BivalTyp

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Russian

Contributed by Sergey Say (Academia.edu profile)

S.S.'s photo

Sergey Say provided the data in 2011 in the capacity of a native speaker of Russian.

How to cite

Say, Sergey. . Bivalent patterns in Russian. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on November 7, 2020; last revised on November 7, 2020.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on )

Basic info

The data are presented using scientific transliteration. As a result, morphemic boundaries follow some idiosyncrasies of the Russian orthography, cf. plat'-ju (rather than morphologically more accurate plat'j-u) [dress(N)-DAT.SG], which corresponds to the orthographic плать-ю.

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Case marking displays the nominative-accusative alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the nominative, and the P-argument, in the accusative. Even though the accusative form coincides with the nominative form in some declension classes, these two forms are consistently interlinearized according to their grammatical feature value. Thus, both (1) and (2) are examples of the canonical transitive construction, even though the accusative form of rot 'mouth' in (2) is zero-marked and coincides with the nominative form of the same noun.

(1) devočk-a       uvide-l-a          kot-a
    girl(F)-NOM.SG see(PFV)-PST-F.SG  cat(M)-ACC.SG
    'The girl saw a cat.'

(2) mal'čik      otkry-l              rot
    boy(M)[M.SG] open(PFV)-PST[M.SG]  mouth(M)[ACC.SG]
    'The boy opened his mouth.'

Declension class assignment is largely conditioned by gender and animacy, but partially is lexically idiosyncratic. The nominative-accusative syncretism is more typical of inanimate nouns (and never observed in personal pronouns).

The verb always agrees with the nominative subject in number and person/gender (the choice of agreement features is conditioned by tense). Non-subjects are never indexed on the verb.

Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers and prepositions. Many prepositions can combine with several different cases; valency class labels represent prepositions in combination with the specific case, e.g., NOM_naACC (where the preposition na combines with a noun phrase in the accusative case) and NOM_naLOC (where the same preposition combines with a noun phrase in the locative case) are considered two different valency patterns, etc.

Case system

There are 6 full-fledged cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental and locative.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited in their infinitive form specified for aspect (perfective or imperfective).

Glossing abbreviations

3 — third person; ACC — accusative; DAT — dative; F — feminine; GEN — genitive; IMP — imperative; INS — instrumental; IPFV — imperfective; LOC — locative; M — masculine; N — neutral; NOM — nominative; PFV — perfective; PL — plural; PN — person name; PRED — predicative form; PRS — present; PST — past; REFL — reflexive; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( boletʹ ):

Valency pattern: uGEN_NOM
X: uGEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
u Pet-i bol-it golov-a
at pn ( m )- gen . sg ache( ipfv )- prs .3 sg head( f )- nom . sg
‘Petja has a headache.’

2. have (illness) ( boletʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja bole-et gripp-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_ill( ipfv )- prs .3 sg flu( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja has the flu.’

3. be afraid ( bojatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja bo-it-sja sobak-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_afraid( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl dog( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( brositʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja brosi-l kamenʹ
pn ( m )- nom . sg throw( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stone( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja threw a stone.’

5. have enough ( xvatatʹ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Pet-e xvata-et deneg
pn ( m )- dat . sg suffice( ipfv )- prs .3 sg money[ gen . pl ]
‘Petja has enough money.’

6. resemble ( poxož + COP ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja poxož na Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg similar[ pred . m . sg ] on pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja resembles Maša.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe ( veritʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja ver-it Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg believe( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja believes Maša.’

8. take ( vzjatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja vzja-l knig-u s polk-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg take( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] book( f )- acc . sg from shelf( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja took a book from the shelf.’

9. see ( videtʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja vid-it dom
pn ( m )- nom . sg see( ipfv )- prs .3 sg house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja sees a house.’

10. influence ( vlijatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
vozrast vlija-et na pamjatʹ
age( m )[ nom . sg ] influence( ipfv )- prs .3 sg on memory( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter ( vstretitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vstreti-l-sja s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg meet( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja encountered Maša.’

12. enter ( vojti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja voše-l v dom
pn ( m )- nom . sg enter( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja entered the house.’

13. win ( vyigratʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_uGEN
X: NOM
Y: uGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vyigra-l u Maš-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg win( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] at pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja beat Maša.’

