BivalTyp

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Rutul

Contributed by Michael Daniel (Academia.edu profile), Anastasia Fedorenko, and Stepan Mikhailov (Academia.edu profile)

M.D.'s photo A.F.'s photo S.M.'s photo

The data were collected during the fieldtrips to the village of Kina, Rutul rayon of the Republic of Daghestan, in 2015-2019. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Daniel, Michael, Anastasia Fedorenko, and Stepan Mikhailov. . Bivalent patterns in Rutul. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on September 17, 2020; last revised on November 15, 2020.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

The data come from the Kina dialect of Rutul.

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Both case marking and agreement display the ergative-nominative alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the ergative, and the P-argument, in the (unmarked) nominative (also referred to as absolutive). Most verbal forms are derived either from the perfective or from the imperfective stem. The verb cross-references the P- or S-argument, with four genders, 1 (masculine), 2 (feminine), which in the plural merge into HPL (human plural); and 3 and 4, which in the plural merge into NPL (non-human plural). Some verbs additionally show vowel alternation in animate plural forms. In most verbal forms, Gender 1, Gender 4 and NPL are zero marked. The neutral word order is SV / APV. An example of the transitive construction can be found in (1).

(1) rasul-a l-ešu-r           kitab
    PN-ERG  PV-1.take.PFV-CVB book(NOM)
    ‘Rasul took a book.’

Virtually any verb has the nominative as one of its arguments. With some verbs, however, the position of the nominative argument is taken by a stem which can be more or less autonomous as a noun.

(2) rasul-u-s    χatir    a<d>gɨ-r=a             asijet-ɨ-la
    PN-OBL-DAT   grudge   <4>be.stuck.PFV-CVB=be PN-OBL(SUP)-EL
    ‘Rasul took offence at Asijat.’

The second, non-nominative argument of a two-place intransitive predicate may be one of the many inflected forms of the noun described in the following section. Sometimes arguments are flagged by postpositions.

Case system

The nominal inflection includes two subparadigms, abstract (syntactic, non-locative) cases and spatial inflection. Abstract cases are expressed by single suffixes and include nominative, ergative, dative and comitative. The possessive suffix is a cross-categorial attributivizer (ATTR). Spatial forms are based on a template that includes two slots. The first is obligatorily filled by one of the suffixes of the category of localization (defining a spatial domain with respect to the landmark, including SUP for ‘on’, IN for ‘inside’, APUD for ‘near’, SUB for ‘under’ and INTER for ‘between’ or ‘in a substance’). The second slot expresses the category of directionality and may be left unfilled, in which case the whole form expresses the meaning of static location (as in ‘on the table’, or Place) or motion into the designated domain (as in ‘on(to) the table’, or Goal). Otherwise, the form may be elative (as in ‘from the table’, or Source), in which case the localization suffix is followed by the elative suffix -la (for SUP and INTER) or increases the length of the suffix vowel (for IN and APUD); for SUB, the elative suffix is fused with the localization suffix. Abstract cases and spatial forms, a total of 15 forms, are widely used to mark various verbal arguments, although to very different extents depending on the specific form, see the database. All inflectional suffixes are added to the oblique stem (glossed OBL), most often derived by one of a set of lexically distributed suffixes.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited by the form which is used in the specific sentence. For example ‘to take’ is cited as lešur, the specific perfective form used in (1), which contains the preverb l- and the converb marker -r and signals that the P-argument is from Gender 1.

Glossing abbreviations

ABSTR — abstract noun; ADD — additive; APUD — localization ‘near’; ATTR — attributivizer; CBV — converb; COM — comitative; CONTR — contrastive; COP — copula; CVB — converb; DAT — dative; EL — elative; ERG — ergative; HPL — human plural; IMP — imperative; IN — localization ‘inside’; INTER — localization ‘between’; IPFV — imperfective; LAT — lative; LV — light verb; M — masculine; NEG — negation; NOM — nominative; NPL — non-human plural; OBL — oblique; PFV — perfective; PL — plural; PN — person name; PST — past; PV — preverb; RE — refactive; SG — singular; SUB — localization ‘under’; SUP — localization ‘on’.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( weddara ):

Valency pattern: ATTR_NOM
X: ATTR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-dɨ huq’ul w-edda-r=a
pn - attr head( nom ) 3-hurt. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul has a headache.’

