BivalTyp

Mukhad Rutul

Contributed by Gilles Authier (Academia.edu profile) and Mariza Ibragimova (Academia.edu profile)

G.A.'s photo M.I.'s photo

The data were collected in 2023 using the Russian version of the questionnaire.

How to cite

Authier, Gilles and Mariza Ibragimova. 2023. Bivalent patterns in Mukhad Rutul. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on November 2, 2023; last revised on June 6, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Case marking displays the ergative-nominative alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the ergative, and the P-argument, in the (unmarked) nominative. The ergative form of nouns does not coincide with the oblique stem. The verb takes gender-number prefixes agreeing with the S/P argument in the nominative. These gender-number agreement prefixes can be word-initial but are more often found after deictic preverbs, the reversive and other expressive prefixes, as well as after the negation prefix in some forms. Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers or, rarely, by postpositions (in combination with the genitive case).

Case system

There are 6 non-locative cases: nominative, ergative, dative, genitive, comitative, and comparative. The system of locative cases consists of two layers: 6 localizations (IN ‘inside (a container)’, AD ‘at, beside’, APUD ‘at, behind’, SUPER ‘on’, SUB ‘under’, CONT ‘in contact with’ and 2 directions (the unmarked ‘locative’ aka essive/lative and the elative), with the contelative serving also as a subelative, which yields 11 locative combinations and 17 cases in all.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited by their masdar form, based on the perfective stem, with IV class agreement.

Glossing abbreviations

A — animate gender, aka class III; AD — adlocative case; ADEL — adelative case; ADV — adverbial ending ; AOR — aorist tense; APUD — apudlocative case; ATTR — attributive ending; COM — comitative case; COMPAR — comparative case; CONT — contlocative case ; CONTEL — contelative case; COP — copula; DAT — dative case; ERG — ergative case; GEN — genitive case; HPL — human plural; IN — inlocative case; INEL — inelative case; INDEF — indefinite; IPF — imperfective aspect; M — human masculine; MSD — masdar; N — neuter gender, aka class IV; NEG — negation; NOM — nominative case; OBL — oblique nominal stem extension; PF — perfective aspect; PL — plural; PN — person name; PROX — proximate demonstrative; PTCP — participle; REFL — reflexive; SEQ — sequential or ‘perfective converb’; SIMUL — simultaneous or ‘imperfective converb’; SUB — sublocative case; SUPER — superlocative case; SUPEREL — superelative case.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain jedin

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-dı q'ul vede-re
pn - gen head( a ) a .hurt. ipf - hab
‘Murad has a headache.’
Note: The structure is tentatively classified as involving a clause-level genitive (by analogy with other languages). To be checked.

2. have (illness) jıˤχıˤn

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s tımılbır jıˤχıˤ-ri
pn - obl - dat flu n .strike. pf - aor
‘Murad has the flu.’

3. be afraid gič'in

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s tılıj-aala gič'e-re
pn - obl - dat dog. obl - superel fear. ipf - hab
‘Murad is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw χaaʁun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a qat χaaʁu-ri
pn - erg pebble ( n )throw. pf - aor
‘Murad threw a stone.’

5. have enough ʁijq'ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s šiji-bır ʁijq'a-ra
pn - obl - dat rouble( a )- pl . nom n .come_on. ipf - hab
‘Murad has enough money.’

6. resemble kikın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-k kika-ra
pn pn - obl - cont resemble. ipf - hab
‘Murad resembles Kurban.’

7. believe inaamiš jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ıı inaamiš jiʔi
pn pn - super believe m . cop
‘Murad believes Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

8. take lešuˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kitab lešuˤ-ri
pn - erg book ( n )take. pf - aor
‘Murad took a book.’

9. see hagun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s χal hagva-ra
pn - obl - dat house ( n )see. ipf - hab
‘Murad sees a house.’