14. go out ( vyjti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vyše-l iz dom-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg go_out( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from house( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja went out of the house.’

15. drive ( gnatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja gon-it korov-u na pastbišč-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg drive( ipfv )- prs .3 sg cow( f )- acc . sg on pasture( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja is driving the cow to the pasture.’

16. bend ( sognutʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sognu-l vetk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg bend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] branch( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja bent the branch.’

17. tell ( skazatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja skaza-l Maš-e prixod-i ko mne v gost-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg tell( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- dat . sg come( ipfv )- imp . sg to i . dat in guest( m )- acc 2. pl
‘Petja told Maša: come to my place.’

18. hold ( deržatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja derž-it knig-u v ruk-ax
pn ( m )- nom . sg hold( ipfv )- prs .3 sg book( f )- acc . sg in hand( f )- loc . pl
‘Petja is holding a book in his hands.’

19. catch up ( dognatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja dogna-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg catch_up( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja caught up with Maša.’

20. milk ( podoitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja podoi-l korov-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg milk( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] cow( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja milked the cow.’

21. reach ( dostičʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja dostig bereg-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg reach( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] bank( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja reached the bank.’

22. touch ( dotronutʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja dotronu-l-sja do sten-y
pn ( m )- nom . sg touch( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl up_to wall( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja touched the wall.’

23. fight ( dratʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja der-et-sja s Miš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg fight( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja is fighting with Miša.’

24. be friends ( družitʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja druž-it s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_friends( ipfv )- prs .3 sg with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is friends with Maša.’

25. think ( dumatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja duma-et o Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg think( ipfv )- prs .3 sg about pn ( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja is thinking about Maša.’

26. eat ( sʺestʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sʺe-l jablok-o
pn ( m )- nom . sg eat( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] apple( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja ate an apple.’

27. fry ( požaritʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja požari-l ryb-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg fry( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fish( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja fried the fish.’

28. wait ( ždatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja žd-et Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg wait( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja is waiting for Maša.’

29. forget ( zabytʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja zaby-l o drug-oj dorog-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg forget( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] about other- f . loc . sg road( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja forgot about the other road.’

30. depend ( zavisetʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_otGEN
X: NOM
Y: otGEN
Locus: Y
pamjatʹ zavis-it ot vozrast-a
memory( f )[ nom . sg ] depend( ipfv )- prs .3 sg from age( m )- gen . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’

31. call ( pozvatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja pozva-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg call( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja called Maša.’

32. get to know ( poznakomitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja poznakomi-l-sja s Maš-ej god tomu nazad
pn ( m )- nom . sg introduce( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl with pn ( f )- ins . sg year( m )[ acc . sg ] that. dat . sg ago
‘Petja got to know Maša a year ago.’

33. know ( znatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja zna-et Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg know( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja knows Maša.’

34. play (instrument) ( igratʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naLOC
X: NOM
Y: naLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja igra-et na gitar-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg play( ipfv )- prs .3 sg on guitar( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid ( izbegatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja izbega-et Maš-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg avoid( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja avoids Maša.’

36. make ( sdelatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja izgotovi-l myšelovk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg make( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] mousetrap( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun ( izdevatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja izdeva-et-sja nad Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg make_fun( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl above pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is making fun of Maša.’

38. have ( bytʹ ):

Valency pattern: uGEN_NOM
X: uGEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
u Pet-i estʹ mašin-a
at pn ( m )- gen . sg be. prs car( f )- nom . sg
‘Petja has a car.’

39. look for ( iskatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja išč-et ključ-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg look_for( ipfv )- prs .3 sg key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petja is looking for his keys.’

40. paint ( pokrasitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja pokrasi-l zabor
pn ( m )- nom . sg paint( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fence( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja painted the fence.’

41. bite ( kusatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
sobak-a ukusi-l-a Pet-ju
dog( f )- nom . sg bite( pfv )- pst - f . sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘A dog bit Petja.’

42. forfeit ( lišitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja liši-l-sja dom-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg deprive( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl house( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja lost hist house.’