2. have (illness) ( jiˁχɨˁra ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s grip jiˁχɨˁ-r=a
pn - obl - dat influenza( nom ) 4.hit. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul has the flu.’

3. be afraid ( gič’era ):

Valency pattern: DAT_SUP.EL
X: DAT
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s gič’e-r=a tɨlɨja-la
pn - obl - dat fear. ipfv - cvb =be dog. obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( χač’ibχɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a dahar χa-č’-i<b>χɨ-r
pn - erg rock( nom ) pv - pv -<3>throw. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul threw a stone.’

5. have enough ( ʁejq’ara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s šiɁi-bɨr ʁe-jq’a-r=a
pn - obl - dat money- pl ( nom ) pv - npl .be.enough. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul has enough money.’

6. resemble ( kikara ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
rasul k-ika-r=a ramazan-ɨ-k
pn ( nom ) pv -1.be.similar. ipfv - cvb =be pn - obl - inter
‘Rasul resembles Ramazan.’

7. believe ( inamiš jiʔi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul inamiš jiʔi ramazan-ɨ
pn ( nom ) believe 1. cop pn - obl ( sup )
‘Rasul believes Ramazan.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

8. take ( lešur ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a l-ešu-r kitab
pn - erg pv -1.take. pfv - cvb book( nom )
‘Rasul took a book.’

9. see ( ʁargᵂara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ʁ-argᵂa-r=a χal
pn - obl - dat pv -4.see. ipfv - cvb =be house( nom )
‘Rasul sees a house.’

10. influence ( ʁaqʷargʷardiš ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
q’aˁs-wol-i-kan išɨʁ ʁa-qʷ-argʷa-r-diš
old- abstr - obl - com light pv - re -4.see. ipfv - cvb - neg
‘With age, one becomes unable to see the light.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

11. encounter ( giˁχɨˁr ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ramazan giˁ-χɨˁ-r
pn - obl - dat pn ( nom ) pv -1.meet. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul ran into Ramazan.’

12. enter ( eč’ura ):

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
rasul χal-a eč’u-r=a
pn ( nom ) house- in pv .1.enter. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul entered the house.’

13. win ( libt’ɨra ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul-a l-i<b>t’ɨ-r=a ramazan-ɨ
pn - erg pv -<3>win. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl ( sup )
‘Rasul beat Ramazan.’

14. go out ( ʁaɁ haˁrχɨˁr ):

Valency pattern: NOM_IN.EL
X: NOM
Y: IN.EL
Locus: Y
rasul χal-a: ʁaɁ haˁ<r>χɨˁ-r
pn ( nom ) house- in . el outside. lat <1>leave. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul went out of the house.’

15. drive ( hiwirgara ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a zer hi-w-irga-r=a
pn - erg cow( nom ) pv -3-drive. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is driving the cow.’

16. bend ( q’ut’k’e hɨɁɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a dal q’-u<t’>k’-e hɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg branch( nom ) pv -<4>bend( intr )- imp 4.do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul bent the branch.’

17. tell ( huxur ):

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
rasul-a huxu-r ramazan-da
pn - erg 4.tell. pfv - cvb pn - apud
‘Rasul told Ramazan.’

18. hold ( χaq’ɨra ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a kitab (χɨl-e) χ-aq’ɨ-r=a
pn - erg book( nom ) (hand. obl - in ) pv -4.catch. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is holding a book (in his hands).’

19. catch up ( qeqiq’ɨra ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul qe-q-iq’ɨ-r=a samira-χda
pn ( nom ) pv - re -1.catch.up. pfv - cvb =be pn - sub
‘Rasul caught up with Samira.’

20. milk ( wezɨra ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a zer w-ezɨ-r=a
pn - erg cow( nom ) 3-milk. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul milked the cow.’

21. reach ( lejq’ɨra ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul čejlaʁ-a le-jq’ɨ-r=a
pn ( nom ) riverside- obl ( sup ) pv -1.reach. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul reached the bank.’

22. touch ( kiq’ɨr ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
rasul masal-ɨ-k ki-q’ɨ-r
pn ( nom ) wall- obl - inter pv -1.touch. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul touched the wall.’

23. fight ( kičilqara ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-kan kičilqa-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com <1>fight. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is fighting with Ramazan.’

