BivalTyp

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Southern Rutul

Contributed by Gilles Authier (Academia.edu profile)

G.A.'s photo

The data were collected in 2023 using the Russian version of the questionnaire. Aydin Pashayev, pictured above together with Gilles Authier, translated the questionnaire sentences in his capacity of a native speaker.

How to cite

Authier, Gilles. 2023. Bivalent patterns in Southern Rutul. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on October 13, 2023; last revised on June 6, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

The data come from the Southern dialect of Rutul, sometimes referred to as the dialect of Shina-Borch.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain yetin

Valency pattern: ATTR_NOM
X: ATTR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-dı kelle vete-r
pn - attr head( a ) a .hurt. ipf - prs
‘Murad has a headache.’
Note: The X argument in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level constituent.

2. have (illness) zeʔixhva yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad grip-a-xhvan zeʔixhv-a yişi-r i
pn flu- obl - com sick- predic m .be. pf - seq ( m ) cop
‘Murad has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

3. be afraid kiç’e yişin

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s q'at'ay-aala kiç'e-r
pn - obl - dat dog- superel fear. ipf - prs
‘Murad is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw yihin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a dahar yihi-r
pn - erg stone n .throw. pf - aor
‘Murad threw a stone.’

5. have enough ğeyq'ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s tanga-bı ğeyirq'a-r
pn - obl - dat money- pl . nom n . ipf .be_enough- prs
‘Now Murad has enough money.’

6. resemble kiykın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad rahman-ı-k kiyirka-r
pn pn - obl - cont m .resemble. ipf - prs
‘Murad resembles Rahman.’

7. believe inaamış yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad natig-aa inaamış i
pn pn - super believe ( m ) cop
‘Murad believes Natig.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

8. take laˤşuˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kitab laˤşuˤ-r
pn - erg book ( n )take. pf - aor
‘Murad took a book.’

9. see ğagun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s xal ğagva-r
pn - obl - dat house n .see. ipf - prs
‘Murad sees a house.’

10. influence teʔsir hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
yaş-a-ra yaddaş-a-s teʔsir haʔa-r
age- obl - erg memory- obl - dat influence ( n )do. ipf - prs
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter tüş yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad natig-aa tüş yişi-r
pn pn - super meet m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad encountered Natig.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

12. enter aˤç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
murad xal-a aˤç'uˤ-r
pn house- in ( m )enter. pf - aor
‘Murad entered the house.’

13. win uˤʔuˤ yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad natig-ı-s uˤʔuˤ yişi-r
pn pn - obl - dat brave m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad beat Natig.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

14. go out aˤğaˤç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
murad xal-ıgı aˤğaˤç'uˤ-r
pn house- abl ( n )go_out. pf - aor
‘Murad went out of the house.’

15. drive keğedixin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a zer keğebixi-r
pn - erg cow a .lead_across. pf - aor
‘Murad is driving the cow.’

16. bend suˤç'uˤkaˤ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gariy suˤç'uˤkaˤ hıʔı-r
pn - erg branch bend n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad bent the branch.’

17. tell huxhun

Valency pattern: ERG_AD
X: ERG
Y: AD
Locus: Y
murad-a natig-ı-da huxhu-r
pn - erg pn - obl - ad n .say. pf - aor
‘Murad told Natig.’

18. hold faqhın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kitab faqha-r
pn - erg book ( n ).catch. ipf - prs
‘Murad is holding a book.’

19. catch up kiyq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad ayten-ıxda kiyq'ı-r
pn pn - apud m .hit. pf - aor
‘Murad caught up with Ayten.’

20. milk yezin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a zer vezi-r
pn - erg cow a .milk. pf - aor
‘Murad milked the cow.’

21. reach leyq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad xhid-di ziy-aa leyq'ı-r
pn water. obl - attr border- super m .arrive. pf - aor
‘Murad reached the bank.’

22. touch kiyq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad masla-k kiyq'ı-r
pn wall. obl - cont m .hit. pf - aor
‘Murad touched the wall.’

23. fight kiç’itxhın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad natig-a-xhvan kiç'irxha-r
pn pn - obl - com ( m ). ipf .quarrel- prs
‘Murad is fighting with Natig.’

24. be friends hambazvaldı havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_COM
X: ERG
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad-a natig-xhvan hambaz-valdı vaʔa-r
pn - erg pn - com companionship( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is friends with Natig.’

25. think fikir havʔın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a natig-di fikir vaʔa-r
pn - erg pn - attr thought( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is thinking about Natig.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

26. eat lıˤʔıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aˤç lıˤvʔıˤ-r
pn - erg apple a .eat. pf - aor
‘Murad ate an apple.’

