . com
‘PN is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid ( veäʹltted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt veältt Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom avoid. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete avoids Maria’

36. make ( raajjâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt raaj-i säʹpplee-äggaz
pn . sg . nom make- pst .3 sg mouse. sg . gen -trap. sg . acc
‘Pete made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun ( luânnjad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt luânnj Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom make.fun.of. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is making fun of Maria’

38. have ( leeʹd ):

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peâtt-ast lij autt
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 sg car. sg . nom
‘Pete has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

39. look for ( ooccâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij oocc-men suu lokkčouddj-id
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg seek- prog . ptcp 3 sg . gen key- pl . acc
‘Pete is looking for his keys.’

40. paint ( kälkkeed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kälkki-i ääiʹd
pn . sg . nom paint- pst .3 sg fence. sg . acc
‘Pete painted the fence.’

41. bite ( snäuʹǩǩed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
piânnai snauʹǩ-i suu
dog. sg . nom bite- pst .3 sg 3 sg . acc
‘A dog bit him.’

42. forfeit ( mõõnted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt mõõnt-i põõrt-âs
pn . sg . nom make.go- pst .3 sg house. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Peâtt strääžž, što tääʹvteʹ-čč-i kaazz
pn . sg . nom try. prs .3 sg comp grab- cond -3 sg cat. sg . acc
‘Pete is trying to catch the cat.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

44. break ( tuäjjad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tuäja-i sueʹbb
pn . sg . nom break- pst .3 sg stick. sg . acc
‘Pete broke a stick.’

45. flatter ( kuärggted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kuärggat Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom flatter. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is flattering Maria’

46. love (person) ( räʹǩsted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt rääʹǩǩast Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom love. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete loves Maria’

47. wave ( heeilted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij heeilte-men nozvaireeʹppǩ-es
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg wave- prog . ptcp handkerchief. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete is waving his handkerchief.’

48. dream ( niõǥǥtõõllâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij niõǥǥ-tõõll-men ođđ aaut diõtt
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg dream- cont - prog . ptcp new car. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash ( põõssâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt põõzz-i koopp
pn . sg . nom wash- pst .3 sg cup. sg . acc
‘Pete washed the cup.’

50. put on ( cääʹǩǩed ool ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt caaʹjj-i puusees ool
pn . sg . nom put.on- pst .3 sg trousers[ pl . acc ]. poss .3 sg onto
‘Pete put on his trousers.’
Note: Here, ool is part of the phrasal verb, not a postposition.

51. be called ( kååččeed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ESS
X: NOM
Y: ESS
Locus: Y
tät tiŋgg kååččeet kompass-ân
prox . sg . nom thing. sg . nom be.called. prs .3 sg compass- ess
‘This tool is called a compass.’

52. punish ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

53. attack ( kõrmmled ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENool
X: NOM
Y: GENool
Locus: Y
kueʹbǯǯ kõrmml-i kueʹllšiili ool
bear. sg . nom attack- pst .3 sg fisherman. sg . gen onto
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) ( teâuddjed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
skääll teâuddj-i čääʹʒʒ-est
bucket. sg . nom become.filled- pst .3 sg water- sg . loc
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find ( kaunnâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kaaun-i lokkčouddj-es
pn . sg . nom find- pst .3 sg key. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete found his key.’

56. be short ( leeʹd väjja ):

Valency pattern: LOC_GEN
X: LOC
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Peâtt-ast leäi õõut eeuʹr väjja
pn - sg . loc be. pst .3 sg one. sg . gen euro. sg . gen short
‘Pete was short one euro.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

57. hate ( vââjšed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vââjaš Määrʹj
pn . sg . nom hate. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete hates Maria’

58. like ( tuʹǩǩeed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt tuʹǩǩad tän pääiʹdest
pn . sg . nom like. prs .3 sg prox . sg . gen shirt. sg . loc
‘Pete likes this shirt.’

59. need ( taarbšed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt taarbaš tieʹǧǧ-id
pn . sg . nom need. prs .3 sg money- pl . acc
‘Pete needs money.’