24. be friends ( ara χa ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-kan ara χ-a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com inside pv -be
‘Rasul is friends with Ramazan’ (lit. ‘Rasul is together with Ramazan’).
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

25. think ( fikir waɁara ):

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER.EL
X: ERG
Y: INTER.EL
Locus: Y
rasul-a samira-k-la fikir w-aɁa-r=a
pn - erg pn - inter - el thought 3-do. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is thinking about Samira.’

26. eat ( liwir ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a Ɂeč li<w>i-r
pn - erg apple( nom ) <3>eat. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul ate an apple.’

27. fry ( wiǯira ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a baluʁ w-iǯi-r=a
pn - erg fish( nom ) 3-fry. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul fried the fish.’

28. wait ( güzet haɁara ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a ramazan güzet haɁa-r=a
pn - erg pn ( nom ) wait 1.do. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is waiting for Ramazan.’

29. forget ( jik’ijla upχur ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasulɨ-s tin-baj-dɨ raˀq jik’ij-la u<p>χu-r
pn . obl - dat that- contr - attr road( nom ) heart. obl ( sup )- el <3> lv . pfv - cvb
‘Rasul forgot about the other road.’

30. depend ( pet’ ruʔura ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ul-id išɨɢ pet’ ruʔu-r=a q’aˁs-wol-i-kan
eye- attr light little 4.become. ipfv - cvb =be old- abstr - obl - com
‘Sight deteriorates with age.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

31. call ( ses hawɨr ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB
X: ERG
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul-a ramazan-ɨ-χda ses ha<w>ɨ-r
pn - erg pn - obl - sub sound <3>do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul called Ramazan.’

32. get to know ( tanɨš jišid ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-kan sa sen xura gi-na tanɨš jiši-d
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com one year in.front sub .be- cvb acquainted 1.become. pfv - attr
‘Rasul got to know Ramazan a year ago.’

33. know ( hac’ara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s hac’a-r=a ramazan
pn - obl - dat 1.know. ipfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul knows Ramazan.’

34. play (instrument) ( wɨrɨˁχɨˁra ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a saz wɨ-rɨˁχɨˁ-r=a
pn - erg saz( nom ) 3-hit. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is playing the saz.’

35. avoid ( gʲaʁaˁbʁura ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul ramazan-ɨ-la: gʲa-ʁaˁbʁu-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl ( sup )- el pv -1.avoid. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul avoids Ramazan.’

36. make ( hawɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a bomba ha<w>ɨ-r
pn - erg bomb( nom ) <3>do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul made a bomb.’

37. make fun ( jiʁ laɢara ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul-a ramazan-ɨ jiʁ laɢa-r=a
pn - erg pn - obl ( sup ) mock lv . ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is making fun of Ramazan.’

38. have ( ani wiɁi ):

Valency pattern: SUB_NOM
X: SUB
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-ɨ-χda mašin a-ni w-iɁi
pn - obl - sub car( nom ) be- cvb 3- cop
‘Rasul has a car.’

39. look for ( aramiš haɁara ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a güleg-mar aramiš haɁa-r=a
pn - erg key- pl ( nom ) seek npl .do. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is looking for his keys.’

40. paint ( šir jiˀwχaˀra ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a čapra-s šir jiˀ<w>χaˀ-r=a
pn - erg fence. obl - dat paint <3>hit. ipfv . ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul painted the fence.’

41. bite ( sɨs kiʔɨr ):

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER
X: ERG
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
rasul-u-k tɨlɨj-ra sɨs k-iʔɨ-r
pn - obl - inter dog. obl - erg tooth( nom ) pv -4. lv . pfv - cvb
‘A dog bit Rasul.’

42. forfeit ( madiš ):

Valency pattern: ATTR_NOM
X: ATTR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-dɨ χal madiš
pn - attr house( nom ) remain.4. neg
‘Rasul lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( χowɨrq’ara ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a get χo-w-ɨrq’-a-r=a
pn - erg cat( nom ) pv -3-catch. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break ( q’at’ hɨɁɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a t’at’al q’at’ hɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg stick( nom ) half 4. lv . pfv - cvb
‘Rasul broke a stick.’

45. flatter ( rirzara ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasul-a samira r-irz-a-r=a
pn - erg pn ( nom ) 2-praise. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is flattering Samira.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

46. love (person) ( qɨgara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ǯu-du duχ q-ɨga-r=a
pn - obl - dat self.1. obl - attr son( nom ) re -1.love. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul loves his son.’