27. fry ire hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a baluğ ir-e havʔı-r
pn - erg fish red- predic a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad fried the fish.’

28. wait güzet hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a natig güzet haʔa-r
pn - erg pn wait ( m )do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is waiting for Natig.’

29. forget k'esqhuduxun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ma-b-dı raˤqh k'esqhubuxu-r
pn - obl - dat other- a - attr road( a ) re . a .forget. pf - aor
‘Murad forgot about the other road.’

30. depend aslı yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
yaddaş yaş-aala aslı i
memory age- superel depending ( n ) cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call ses havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad-a ehmed-a-xda ses havʔı-r
pn - erg pn - obl - apud sound( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad called Ehmed.’

32. get to know tanış yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad natig-ı-xhvan sa sen gabağ-a tanış yişi-r i
pn pn - obl - com one year front- in known m .be. pf - seq ( m ) cop
‘Murad got to know Natig a year ago.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

33. know hats’ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s natig hats'a-r
pn - obl - dat pn m .know. ipf - prs
‘Murad knows Natig.’

34. play (instrument) kıˤyxıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gitara kıˤrıˤxıˤ-r
pn - erg guitar strike. ipf - prs
‘Murad is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid yexin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad natig-iile yexe-r
pn pn - superel m .run. ipf - prs
‘Murad avoids Natig.’

36. make ütke hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'uˤl favaqha-y üpke havʔı-r
pn - erg mouse a .catch. ipf - ptcp a .fit a .do. pf - prs
‘Murad made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun incimiş hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a natig incimiş haʔa-r
pn - erg pn pissed m .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is making fun of Natig.’

38. have yişin

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ıxda maşin viʔi
pn - apud car( a ) a . cop
‘Murad has a car.’

39. look for harsın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aˤçaˤr-bı harsa-r
pn - erg key- pl . nom n . ipf .search- prs
‘Murad is looking for his keys.’

40. paint rang ketkın

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT
X: ERG
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad-a çapra-k rang ketkı-r
pn - erg fence. obl - cont colour n .paste. pf - aor
‘Murad painted the fence.’

41. bite gıç' hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
q'at'ay-e-re murad-ı-s gıç' hıʔı-r
dog- obl - erg pn - obl - dat bite n .do. pf - aor
‘A dog bit Murad.’

42. forfeit yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTEL
X: NOM
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad xal-ıkla yişi-r
pn house- contel m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his house.’

43. try to catch faqhın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gaˤt favaqha-r
pn - erg cat a .catch. ipf - prs
‘Murad is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break q'at' hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a k'ar q'at' hıʔı-r
pn - erg stick cut n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad broke a stick.’

45. flatter kirtebı hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a natig-ı-s kirte-bı haʔa-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat flattery- pl . nom ( n )do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is flattering Natig.’

46. love (person) qhırgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-s ayten qhırga-r
pn - dat pn f .love. ipf - prs
‘Murad loves Ayten.’

47. wave seyte hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a desmel seyte haʔa-r
pn - erg towel n .strike. ipf n .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is waving a towel.’

48. dream yik'-i-gı itxhun

Valency pattern: ATTR_NOM
X: ATTR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-dı yik'-i-gı maşin aˁğaˁvğuˁ-r
np - attr heart- obl - el car( a ) a .go_out. ipf - prs
‘Murad is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: By analogy with 76 and 88, the X argument is considered a clause-level constituent.

49. wash sidq'ın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a t'ılay sidq'ı-r
pn - erg tin_jug n .wash. pf - aor
‘Murad washed the tin jug.’

50. put on lıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a şalvar lavʔı-r
pn - erg trousers( a ) a .put_on. pf - aor
‘Murad put on his trousers.’

51. be called huxhun

Valency pattern: DIR_NOM
X: DIR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
havnaa-xdiy kompas ruxhu-r
dist . obl - dir compass ipf .say- prs
‘This is called a compass.’
Note: Transimpersonal construction.

52. punish ceza vın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
did-e duxarı-s ceza vı-r
father- erg son. pl . obl - dat punishment give. pf - aor
‘Father punished his son.’

53. attack aç'ıtxın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
q'at'ay ilsındıı aç'ıbxı-r
dog human. obl . super a .attack. pf - aor
‘A dog attacked a man.’

54. fill (intr) ats'un

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
vedre xhidi-re ats'u-r
pail water. obl - erg ( n )fill. pf - aor
‘The bucket filled.’

55. find fayʔın

Valency pattern: AD_NOM
X: AD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
tunar-da aˤçaˤr-bı fayʔi-r
pn - ad key- pl . nom n .find. pf - aor
‘Tunar found his keys.’