10. influence jik'ıı ʁadgın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ješ ruʔu-di-re šıv-ga jik'-ıı ʁalga-rdiš
age ( n ) ipf .be- obl - erg what- indef heart- super ipf .remain_on- ipf . neg
‘Because age is coming, nothing remains in memory.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

11. encounter haˤsil jišin

Valency pattern: SUPER_NOM
X: SUPER
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ıı q’urban haˁsil jiširi
pn - super pn meeting m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad encountered Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

12. enter aˤč'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
murad χala aˤč'uˤ-ri
pn house. in ( m )enter. pf - aor
‘Murad entered the house.’

13. win lit'in

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ıı libt'i-ri
pn - erg pn - super a .overcome. pf - aor
‘Murad beat Kurban.’

14. go out ʁaʔ ʁaˤč'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
murad χal-aa ʁaʔ ʁaˤč'uˤ-ri
pn house- abl outside ( m )go_out. pf - aor
‘Murad went out of the house.’

15. drive jıgın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a zer jivıgı-r a
pn - erg cow a .lead. pf - seq be_in
‘Murad is driving the cow.’

16. bend saʔ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gaˤri saʔ hıʔı-ri
pn - erg branch down n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad bent the branch.’

17. tell huxun

Valency pattern: ERG_AD
X: ERG
Y: AD
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-da huxu-ri
pn - erg pn - ad ( n ) pf .say- aor
‘Murad told Kurban.’

18. hold χaq'ın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kitab χaq'ı-r a
pn - erg book ( n )catch. pf - seq be_in
‘Murad is holding a book.’

19. catch up qhiqhijq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad majram-ı-χda qhiqhijq'ı-ri
pn pn - obl - apud m .catch_up. pf - aor
‘Murad caught up with Majram.’

20. milk vezin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a zer vezi-ri
pn - erg cow a .milk. pf - aor
‘Murad milked the cow.’

21. reach lijq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
murad qirχı-da lijq'ı-ri
pn side. obl - ad m .reach. pf - aor
‘Murad reached the bank.’

22. touch kijq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad masal-ı-k kijq'ı-ri
pn wall. obl - obl - cont m .touch. pf - aor
‘Murad touched the wall.’

23. fight kidžitqhın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-xvan kidžidılqha-ra a
pn pn - obl - com hpl . ipf .fight- simul be_in
‘Murad is fighting with Kurban.’

24. be friends dustvaldı vıʔın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-xvan dustvaldı vaʔa-ra a
pn pn - obl - com friendship( a ) a -do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is friends with Kurban.’

25. think fikir vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_CONTEL
X: ERG
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad-a majram-ı-klaa fikir vaʔa-ra a
pn - erg pn - obl - contel thought( a ) a .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is thinking about Majram.’

26. eat lüʔun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a lüvʔu-ri
pn - erg apple a .eat. pf - aor
‘Murad ate an apple.’

27. fry džirdžin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a baluʁ vi-džirdži-ri
pn - erg fish a -fry. pf - aor
‘Murad fried the fish.’

28. wait güzet hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban güzet haʔa-ra a
pn - erg pn wait m .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is waiting for Kurban.’

29. forget jik'ııla utχun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s mad-dı raˤqh jik'-ııla upχu-ri
pn - obl - dat other- attr road. nom ( a ) heart- superel a .forget. pf - aor
‘Murad forgot about the other road.’

30. depend asıllı jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
jik'-ıı ʁadgı-n ješ-aala asıllı jiʔi
heart- super n .remain_on. pf - msd age- superel dependent n . cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call ses vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ı-χda ses vıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn - obl - apud sound( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad called Kurban.’

32. get to know tanıš dišin

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-xvan sen ulixde tanıš jiši-ri
pn pn - obl - com year at_the_front acquainted m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad got to know Kurban a year ago.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

33. know hac'ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s q'urban hac'a-ra
pn - obl - dat pn m .know. ipf - hab
‘Murad knows Kurban.’

34. play (instrument) hulqhun

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad sunnı-dıı hulqha-ra
pn pipe- obl . super ipf .play- hab
‘Murad is playing the pipe.’

35. avoid q'ul geevin

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPEREL
X: ERG
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ııla q'ul geeve-re
pn - erg pn - superel head( a ) a .withdraw. ipf - hab
‘Murad avoids Kurban.’