60. surround ( pirrõõttâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
uur pirrâʹtte gåårad
wall. pl . nom surround. prs .3 pl city. sg . acc
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain ( leeʹd teänab ):

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peâtt-ast lie teänab pâi 10 eurr-âd
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 pl (any)more only 10 euro- part
‘Pete has only 10 euros left.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The Y argument (‘10 euros’) is in the nominative case, the use of the partitive case is determined by the numeral.

62. answer ( vaʹstteed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt vaʹstti-i uʹčteel-a
pn . sg . nom answer- pst .3 sg teacher- sg . ill
‘Pete answered the teacher.’

63. open ( ääʹveed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt äävi-i puurk
pn . sg . nom open- pst .3 sg can. sg . acc
‘Pete opened a can.’

64. be different ( leeʹd jeeʹresnallšem ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ko
X: NOM
Y: ko
Locus: Y
ij muu päiʹdd lij jeeʹresnallšem ko tuu päiʹdd
neg .3 sg 1 sg . gen shirt. sg . nom be. prs .3 sg different than 2 sg . gen shirt. sg . nom
‘No, my shirt is different from your shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind ( kuâđđjed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENtuakka
X: NOM
Y: GENtuakka
Locus: Y
Peâtt kuâđđj-i Määʹrj tuâkka
pn . sg . nom remain- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen behind
‘Pete fell behind Maria’

66. plough ( auʹrrjed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij auʹrrje-men peäld
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg plough- prog . ptcp field. sg . acc
‘Pete is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( âʹpssed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_mate
X: NOM
Y: mate
Locus: Y
muu ǩiõđ âʹpsse mâte beʹnsin
1 sg . gen hand. pl . nom smell. prs .3 pl like gasoline. sg . nom
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross ( mõõnnâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENraast
X: NOM
Y: GENraast
Locus: Y
Peâtt mõõn-i čuõkku rââst
pn . sg . nom go. pst .3 sg road. sg . gen across
‘Pete crossed the road’

69. sing ( läullad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lääula-i mooččâs laulli
pn . sg . nom sing- pst .3 sg beautiful song. sg . acc
‘Pete sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ( ǩeeʹrjted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt ǩeeʹrjt-i ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom write- pst .3 sg letter. sg . acc
‘Pete wrote a letter.’

71. drink ( juukkâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt juuǥǥ-i mieʹlǩ
pn . sg . nom drink- pst .3 sg milk. sg . acc
‘Pete drank the milk.’

72. melt ( suddeed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt suddi-i lââʹjj-kuuʹsǩ
pn . sg . nom melt- pst .3 sg lead-piece. sg . acc
‘Pete melted a piece of lead.’

73. match ( suåppâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
tät puäǥǥanj suäpp puârast muu kååut-in
prox . sg . nom belt. sg . nom match. prs .3 sg well 1 sg . gen skirt- sg . com
‘This belt matches my dress.’

74. leave ( vueʹlǧǧed meädda ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt vuõʹlj-i meädda suu šõdd-âm-siid-âst
pn . sg . nom leave- pst .3 sg away 3 sg . gen born- pst . ptcp -village- sg . loc
‘Pete left his native village.’

75. cover ( käʹtted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
šaʹlddräänn kätt obb šââʹld
carpet. sg . nom cover. prs .3 sg all floor. sg . acc
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( mošttjed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt moštt tõn põõrt puârast
pn . sg . nom remember. prs .3 sg dist . sg . acc house. sg . acc well
‘Pete remembers that house well.’

77. help ( vieʹǩǩted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vieʹǩǩt-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom help- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete helped Maria’

78. understand (language) ( fiʹttjed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt fiʹttai franskk-ǩiõl
pn . sg . nom understand. prs .3 sg f rench-language. sg . acc
‘Pete understands French.’

79. hit (target) ( kõõsksted ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
teârmmaz-toll kõõskst-i põʹrtt-e
thunder-fire. sg . nom lighten- pst .3 sg house- sg . ill
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself ( čuõppõõttâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt čuõpp-õõđ-i neeiʹb-in
pn . sg . nom cut- refl - pst .3 sg knife- sg . com
‘Pete cut himself with a knife.’