56. be short kam yişin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ye-s sa manıt kam viʔi
1. obl - dat one manat( a ) lacking a . cop
‘I am one manat short.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

57. hate ğagur çıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
solmaz-ı-s ehmed ğagu-r yıga-ş
pn - obl - dat pn ( m )see. pf - seq m .want. ipf - neg
‘Solmaz hates Ehmed.’

58. like q'abıl yişin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ye-s ğu-du uxun q'abıl vişi-r
1. obl - dat 2- attr shirt( a ) pleasure a .be. pf - aor
‘I like your shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

59. need bakara yişin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ye-s tanga-bı bakara yişi-r
1. obl - dat money- pl . nom needed n .be. pf - aor
‘I need money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround laˤşuˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRyiqa
X: NOM
Y: ATTRyiqa
Locus: Y
şeher maslımı-dı yıˤq'-aˤ laˤvşuˤ-r v-i
town( a ) wall. pl . obl - attr middle_back- in a .take. pf - seq a - cop
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Lit. ‘The town is taken in the middle of walls’.

61. remain aqhatkın

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ıxda yits'ıd manat aqhatkı-r i
pn - apud ten. n manat re . n .remain. pf - seq ( n ) cop
‘Murad has ten manats left.’

62. answer cavab vın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a melime-s cavab vı-r
pn - erg teacher- dat answer give. pf - aor
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

63. open ğara hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a rak ğara hıʔı-r
pn - erg door open n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad opened the door.’

64. be different kiyıkın + NEG

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
yixhdi uxun ğu-du-naa-k kivirka-ş
my shirt( a ) 2- attr - obl - cont a .resemble. ipf - neg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: The k- preverb in the verb is cognate to the CONT marker.

65. fall behind yıˤq'aˤde atkın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ııla yıˤq'aˤ-de arkı-r
pn pn - superel middle_back. obl - ad m .remain. pf - aor
‘Murad fell behind Aydin.’

66. plough laˤyxıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gurux laˤyıˤrxaˤ-r
pn - erg orchard n .till. ipf - prs
‘Murad is tilling the orchard.’

67. smell il yidq’ın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
xıl-amı-kla benzin-e-d il aˤğuˤ-r
hand- pl . obl - contel gas- obl - n smell ( n )go. ipf - prs
‘The hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross faˤğaˤç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRcina7ane
X: NOM
Y: ATTRcina7ane
Locus: Y
murad rıˤqhdi çin-aʔane faˤğaˤç'uˤ-r
pn road. attr dist - dir ( m )pass. ipf - prs
‘Murad crossed the road.’

69. sing huxhun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a sa xvaş-id ç'al-bı huxhu-r
pn - erg one nice- attr word- pl . nom n .say. pf - aor
‘Murad sang a beautiful song.’

70. write kixhin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a mektub kixhi-r
pn - erg letter ( n )write. pf - aor
‘Murad wrote a letter.’

71. drink raˤğıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a naˤk vaˤraˤğıˤ-r
pn - erg milk( a ) a .drink. pf - aor
‘Murad drank the milk.’

72. melt yits'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'ış yits'e hıʔı-r
pn - erg cream n .melt n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad melted the cream.’

73. match kebeliy yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
mi-di kamar yixhdi ğadılmı-s kebeliy v-i
prox - attr belt( a ) my clothes. obl - dat fitting a - cop
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

74. leave targ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a muˤqh targ havʔı-r
pn - erg village( a ) leave a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad left his native city.’

75. cover edukun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
xalçıdı-ra q'ul gırgın-ane eduku-r
carpet. obl - erg board round- adv n .cover. pf - aor
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember yik'i yidq’ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s xal yıxane yik'-i aˤğuˤ-r
pn - obl - dat house well heart- super ( n )go. ipf - prs
‘Murad remembers the house well.’

77. help xıl yıˤxıˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a aydın-ı-s xıl yıˤvxıˤ-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat hand( a ) a .strike. pf - aor
‘Murad helped Aydin.’

78. understand (language) başa itxhun

Valency pattern: DAT.AGR_NOM
X: DAT.AGR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ıs fransız ç'al baş-a iyxhu-r
np - dat f rench language( a ) head- in m .fall_in. ipf - predic
‘Murad understands French.’
Note: Exceptionally, the verb agrees with the X argument in the dative case.