43. try to catch ( lovitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja lov-it košk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg try_to_catch( ipfv )- prs .3 sg cat( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break ( slomatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sloma-l palk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg break( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stick( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja broke a stick.’

45. flatter ( lʹstitʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja lʹst-it Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg flatter( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja is flattering Maša.’

46. love (person) ( ljubitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ljub-it Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg love( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja loves Maša.’

47. wave ( maxatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja maš-et platk-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg wave( ipfv )- prs .3 sg kerchief( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream ( mečtatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja mečta-et o nov-oj mašin-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg dream( ipfv )- prs .3 sg about new- f . loc . sg car( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash ( vymytʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja vymy-l čašk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg wash( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] cup( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja washed the cup.’

50. put on ( nadetʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja nade-l štan-y
pn ( m )- nom . sg put_on( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] trousers- acc . pl
‘Petja put on his trousers.’

51. be called ( nazyvatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ètot predmet nazyva-et-sja kompas-om
this. m . nom . sg object( m )[ nom . sg ] call( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl compass( m )- ins . sg
‘This object is called a compass.’

52. punish ( nakazatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja nakaza-l svo-ego syn-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg punish( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] one’s- m . acc . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Petja punished his son.’

53. attack ( napastʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
medvedʹ napa-l na rybak-a
bear( m )[ nom . sg ] attack( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on fisherman( m )- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) ( napolnitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
vedr-o napolni-l-o-sʹ vod-oj
bucket( n )- nom . sg fill( pfv )- pst - n . sg - refl water( f )- ins . sg
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find ( najti ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja naše-l ključ-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg find( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petja found his keys.’

56. be short ( nedostavatʹ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Pet-e nedosta-et odn-ogo dollar-a
pn ( m )- dat . sg lack( ipfv )- prs .3 sg one- m . gen . sg dollar( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja is one euro short.’

57. hate ( nenavidetʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja nenavid-it Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg hate( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja hates Maša.’

58. like ( nravitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pet-e nrav-it-sja èt-a rubašk-a
pn ( m )- dat . sg please( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl this- f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg
‘Petja likes this shirt.’

59. need ( nužen + COP ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pet-e nužn-y denʹg-i
pn ( m )- dat . sg necessary- pred . pl money- nom . pl
‘Petja needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround ( okružatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
sten-y okruža-jut gorod
wall( f )- nom . pl surround( ipfv )- prs .3 pl city( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain ( ostatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: uGEN_NOM
X: uGEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
u Pet-i osta-l-o-sʹ desjatʹ dollar-ov
at pn ( m )- gen . sg remain( pfv )- pst - n . sg - refl ten[ nom ] dollar( m )- gen . pl
‘Petja has ten dollars left.’

62. answer ( otvetitʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja otveti-l učitel-ju
pn ( m )- nom . sg answer( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] teacher( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja answered the teacher.’

63. open ( otkrytʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja otkry-l bank-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg open( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] can( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja opened a can.’

64. be different ( otličatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_otGEN
X: NOM
Y: otGEN
Locus: Y
mo-ja rubašk-a otliča-et-sja ot tvo-ej
my- f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg differentiate( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl from your- f . gen . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

65. fall behind ( otstatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_otGEN
X: NOM
Y: otGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja otsta-l ot Maš-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg fall_behind( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja fell behind Maša.’

66. plough ( paxatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja paš-et pol-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg plough( ipfv )- prs .3 sg field( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( paxnutʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
mo-i ruk-i paxn-ut benzin-om
my- nom . pl hand( f )- nom . pl smell( pfv )- prs .3 pl gasoline( m )- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross ( peresečʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja peresek dorog-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg cross( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] road- acc . sg
‘Petja crossed the road.’

69. sing ( spetʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja spe-l krasiv-uju pesn-ju
pn ( m )- nom . sg sing( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] beautiful- f . acc . sg song( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ( napisatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja napisa-l pisʹm-o
pn ( m )- nom . sg write( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] letter( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja wrote a letter.’

71. drink ( vypitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja vypi-l molok-o
pn ( m )- nom . sg drink( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] milk( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja drank the milk.’

72. melt ( rasplavitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja rasplavi-l kusok svinc-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg melt( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] piece( m )[ acc . sg ] lead( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja melted a piece of lead.’