81. get stuck ( pâššned ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENool
X: NOM
Y: GENool
Locus: Y
ståkkan pâššn-i pååʹrd ool
glass. sg . nom get.caught- pst .3 sg table. sg . gen onto
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( taaʹppjed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt taaʹppj-i Märjj-a
pn . sg . nom be.beaten- pst .3 sg pn - sg . ill
‘Pete lost to Maria’

83. be glad ( leeʹd kuärǥast ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt leäi kuärǥast ǩeeʹrj diõtt
pn . sg . nom be. pst .3 sg glad letter. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

84. speak ( mainsted ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt maainast Määʹrja-in
pn . sg . nom speak. prs .3 sg pn - sg . com
‘Pete is speaking with Maria’

85. give birth ( šõddeed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mäʹrjj šõddi-i pääʹrn
pn . sg . nom give.birth- pst .3 sg child. sg . acc
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

86. drop ( kõõččted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kõõččt-i ståkkan
pn . sg . nom drop- pst .3 sg glass. sg . acc
‘Pete dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( vaaldšed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vaaldaš mij siid
pn . sg . nom govern. prs .3 sg 1 pl . gen village. sg . acc
‘Pete runs our village.’

88. miss ( âʹǩǩõõššâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt âʹǩǩââžž Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom miss. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete misses Maria’

89. follow ( čuâvvad ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuâvv Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom follow. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete follows Maria’

90. dismount ( luâšttõõttâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt luâšttõõđ-i (vuâlas) heäppaz sieʹlj-est
pn . sg . nom descend- pst .3 sg (downwards) horse. sg . gen back- sg . loc
‘Pete got down from the horse.’

91. listen ( kuvddled ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij kuvddle-men radia
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg listen- prog . ptcp radio. sg . acc
‘Pete is listening to radio.’

92. obey ( jäkktõõllâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt pâi jäkktââll suu jieʹnn
pn . sg . nom always obey. prs .3 sg 3 sg . gen mother. sg . acc
‘Pete always obeys his mother.’

93. hear ( kuullâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kooll musiikk
pn . sg . nom hear. prs .3 sg music. sg . acc
‘Pete hears the music.’

94. mix ( seäkkned ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
miõtt seäkkn-i mieʹlǩ-in
honey. sg . nom get.mixed- pst .3 sg milk- sg . com
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look ( ǩiiččeed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENarra
X: NOM
Y: GENarra
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij ǩiičče-men põõlv-i årra
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg watch- prog . ptcp cloud- pl . gen towards
‘Pete is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( jäʹhssed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt jaauʹs-i pääiʹd-es
pn . sg . nom take.off- pst .3 sg shirt. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ( niõǥǥeed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Mäʹrjj niõǥǥad Peâtt-ast
pn . sg . nom dream. prs .3 sg pn - sg . loc
‘Maria dreams about Pete’

98. agree ( leeʹd õõutmiõllsaž ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt leäi Määʹrja-in õõutmiõllsaž
pn . sg . nom be. pst .3 sg pn - sg . com like.minded
‘Pete agreed with Maria’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

99. have a quarrel ( reeidčõõttâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt reeidčõõđ-i Määʹrja-in
pn . sg . nom have.a.quarrel- pst .3 sg pn - com
‘Pete had a quarrel with Maria’

100. cost ( mäʹhssed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM
X: NOM
Y: NOM
Locus: Y
tät kopp mähss õhtt euʹrr
prox . sg . nom cup. sg . nom cost. prs .3 sg one. nom euro. nom
‘This cup costs 1 euro.’

101. shoot at ( pääččad ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENvuastta
X: NOM
Y: GENvuastta
Locus: Y
Peâtt pääčča-i lååʹdd vuâstta
pn . sg . nom shoot- pst .3 sg bird. sg . gen towards
‘Pete shot at the bird.’

102. pour ( kâʹlvved ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kõõʹlv-i säähhar
pn . sg . nom pour- pst .3 sg sugar. sg . acc
‘Pete poured the sugar (into the cup).’

103. lose ( läʹpped ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt laaʹpp-i suu lokkčouddi
pn . sg . nom lose- pst .3 sg 3 sg . gen key. sg . acc
‘Pete lost his key.’