79. hit (target) yıˤxıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
yildirim-e-re xal yıˤxıˤ-r
lightning- obl - erg house n .strike. pf - aor
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself q'at' hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_COM
X: ERG
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad-a vic ci ülgüc-e-xhvan q'at' hıʔı-r
pn - erg refl . nom self. erg razor- obl - com cut m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck kit'idq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
şuˤşe ustul-a-k kit'ibq'ı-r
bottle( a ) table- obl - cont a .stick. pf - aor
‘The bottle got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) aˤcuˤz yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ı-s aˤcuˤz yişi-r
pn pn - obl - dat weak m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad lost to Aydin.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

83. be glad rağzıne atkın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad mektub-aala rağzı-ne arkı-r
pn letter- superel agree- adv m .remain. pf - aor
‘Murad was glad about the letter.’

84. speak halgın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ı-xhvan halga-r
pn pn - obl - com m . ipf .talk- prs
‘Murad is speaking with Aydin.’

85. give birth hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ayten-ra sa dix hıʔı-r
pn - erg one son m .do. pf - aor
‘Ayten gave birth to a son.’

86. drop aa sehin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a istikan aa sevi-r
pn - erg glass( a ) down a .throw. pf - aor
‘Murad dropped the glass.’

87. govern q'vaxhvaldı havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a muˤqh-uˤ-s q'vaxh-valdı vaʔa-r
pn - erg village- obl - dat leadership a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad runs our village.’

88. miss yik' isala hıʔın

Valency pattern: ATTR_APUD
X: ATTR
Y: APUD
Locus: XY
murad-ıd ayten-i-xda yik' isala haʔa-r
pn - attr pn - obl - apud heart bored n .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad misses Ayten.’

89. follow aˤqhaala yıxhın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad aydın-dı aˤqh-aala ruˤq'uˤ-r
pn pn - attr shade- superel ( m )go. ipf - prs
‘Murad follows Aydin.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

90. dismount suˤçuˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad balkan-dııla suˤçuˤ-r
pn horse- obl . superel ( m )dismount. pf - aor
‘Murad got down from the horse.’

91. listen ubur qhixhin

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad-a radio-ya-xda ubur qhinse-r
pn - erg radio- obl - apud ear ( n )apply. ipf - prs
‘Murad is listening to radio.’

92. obey ç’ilık kaqhın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad nin-di ç'il-ı-k kaqha-r
pn mother- attr word. obl - obl - cont m .look. ipf - prs
‘Murad obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

93. hear un yidq’ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ç'al-mı-d un aˤğuˤ-r
pn - obl - dat word- pl . obl - n sound ( n )go. ipf - prs
‘Murad hears the (sound of) music.’

94. mix kidıxın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
it naˤk-ıˤ-xhvan kidıxı-r
honey milk- obl - com n .mix. pf - aor
‘The honey got mixed with milk.’

95. look kaqhın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad kıblımı-k kaqhı-r
pn cloud. pl . obl - cont ( m )look. pf - aor
‘Murad is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off eğlehin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a uxun eğlevi-r
pn - erg shirt( a ) a .lift. pf - aor
‘Murad took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) neq'ixhde ğagun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ayten neq'ixhde ğaragva-r
pn - obl - dat pn in_dreams f .see. ipf - prs
‘Murad dreams about Ayten.’

98. agree ç'ili yidq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad ayten-xhvan ç'il-i yirq'ı-r
pn pn - com word. obl - super m .come. pf - aor
‘Murad agreed with Ayten.’

99. have a quarrel huˤcaˤt hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_COM
X: ERG
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad-a ayten-xhvan huˤcaˤt hıʔı-r
pn - erg pn - com quarrel n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad had a quarrel with Ayten.’

100. cost q'iymet yişin

Valency pattern: ATTR_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: ATTR
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: XY
kubok-a-dı q'iymet sa manat i
cup- obl - attr price( a ) one manat ( n ) cop
‘This cup costs one manat.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at gülle yihin

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a şurku-s gülle vihi-r
pn - erg bird. obl - dat bullet( a ) a .throw. pf - aor
‘Murad shot at the bird.’

102. pour kıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a pusux kıʔı-r
pn - erg sugar ( n )pour. pf - aor
‘Murad poured the sugar.’

103. lose sugva hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aˤçaˤr sugva hıʔı-r
pn - erg key ( n )lose n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his keys.’

104. sink q'uˤrt' yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
us xhid-e q'uˤrt' yişi-r
wood water. obl - in gulp n .be. pf - aor
‘The log sank in the water.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. Lit. ‘The log has been swallowed in the water.’

105. kill yiq'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aydın yiq'e hıʔı-r
pn - erg pn m .die m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad killed Aydin.’