36. make hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a č'aˤnk' vıʔı-ri
pn - erg trap( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad made a trap.’

37. make fun ijanat hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_CONTEL
X: ERG
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ı-klaa ijanat-bır haʔa-ra a
pn - erg pn - obl - contel trick- pl . nom n .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is making fun of Kurban.’

38. have ana jiʔi

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-χda mašin a-na viʔi
pn - obl - apud car be_in- simul a . cop
‘Murad has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

39. look for haqhagun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a ačar haqhabgu-ra a
pn - erg key( a ) a .seek. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is looking for his keys.’

40. paint šir jıˤvχıˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a haˤsar-a-s šir jıˤvχıˤ-ri
pn - erg fence- obl - dat dye( a ) a .strike. pf - aor
‘Murad painted the fence.’

41. bite sıs vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ı-s tılıje-re sıs vıʔı-ri
pn - obl - dat dog. obl - erg bite( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘A dog bit Murad.’

42. forfeit jiʔi

Valency pattern: NOM_ADEL
X: NOM
Y: ADEL
Locus: Y
murad χal-daa jiši-ri
pn house- adel m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his house.’

43. try to catch χaq'ın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gaˤt χıvırq'a-ra a
pn - erg cat a . ipf .catch- simul be_in
‘Murad is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break q'at' hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gaˤrij q'at' hıʔı-ri
pn - erg branch break n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad broke a stick.’

45. flatter jirzin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a majram rirze-re a
pn - erg pn f . ipf .praise- simul be_in
‘Murad is flattering Majram.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

46. love (person) jıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s majram rıga-ra
pn - obl - dat pn f .want. ipf - hab
‘Murad loves Majram.’

47. wave suda hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a jaluqh subda vaʔa-ra a
pn - erg kerchief( a ) a .shake a .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream xırxın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad mašin-e-χda xırxa-ra a
pn car- obl - apud ipf .desire- simul be_in
‘Murad is dreaming of a car.’

49. wash sidʁın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a čaška sidʁı-ri
pn - erg cup n .wash. pf - aor
‘Murad washed the cup.’

50. put on lıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a badu lıvʔı-ri
pn - erg trousers a .put_on. pf - aor
‘Murad put on his trousers.’

51. be called huxun

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: APUD
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: X
mi kar-dı-χda kоmpas ruxu-ra
prox deed- nh - apud compass ipf .say- hab
‘This thing is called a compass.’

52. punish taˤmbuˤh vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a džuˤ-dı duχarı-s taˤmbuˤh vıʔı-ri
pn - erg refl . h . obl - attr son. obl - dat punishment( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad punished his son.’

53. attack et'utxun

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
si baluʁčij-e-χda et'upxu-ri
bear fisherman- obl - apud a .attack. pf - aor
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) ac'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
bedri xidi-re ac'ı-ri
pail water. obl - erg fill. pf - aor
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find agın

Valency pattern: AD_NOM
X: AD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-da ačar agı-ri
pn - ad key( a ) ( n )find. pf - aor
‘Murad found his keys.’

56. be short ʁidžijq'ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s sa manut ʁijq'ı-r diš
pn - obl - dat one manat n .be_enough. pf - seq neg . cop
‘Murad is one rouble short.’

57. hate k'vaˤč'e jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s q'urban k'vaˤč'-e jiʔi
pn - obl - dat pn hated- predic m . cop
‘Murad hates Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

58. like begemiš jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s mi rubaška begemiš viʔi
pn - obl - dat prox shirt( a ) please a . cop
‘Murad likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

59. need maˤhtadž jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad šiji-mı-χda maˤhtadž jiʔi
pn ruble( a )- pl . obl - apud needing m . cop
‘Murad needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround a

Valency pattern: NOM_GENaa7uu
X: NOM
Y: GENaa7uu
Locus: Y
šeher-di-d aaʔuu mas-bır a
town- obl - gen around wall- pl . nom be_in
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain χamada

Valency pattern: AD_NOM
X: AD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-da 10 dоllar χamada
pn - ad 10 dollar be_with.still. n
‘Murad has ten dollars left.’