104. sink ( vuäjjad ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENvualla
X: NOM
Y: GENvualla
Locus: Y
stokk vuäja-i čääʹʒʒ vuâlla
log. sg . nom sink- pst .3 sg water. sg . gen under. ill
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ( kåʹdded ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kooʹdd-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom kill- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete killed Maria’

106. hit ( čormmeed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čormmi-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom hit- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete hit Maria’

107. kiss ( cuʹmmsted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt cuʹmmst-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete kissed Maria’

108. read ( lookkâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt looǥǥ-i miõllǩiõʹssi ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom read- pst .3 sg interesting book. sg . acc
‘Pete read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( likktõõllâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt likktõõl-i suõrm-es
pn . sg . nom move- pst .3 sg finger. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete moved his finger.’

110. respect ( ciʹsttjed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt ciʹsttai Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom respect. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete respects Maria’

111. be squeamish ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Peâtt ij tuʹǩǩed sähssas liiʹttin
pn . sg . nom neg .3 sg like. cng dirty dish. pl . loc
‘Pete does not like dirty dishes.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

112. be content ( leeʹd miõllstes ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij miõllstes pääʹrn-es diõtt
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg content son. sg . gen - poss .3 sg because.of
‘Pete is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love ( räʹǩstõõvvâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt räʹǩstõõv-i Määʹrja-in
pn . sg . nom fall.in.love- pst .3 sg pn - sg . com
‘Pete fell in love with Maria’

114. trust ( naʹddjõõttâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt naʹddjââtt Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom trust. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete trusts Maria’

115. sympathise ( žaʹllʼjed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuuʹt žaʹllʼj-i jieʹnn-es
pn . sg . nom very feel.pity- pst .3 sg mother. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete sympathised with his mother.’

116. envy ( kađšted ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kaađašt Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom envy. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete envies Maria’

117. be angry ( leeʹd suttâm ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENool
X: NOM
Y: GENool
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij suttâm Määʹrj ool
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg angry pn . sg . gen onto
‘Pete is angry with Maria’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

118. be surprised ( õõmtõõššâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt õõmtõõžž-i sǩiâŋk diõtt
pn . sg . nom be.surprized- pst .3 sg gift. sg . gen because.of
‘Pete was surprised at the gift.’

119. love (tea) ( tuʹǩǩeed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt tuʹǩǩad čee-st
pn . sg . nom like. prs .3 sg tea- sg . loc
‘Pete likes tea.’

120. enjoy ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Peâtt-ast lij hääʹsǩ juukkâd puõiʹlli čee
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 sg fun drink. inf hot tea. sg . acc
‘Pete enjoys drinking hot tea.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

121. want ( haaʹleed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt haaʹlad ođđ ǩiõtt-teeʹl
pn . sg . nom want. prs .3 sg new hand-phone. sg . acc
‘Pete wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

123. take offence ( neuʹrrõõvvâd ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt neuʹrrõõv-i Määʹrj diõtt
pn . sg . nom be.offended- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen because.of
‘Pete took offence at Maria’

124. upset ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

125. marvel ( õõmšed ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuuʹt õõmš-i siid
pn . sg . nom very marvel.at- pst .3 sg village. sg . acc
‘Pete marvelled at this village.’

126. despise ( pâiʹlǩiõččâd ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt pâiʹlǩeäčč Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom despise. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete despises Maria’

127. get upset ( suttõõđškueʹtted ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENool
X: NOM
Y: GENool
Locus: Y
Peâtt suttõõđ-škuõʹđ-i suu pääʹrn ool
pn . sg . nom get.upset- inch - pst .3 sg 3 sg . gen son. sg . gen onto
‘Pete got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated ( gåårõõđškueʹtted ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENool
X: NOM
Y: GENool
Locus: Y
Peâtt gåårõõđ-škuäʹtt suu niõđ ool
pn . sg . nom get.irritated- inch . prs .3 sg 3 sg . gen daughter. sg . gen onto
‘Pete is getting irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond ( tuʹǩǩeed ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt tuʹǩǩad Määʹrja-st
pn . sg . nom like. prs .3 sg pn . sg . loc
‘Pete is fond of Maria’

130. be shy ( käinnad ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt käinn kookkadvuõđ-âs diõtt
pn . sg . nom be.shy. prs .3 sg height. sg . gen - poss .3 sg because.of
‘Pete is shy about his height.’