106. hit lixhin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad-a aydın-ııle livxhi-r
pn - erg pn - superel a .put_on. pf - aor
‘Murad hit Aydin.’

107. kiss hup'a hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a ayten-ı-s hup'a hıʔı-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat kiss n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad kissed Ayten.’

108. read q'aliy hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a maraxlı-d kitab q'aliy hıʔı-r
pn - erg interesting- n book read n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) sıˤyıˤlʔaˤ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a t'iliy sıˤvıˤlʔaˤ havʔı-r
pn - erg finger( a ) a .quake. ipf a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad moved his finger.’

110. respect hürmet havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a aydın-ı-s hürmet vaʔa-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat honour( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad respects Aydin.’

111. be squeamish zehle vexin

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s t'alqhı-dı rahlım-ııla zehle vexe-r
pn - obl - dat soil. pf - attr dish. obl - superel bad_mood( a ) a .run. ipf - prs
‘Murad is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content rağzı yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad duxar-ııla rağzı i
pn son. obl - superel agree ( m ) cop
‘Murad is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love yıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ayten rıga-r
pn - obl - dat pn f .want. ipf - prs
‘Murad fell in love with Ayten.’

114. trust ixtibar hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad-a ayten-aa ixtibar haʔa-r
pn - erg pn - super faith ( n )do. ipf - prs
‘Murad trusts Ayten.’

115. sympathise yazux vişin

Valency pattern: DAT_ATTR
X: DAT
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s nin-di yazux aˤvğuˤ-r
pn - obl - dat mother- attr pity( a ) a .come. ipf - prs
‘Murad sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The Y argument can be separated from the word for ‘pity’.

116. envy bexil yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ıı bexil ruˤq'uˤ-r
pn pn - super jealous ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Murad envies Aydin.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

117. be angry qhaˤl laˤvç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad-ı-s aydın-ııle qhaˤl laˤvuˤç'uˤ-r
pn - obl - dat pn - superel anger( a ) a .climb. ipf - prs
‘Murad is angry with Aydin.’

118. be surprised mat yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad mi-di pay-aa mat yişi-r
pn prox - attr present- super surprised m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

119. love (tea) qhıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s çey qhıga-r
pn - obl - dat tea ( n )love. ipf - prs
‘Murad loves tea.’

120. enjoy kef kaˤğaˤyşuˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_CONTEL
X: ERG
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad-a bik'-di çey-a-kla kef kaˤğaˤyşuˤ-r
pn - erg hot- attr tea- obl - contel pleasure n .choose. pf - aor
‘Murad enjoys hot tea.’

121. want yıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ts'in-di cibne-di tilifun vıga-r
pn - obl - dat new- attr pocket- attr telephone( a ) a .want. ipf - prs
‘Murad wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge qhaˤl laˤvç'uˤn

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s aydın-ııle qhaˤl laˤvuˤç'uˤ-r
pn - obl - dat pn - superel anger( a ) a .climb. ipf - prs
‘Murad holds a grudge against Aydin.’

123. take offence incimiş yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ııle incimiş yişi-r i
pn pn - superel pissed m .be. pf - seq ( m ) cop
‘Murad took offence at Aydin.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

124. upset paşmal hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aydın paşmal hıʔı-r
pn - erg pn sad m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad greatly upset Aydin.’

125. marvel aˤvraˤh aˤğaˤyç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-ı-s mi-di şeher ğavgu-de aˤvraˤh aˤğaˤyç'uˤ-nay
pn - obl - dat prox - attr town a .see. pf -when thrill n .go_out. pf - pst
‘Murad was thrilled when he saw this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

126. despise kaˤğaˤyğıˤ

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ıxdiy kaˤğaˤyğaˤ-r
pn pn - dir m .despise. ipf - prs
‘Murad despises Aydin.’

127. get upset qhaˤl laˤvç'uˤn

Valency pattern: DAT_ATTRbadanne
X: DAT
Y: ATTRbadanne
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s duxar-dı badanne qhaˤl laˤvç'uˤ-r
pn - obl - dat son. obl - attr for anger( a ) a .climb. pf - aor
‘Murad got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated kiduʔun

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a riş kirurʔa-r
pn - erg girl f .annoy. ipf - prs
‘Murad irritates the little girl.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

129. be fond yıxane yidq’ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s aydın yıxane aˤğuˤ-r
pn - obl - dat pn well ( m )come. ipf - prs
‘Murad is fond of Aydin.’

130. be shy rıˤx yişin

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s ci-di boy-aala rıˤx ruˤq'uˤ-r
pn - obl - dat self. obl - attr size- superel shame ( n )be. ipf - prs
‘Murad is embarrased about his height.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.