47. wave ( lawɨχara ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
samira-ra jalɨʁ la-wɨ-χa-r=a
pn - erg kerchief( nom ) pv -3-wave. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Samira is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream ( fikir waɁara ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasul-a fikir w-aɁa-r=a c’in-dɨ mašina-d
pn - erg thought 3-do. ipfv - cvb =be new- attr car- attr
‘Rasul is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

49. wash ( jidʁɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
samira-ra ist’ek’an ji<d>ʁɨ-r
pn - erg glass( nom ) <4>wash. pfv - cvb
‘Samira washed the cup.’

50. put on ( lawɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a badu la-w-ɨ-r
pn - erg trousers( nom ) pv -3-put.on. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul put on his trousers.’

51. be called ( dur jiɁi ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mi kar-di-d dur jiɁi kompas
this thing- obl - attr name( nom ) 4. cop compass( nom )
‘This thing is called a compass.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate (not an argument).

52. punish ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

53. attack ( lowčir ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
si edemij-a l-o<w>či-r
bear( nom ) man- obl ( sup ) pv -<3>attack. pfv - cvb
‘A bear attacked a man.’

54. fill (intr) ( ac’ira ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
widra xiji-ra a-c’i-r=a
bucket water. obl - erg pv -4.fill. pfv - cvb =be
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find ( agɨra ):

Valency pattern: APUD.EL_NOM
X: APUD.EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-da: a-gɨ-r=a güleg-mar
pn - apud . el pv - npl .find. pfv - cvb =be key- pl ( nom )
‘Rasul found his keys.’

56. be short ( ʁewirq’ardiš ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ʁe-w-irq’a-r-diš sa manut
pn - obl - dat pv -3-be.enough. ipfv - cvb - neg one rouble( nom )
‘Rasul is short one rouble.’

57. hate ( ulis ʁagur hɨgardiš ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ramazan ul-i-s ʁagu-r hɨga-r-diš
pn - obl - dat pn ( nom ) eye- obl - dat 1.see. pfv - cvb 4.want. ipfv - cvb - neg
‘Rasul hates Ramazan.’

58. like ( q’abɨl wuruɁura ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s q’abɨl wu-ruɁu-r=a mi uχun
pn - obl - dat like 3-become. ipfv - cvb =be this shirt( nom )
‘Rasul likes this shirt.’

59. need ( hɨgara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s zar hɨga-r=a
pn - obl - dat money( nom ) 4.want. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul needs money.’

60. surround ( ara ewira ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
masal-mɨ-ra ara e-w-i-r=a šeher
wall- obl . pl - erg around pv -1-close. pfv - cvb =be town( nom )
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain ( χamabani wiɁi ):

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-da χa-ma<b>a-ni w-iɁi jic’ɨ-d manud
pn - apud pv -<3>remain- cvb 3- cop ten-4 rouble( nom )
‘Rasul has 10 roubles left.’

62. answer ( ǯiwab hɨwɨr ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a ǯiwab hɨ<w>ɨ-r maʔalim-a-s
pn - erg answer( nom ) <3>give. pfv - cvb teacher- obl - dat
‘Rasul answered the teacher.’

63. open ( ačɨχ wɨɁɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a bank’a ačɨχ w-ɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg pot( nom ) open 3-do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul opened a can.’

64. be different ( maddɨ wiɁi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
iz-dɨ uχun mad-dɨ w-iɁi wɨ-dɨ-ji-la
i - attr shirt( nom ) other- attr 3- cop you. sg - attr - obl ( sup )- el
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind ( quɁ qargɨr ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
ramazan quɁ q-argɨ-r rasul-u-la
pn ( nom ) back. lat re - lv . pfv - cvb pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul fell behind Ramazan.’

66. plough ( lʲaˁjχaˁra ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a χuj lʲ-aˁjχaˁ-r=a
pn - erg field( nom ) pv -4.plough. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( il rɨˁχaˁra ):

Valency pattern: INTER.EL_ATTR
X: INTER.EL
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
ɨz-dɨ χɨla-bɨr-mɨ-k-la benzin-ad il rɨˁχaˁ-r=a
i - attr hand- pl - obl . pl - inter - el petrol- attr smell( nom ) 4.go. ipfv - cvb =be
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross ( tiʔ eʁeč’ur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_IN.EL
X: NOM
Y: IN.EL
Locus: Y
rasul rɨˀɢ-a: tiʔ e-ʁ-eč’u-r
pn ( nom ) road. obl - in . el there pv - pv -1.cross. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul crossed the road.’