62. answer džıvab vın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a maʔˤlim-e-s džıvab vı-ri
pn - erg teacher- obl - dat answer( a ) give. pf - aor
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

63. open ačıχ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a bank'a ačıχ hıʔı-ri
pn - erg jar open n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad opened a jar.’

64. be different kivikara diš

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
iz-dı rubaška vıdı-dik kivika-ra diš
my- attr shirt( a ) yours- obl - cont ( a )resemble. ipf - simul neg . cop
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’

65. fall behind qhuʔ qhargın

Valency pattern: NOM_COMPAR
X: NOM
Y: COMPAR
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-qhaʔ qhuʔ qhargı-ri
pn pn - obl - compar after m .remain_behind. pf - aor
‘Murad fell behind Kurban.’

66. plough lıˤjχıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a χuj lıˤjχaˤ-re a
pn - erg field n .plough. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is ploughing the field.’

67. smell il jišin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
iz-dı χıl-abırmı-k benzin-e-d il ki
my- attr hand- pl . obl - cont oil- obl - gen smell be_at
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross jıxın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERELxu7
X: NOM
Y: SUPERELxu7
Locus: Y
murad rıˤq-ııˤla xuʔ jıxı-ri
pn road. obl - superel forth m .go. pf - aor
‘Murad crossed the road.’
Note: xuʔ is a kind of a postposition, although taking SUPEREL is unusual.

69. sing naˤhni hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a bıt'ra-d naˤhni hıʔı-ri
pn - erg beautiful- attr song n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad sang a beautiful song.’

70. write kixin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kaʁat kixi-ri
pn - erg paper ( n )write. pf - aor
‘Murad wrote a letter.’

71. drink raʁın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a naˤk va-raʁı-ri
pn - erg milk( a ) a -drink. pf - aor
‘Murad drank the milk.’

72. melt jic'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a qurʁušin jic'e hıʔı-ri
pn - erg lead n .melt n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad melted a piece of lead.’

73. match kikın

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
mi č'il iz-dı uχna-s kivika-ra
prox belt my- attr shirt. obl - dat a .resemble. ipf - hab
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave satın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a džuˤ-dı šeher saptı-ri
pn - erg refl . h . obl - attr town( a ) a .leave. pf - aor
‘Murad left his city.’

75. cover χaq'ın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
χalıče-di-re sijene džil χıvq'ı-r a
carpet- obl - erg all ground( a ) a .catch. pf - seq be_in
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember jik'ıı ʁadgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s jıχ-ana jik'-ıı ʁa χal
pn - obl - dat good- adv heart- super be_on house
‘Murad remembers the house well.’

77. help kümeg hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ı-s kümeg hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad helped Kurban.’

78. understand (language) gijq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad francuz-aš-dı č'ili-χda gijq'a-ra
pn f rench- hpl . obl - gen word. obl - apud m .understand. ipf - hab
‘Murad understands French.’

79. hit (target) jıˤχıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
χal c'ire jıˤχıˤ-ri
house fire. erg n .strike. pf - aor
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself džuˤ vıdž hat'un

Valency pattern: ERG_ERG
X: ERG
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
murad-a džuˤ vıdž jalʁudž-e-re hat'u-ri
pn - erg m . refl . erg m . refl ( nom ) razor- obl - erg ( m )cut. pf - aor
‘Murad cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck kidžitqhın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
istakan ust'ul-a-k kidžipqhı-ri
glass table- obl - cont a .stick. pf - aor
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) gergın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad gergı-ri
pn m .lose. pf - aor
‘Murad lost.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

83. be glad šad jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad kaʁat-aa šad jiši-ri
pn paper- super happy m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

84. speak halgın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-xvan halga-ra a
pn pn - obl - com m .speak. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is speaking with Kurban.’

85. give birth huχun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
majram-a duχ huχu-ri
pn - erg son m .be_born. pf - aor
‘Majram gave birth to a son.’