69. sing ( hɨʔɨra ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a bat’r-ad maˁɁni hɨʔɨ-r=a
pn - erg beautiful- attr song( nom ) 4.do. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ( kixira ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a pisʲmo k-ixi-r=a
pn - erg letter( nom ) pv -4.write. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul wrote a letter.’

71. drink ( waraˁʁɨˁra ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a nek wa-raˁʁɨˁ-r=a
pn - erg milk( nom ) 3-drink. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul drank the milk.’

72. melt ( jic’a hɨɁɨraj ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a jic’-a hɨɁɨ-r=a-j tike ɢurʁušin-ad
pn - erg 4.melt- imp 4.do. pfv - cvb =be- pst piece( nom ) lead- attr
‘Rasul melted a piece of lead.’

73. match ( wuruʔura ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
hemi č’il iz-dɨ uχna-s wu-ruʔu-r=a
this belt( nom ) i - attr dress. obl - dat 3-go. ipfv - cvb =be
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave ( qaˁrhɨˁr ):

Valency pattern: NOM_IN.EL
X: NOM
Y: IN.EL
Locus: Y
rasul ǯu-dɨ šeher-dʲ-a: q-aˁ<r>hɨˁ-r
pn ( nom ) self. obl - attr city- obl - in . el re -<1>leave. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul left his native city.’

75. cover ( χowq’ura ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
χajma-ra χ-o<w>q’u-r=a sin ǯil
carpet- erg pv -<3>catch. pfv - cvb =be whole floor( nom )
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( jik’i ʁamada ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s hɨχa-na jik’-i ʁa-ma<d>a juǯ q’ɨxe jiši-d χal
pn - obl - dat well heart- obl ( sup ) pv -<4>remain self big 1.become- attr home( nom )
‘Rasul remembers the house where he grew up well.’

77. help ( kumag hɨɁɨra ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a nadir-ɨ-s kumag hɨɁɨ-r=a
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help( nom ) 4.do. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul helped Nadir.’

78. understand (language) ( gijirq’ara ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul francuskij č’ilɨ-χda gi-jirq’a-r=a
pn ( nom ) french language. obl - sub pv -1.understand. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul understands French.’

79. hit (target) ( kiq’ɨra ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
c’aj χal-ɨ-k k-iq’ɨ-r-a
fire( nom ) house- obl - inter pv -4.hit. pfv - cvb
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself ( hart’ura ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
rɨš kant’-i-ra hart’u-r=a
girl( nom ) knife- obl - erg <2>cut. pfv - cvb =be
‘The girl cut herself with a knife.’

81. get stuck ( kičipqɨra ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
istek’an isk’am-a-k ki-č-i<p>qɨ-r=a
glass( nom ) table- obl - inter pv - pv -<3>stick. pfv - cvb =be
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( jawa jišira ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul jawa jiši-r=a asijet-ɨ-la
pn ( nom ) weak 1.become. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul lost to Asijat.’

83. be glad ( šad jišira ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul kaʁad-a-s šad jiši-r=a
pn ( nom ) letter- obl - dat joyful 1.become. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ( halgara ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul nadir-ɨ-kan halga-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com 1.talk. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is speaking with Nadir.’

85. give birth ( jišɨra ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
madina-s duχ jišɨ-r=a
pn - dat son( nom ) 1.become. pfv - cbv =be
‘Madina gave birth to a son.’

86. drop ( saɁ sipxur ):

Valency pattern: APUD.EL_NOM
X: APUD.EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-da: saɁ s-i<p>xu-r istek’an
pn - apud . el down. lat pv -<3>fall. pfv - cvb glass( nom )
‘Rasul dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( q’ɨxʲwaldɨ waɁara ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a q’ɨxʲ-waldɨ w-aɁa-r=a ix-dɨ muˀɢ-uˀ-s
pn - erg elder- abstr 3-do. ipfv - cvb -be we. obl - attr village- obl - dat
‘Rasul runs our village.’

88. miss ( c’iɣal jišira ):

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB
X: DAT
Y: SUB
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s madinat-ɨ-χda c’iɣal jiši-r=a
pn - obl - dat pn - obl - sub longing( nom ) 4.become. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul misses Madinat.’