86. drop χiitxun

Valency pattern: ADEL_NOM
X: ADEL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-daa istakan χiipxu-ri
pn - adel glass a .drop. pf - aor
‘Murad dropped the glass.’

87. govern reχbervaldı vıʔın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a ix-dı muˤq-uˤ-d reχber-valdı vaʔa-ra a
pn - erg 1 pl . obl - attr village- obl - gen guide- nmlz ( a ) a .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad runs our town.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

88. miss c'ijal hıʔın

Valency pattern: DAT_APUD
X: DAT
Y: APUD
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s majram-ı-χda c'ijal jiʔi
pn - obl - dat pn - obl - apud bore n . cop
‘Murad misses Majram.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

89. follow qhuna jıxın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-χda qhu-na jiʔi
pn pn - obl - apud be_behind- adv m .go
‘Murad follows Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

90. dismount (saʔ) saˤč'uˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad jivan-dııla saʔ saˤč'uˤ-ri
pn horse- obl . superel down ( m )go_down. pf - aor
‘Murad got down from the horse.’
Note: saʔ is partially optional, it functions as an adverb here.

91. listen qhacun

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad radiо-dı-χda qhabcu-ra a
pn radio- obl - apud ipf .listen- simul be_in
‘Murad is listening to radio.’

92. obey qhacun

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad nin-ı-χda qhabcu-ra
pn mother- obl - apud ipf .listen- hab
‘Murad listens to his mother.’

93. hear un jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s maq'am-a-d jiχana un a
pn - obl - dat tune- obl - gen well sound be_in
‘Murad hears the music.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

94. mix kidχın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
it naˤk-ıdı-xvan kidχı-ri
honey milk- obl - com n .mix. pf - aor
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look gaqın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad gıbli-mı-χda gaqa-ra a
pn cloud. obl - pl . obl - apud ( m )look. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off qhadžin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a rubaška qhabdži-ri
pn - erg shirt( a ) a .take_off. pf - aor
‘Murad took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) neq'ixde hagun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s majram neq'i-xde hargva-ra
pn - obl - dat pn sleep. obl - sub f .see. ipf - hab
‘Murad dreams about Majram.’

98. agree razıvaldı vın

Valency pattern: ERG_AD
X: ERG
Y: AD
Locus: Y
q’urban-a majram-da razıvaldı vı-ri
np - erg np - ad agreement( a ) give. pf - aor
‘Murad agreed with Majram.’

99. have a quarrel qhaˤl vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_COM
X: ERG
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad-a majram-ı-xvan qhaˤl vıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn - obl - com anger( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad had a quarrel with Majram.’

100. cost q'imet viʔi

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: GEN
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: XY
mi čaška-did q'imet viʔi sa manut
prox cup- nh . gen price( a ) a . cop one manat
‘This cup costs 1 rouble.’
Note: The structure is tentatively classified as involving a clause-level genitive (by analogy with other languages). To be checked. Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at gülle sıˤvχıˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad-a šuruk-uu gülle sıˤvχıˤ-ri
pn - erg bird- super bullet( a ) a .shoot. pf - aor
‘Murad shot at the bird.’

102. pour kıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a pisuχ kıʔı-ri
pn - erg sugar ( n )pour. pf - aor
‘Murad poured the sugar.’

103. lose suga hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a ačar-bır suga hıʔı-ri
pn - erg key- pl . nom n .lose n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his keys.’

104. sink kigun

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
us xidi-k kigu-ri
wood water. obl - cont ( n )sink. pf - aor
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill jiq'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban jiq'e hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn m .die m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad killed Kurban.’

106. hit jıˤvχıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban jıˤχıˤ-ri
pn - erg pn m .strike. pf - aor
‘Murad hit Kurban.’

107. kiss temeni hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a majram-ı-s temeni hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn - obl - dat kiss n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad kissed Majram.’

108. read q’ıle hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
q’urban-a jıχ-dı kitab q’ıle hı-ʔı-ri
pn - erg good- attr book reading n -do. pf - aor
‘Murad read a good book.’