89. follow ( xale ana jiɁi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRzibra
X: NOM
Y: ATTRzibra
Locus: Y
rasul xal-e a-na jiɁi asijet-dɨ ǯibra
pn ( nom ) trail- in be- cvb 1. cop pn - attr behind
‘Rasul follows Asijat.’

90. dismount ( saɁ seč’ura ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul hejwan-a-la saɁ s-e-č’u-r=a
pn ( nom ) horse- obl ( sup )- el down. lat pv - pv -1.get.down. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul got down from the horse.’

91. listen ( ubɨr qassara ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB
X: ERG
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
islam-a ubɨr q-assa-r=a radio-je-χda
pn - erg ear pv -4.listen. ipfv - cvb =be radio- obl - sub
‘Rasul is listening to radio.’

92. obey ( ubɨr qassara ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB
X: ERG
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
islam-a nin-ɨ-χda ubɨr q-ass-a=r-a
pn - erg mother- obl - sub ear pv -1.listen. ipfv - cvb =be- pst
‘Rasul always obeys his mother.’

93. hear ( ses ruɁur ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ATTR
X: DAT
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s maˁʔnij-mɨ-d ses ruɁu-r
pn - obl - dat song- pl . obl - attr sound( nom ) 4.go. ipfv - cvb
‘Rasul hears the music.’

94. mix ( kitχɨr ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
it=na nek k-i<t>χɨ-r
honey= add milk pv -<3>mix. pfv - cvb
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

95. look ( gʲaɢara ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul gʲ-aɢa-r=a gɨbli-mɨ-χda
pn ( nom ) pv -1.look. ipfv - cvb =be cloud- pl . obl - sub
‘Rasul is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( saɁ qiwir ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a saɁ qi-wi-r rubaška
pn - erg down. lat re -take.off. pfv - cvb shirt( nom )
‘Rasul took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ( neq’ʲe ʁarurgara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s neq’ʲ-e ʁa-ru-rga-r=a asijet
pn - obl - dat dream. obl - in pv -2-see. ipfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul dreams about Asijat.’

98. agree ( raazi jišir ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
vɨɣɨl raazi jiši-r ɢarija-kan
man( nom ) agreed 1.become. pfv - cvb wife. obl - com
‘Rasul agreed with his wife.’

99. have a quarrel ( ʁerukur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
islam ʁe-ruku-r nadir-ɨ-kʷan
pn ( nom ) pv -1.quarrel. pfv - cvb pn - obl - com
‘Islam had a quarrel with Nadir.’

100. cost ( wiɁi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
mi istek’an sa manut-a-s w-iɁi
this cup( nom ) one rouble- obl - dat 3- cop
‘This cup costs 1 rouble.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at ( tufang wijiraj ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB
X: ERG
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul-a tufang w-iji-r=a-j šurk-u-χda
pn - erg gun( nom ) 3-shoot. pfv - cvb =be- pst bird- obl - sub
‘Rasul shot at the bird.’

102. pour ( kiɁɨraj ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a pisuk’ ki-Ɂɨ-r=a-j istek’an-e
pn - erg sugar( nom ) pv -4.add. pfv - cvb =be- pst glass- in
‘Rasul poured the sugar.’

103. lose ( sugura ):

Valency pattern: APUD.EL_NOM
X: APUD.EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-da: güleg-mar su-gu-r=a
pn - apud . el key- pl ( nom ) pv - npl .lose. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul lost his keys.’

104. sink ( ara: saɁ kipxur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
girdɨm xij-e ara: saɁ k-i<p>xu-r
log( nom ) water. obl - in inside. el down. lat pv -<3>get.to. pfv - cvb =be
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ( riq’e rɨʔɨra ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a r-iq’-e r-ɨʔɨ-r=a asijet
pn - erg 2-die- imp 2-do. pfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul killed Asijat.’

106. hit ( liwxir ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP.ELga
X: ERG
Y: SUP.ELga
Locus: Y
rasul-a asijet-ɨ-la ʁaʔ li-w-xi-r
pn - erg pn - obl ( sup )- el on pv -3-hit. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul hit Asijat.’
Note: Agreement marker on the verb cross-references the understood argument ‘hand’ (3rd class).