109. move (bodypart) sit'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a t'ili sip'e vıʔı-ri
pn - erg finger( a ) a .move a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad moved his finger.’

110. respect huˤrmet uˤvuˤχuˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-dı huˤrmet uˤvuˤχuˤ-re
pn - erg pn - gen respect( a ) a .keep. ipf - hab
‘Murad respects Kurban.’
Note: The structure is tentatively classified as involving a clause-level genitive (by analogy with other languages). To be checked.

111. be squeamish k'vaˤč'e jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s t'alqhı-d qabır k'vaˤč'-e jiʔi
pn - obl - dat ( n )soil. pf - attr plates hated- predic n . cop
‘Murad is squeamish about dirty dishes.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

112. be content razi jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad džuˤ-dı duχar-ııla razi jiʔi
pn refl . h . obl - attr son. obl - superel content m . cop
‘Murad is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love jıgara jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s majram rıga-ra riši-ri
pn - obl - dat pn f .want. ipf - simul f .be. pf - aor
‘Murad fell in love with Majram.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

114. trust iχtibar vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad-a majram-ıı iχtibar vaʔa-ra
pn - erg pn - super trust( a ) a .do. ipf - hab
‘Murad trusts Majram.’

115. sympathise jazuqh hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad-a džuˤ-dı nin-ı-χda jazuqh haʔa-ra
pn - erg refl . h . obl - attr mother- obl - apud pity n .do. ipf - hab
‘Murad sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy peχil jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ıı peχil jiʔi
pn pn - super envious m . cop
‘Murad envies Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

117. be angry qhaˤl ʁa

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s q'urban-ııla qhaˤl ʁa
pn - obl - dat pn - superel anger( a ) be_on
‘Murad is angry with Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

118. be surprised maˤʔaˤt'al jišin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad mi amanat-aa maˤʔaˤt'al jiši-ri
pn prox trust- super surprised m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

119. love (tea) jıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s čej jıga-d i
pn - obl - dat tea n .want. ipf - attr ( n ) cop
‘Murad loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (close to a headless relative clause).

120. enjoy *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a bik'er-di čej raʁa-ra kef kelʔe-re a
pn - erg hot- attr tea ipf .drink- simul pleasure ( n ) ipf .pull- simul be_in
‘Murad feels good when he drinks hot tea.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

121. want jıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s c'in-dı telefon vıga-ra
pn - obl - dat new- attr phone a .want. ipf - hab
‘Murad wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge qhaˤl ʁa

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s q'urban-ııla qhaˤl ʁa
pn - obl - dat pn - superel anger( a ) be_on
‘Murad holds a grudge against Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

123. take offence χatir adgın

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s q'urban-ııla χatir adgı-ri
pn - obl - dat pn - superel consideration n .remain. pf - aor
‘Murad took offence at Kurban.’

124. upset pašmal hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban pašmal hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn sad m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad greatly upset Kurban.’

125. marvel mat jišin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad mi šeher huvgu-jne mat jiši-ri
pn prox town a .see. pf -when surprised m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was impressed when he saw this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

126. despise alčaχna χaq'ın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban alčaχ-na χalq'a-ra
pn - erg pn vile- adv ( m ) ipf .catch- hab
‘Murad despises Kurban.’

127. get upset χatir adgın

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s duχar-ııla χatir adgı-ri
pn - obl - dat son. obl - superel consideration n .remain. pf - aor
‘Murad got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated qhaˤl lüvč'un

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s džuˤ-dı rıš-aala qhaˤl lüvč'u-ri
pn - obl - dat refl . h . obl - attr daughter- superel anger( a ) a .rise. pf - aor
‘Murad is getting irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond qhıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s q'urban qhıga-ra
pn - obl - dat pn ( m )love. ipf - hab
‘Murad is fond of Kurban.’

130. be shy rıˤqh hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPEREL
X: ERG
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad-a džuˤ-dı bıj-aala rıˤqh haʔa-ra
pn - erg refl . h . obl - attr size- superel shame( n ) n .do. ipf - hab
‘Murad is embarrased about his height.’