107. kiss ( k’uxʲ kiwɨr ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a k’uxʲ ki-w-ɨ-r madina-s
pn - erg beak( nom ) pv -3- lv . pfv - cvb pn - dat
‘Rasul kissed Madina.’

108. read ( q’ɨle hɨɁɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a q’ɨle hɨɁɨ-r ɢalin-dɨ kitab
pn - erg read 4.do. pfv - cvb thick- attr book( nom )
‘Rasul read a thick book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( χibga wɨɁɨr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a t’ili χ-i<b>g-a w-ɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg finger( nom ) pv -<3>move- imp 3-do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul moved his finger.’

110. respect ( huˁrmaˁt waɁara ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a huˁrmaˁt w-aɁa-r=a asijet-ɨ-s
pn - erg respect 3-do. ipfv - cvb =be pn - obl - dat
‘Rasul respects Asijat.’

111. be squeamish ( ʁagujne jik’ mɨq’a jišir ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasul-u-s čapaˁl-dɨ ɢab-ɨr ʁa-gu-jne jik’ mɨq’a jiši-r
pn - obl - dat dirty- attr dish- pl pv - npl .see. pfv - cvb heart cold 4.become. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul is squeamish about dirty dishes’ (lit. ‘Rasul’s heart gets cold when he sees dirty dishes’).
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

112. be content ( raazi jiɁi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul raazi jiɁi ǯu-du duxar-ɨ
pn ( nom ) delighted 1.С op self. m . obl - attr son- obl ( sup )
‘Rasul is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love ( jik’ik kirxura ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s jik’i-k k-irxu-r=a asijet
pn - obl - dat heart. obl - inter pv -get.in. pfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul fell in love with Asijat.’

114. trust ( ilamiš riɁi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
madina ilamiš r-iɁi ǯi-dɨ χɨnχ-ɨ
pn ( nom ) trust 2- cop self- attr child- obl ( sup )
‘Madina trusts her child.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

115. sympathise ( haˀjiw raɁara ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a haˀjiw r-aɁa-r=a ǯʲu-du nin
pn - erg pity 2-do. ipfv - cvb =be self. m . obl - attr mother( nom )
‘Rasul sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy ( paxil jiɁi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul paxil jiɁi asijed-ɨ
pn ( nom ) envy 1. cop pn - obl ( sup )
‘Rasul envies Asijat.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

117. be angry ( bizar jiɁi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul bizar jiɁi asijed-ɨ-la
pn ( nom ) irritation 1. cop pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul is angry with Asijat.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

118. be surprised ( taˤʔǯib jišira ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul taˤʔǯib jiši-r=a ha-d amanat-a-s hɨwɨ-d saʔat-a
pn ( nom ) amazed 1.become. pfv - cvb =be this- attr gift- obl - dat 4.give. pfv - attr watch- obl ( sup )
‘Rasul was surprised at the watch that was given to him as a present.’

119. love (tea) ( qɨgara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s q-ɨga-r=a čej
pn - obl - dat re -4.love. ipfv - cvb =be tea( nom )
‘Rasul loves tea.’

120. enjoy ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

121. want ( wɨgara ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s w-ɨga-r=a c’ɨn-dɨ telefon
pn - obl - dat 3-want. ipfv - cvb =be new- attr phone( nom )
‘Rasul wants a new phone.’

122. have a grudge ( sɨrχɨra ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
islam sɨrχɨ-r=a nadir-ɨ-χda
pn ( nom ) 1.become.mad. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl - sub
‘Islam has a grudge against Nadir.’

123. take offence ( χatir adgɨra ):

Valency pattern: DAT_SUP.EL
X: DAT
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s χatir a<d>gɨ-r=a asijet-ɨ-la
pn - obl - dat grudge <4>be.stuck. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul took offence at Asijat.’

124. upset ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

125. marvel ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

126. despise ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

127. get upset ( pašmal jišir ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul pašmal jiši-r ǯʲu-du duxar-ɨ-la
pn ( nom ) sad 1.become. pfv - cvb self. m . obl - attr son- obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul got upset because of his son.’

128. get irritated ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

129. be fond ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

130. be shy ( rɨq ruɁura ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul rɨq ruɁu-r=a ǯʲu-du bɨj-a-la
pn ( nom ) shame come. ipfv - cvb =be self. m . obl - attr stature- obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul is shy about his height.’