73. match ( podxoditʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_kDAT
X: NOM
Y: kDAT
Locus: Y
ètot pojas podxod-it k mo-emu platʹ-ju
this. m . nom . sg belt( m )[ nom . sg ] match( ipfv )- prs .3 sg at my- n . dat . sg dress( n )- dat . sg
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave ( uexatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja uexa-l iz rodn-ogo gorod-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg go_away( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from native- m . gen . sg city( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja left his native city.’

75. cover ( pokryvatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
kover pokryva-et vesʹ pol
carpet( m )[ nom . sg ] cover( ipfv )- prs .3 sg all[ m . acc . sg ] floor( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( pomnitʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja xorošo pomn-it dom, v kotor-om vyros
pn ( m )- nom . sg well remember( ipfv )- prs .3 sg house( m )[ acc . sg ], in which- m . loc . sg grow_up( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petja remembers the house where he grew up well.’

77. help ( pomočʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja pomog Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg help( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja helped Maša.’

78. understand (language) ( ponimatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ponima-et francuzsk-ij jazyk
pn ( m )- nom . sg understand( ipfv )- prs .3 sg f rench- m . acc . sg language( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja understands French.’

79. hit (target) ( popastʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
molni-ja popa-l-a v dom
lightning( f )- nom . sg hit( pfv )- pst - f . sg in house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself ( porezatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja poreza-l-sja britv-oj
pn ( m )- nom . sg cut( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl razor( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck ( prilipnutʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_kDAT
X: NOM
Y: kDAT
Locus: Y
stakan prilip k stol-u
glass( m )[ nom . sg ] stick( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] at table( m )- dat . sg
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( proigratʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja proigra-l Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja lost to Maša.’

83. be glad ( obradovatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja obradova-l-sja pisʹm-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg gladden( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl letter( n )- dat . sg
‘Petja was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ( razgovarivatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja razgovariva-et s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg speak( ipfv )- prs .3 sg with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is speaking with Maša.’

85. give birth ( roditʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Maš-a rodi-l-a syn-a
pn ( f )- nom . sg give_birth( pfv )- pst - f . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Maša gave birth to a son.’

86. drop ( uronitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja uroni-l stakan
pn ( m )- nom . sg drop( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] glass( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( rukovoditʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja rukovod-it naš-im poselk-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg govern( ipfv )- prs .3 sg our- m . ins . sg town( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja runs our town.’

88. miss ( skučatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_poDAT
X: NOM
Y: poDAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja skuča-et po Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg miss( ipfv )- prs .3 sg by pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja misses Maša.’

89. follow ( idti ):

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja id-et za Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg go( ipfv )- prs .3 sg behind pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja follows Maša.’

90. dismount ( sleztʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sGEN
X: NOM
Y: sGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja slez s lošad-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg dismount( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] from horse( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja got down from the horse.’

91. listen ( slušatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sluša-et radio
pn ( m )- nom . sg listen( ipfv )- prs .3 sg radio( n )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja is listening to radio.’

92. obey ( slušatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sluša-et-sja mam-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg listen( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl mum( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja listens to his mother.’

93. hear ( slyšatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja slyš-it muzyk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg hear( ipfv )- prs .3 sg music( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja hears the music.’

94. mix ( smešatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
med smeša-l-sja s molok-om
honey( m )[ nom . sg ] mix( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl with milk( n )- ins . sg
‘The honey got mixed with milk.’

95. look ( smotretʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja smotr-it na tuč-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg look( ipfv )- prs .3 sg on cloud( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( snjatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja snja-l rubašk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg put_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] shirt( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ( snitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pet-e sn-it-sja Maš-a
pn ( m )- dat . sg see_in_a_dream( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl pn ( f )- nom . sg
‘Petja dreams about Maša.’

98. agree ( soglasitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja soglasi-l-sja s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg agree( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja agreed with Maša.’

99. have a quarrel ( possoritʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja possori-l-sja s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg cause_to_quarrel( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja had a quarrel with Maša.’

100. cost ( stoitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
èt-a čašk-a sto-it odin dollar
this- f . nom . sg cup( f )- nom . sg cost( ipfv )- prs .3 sg one[ m . acc . sg ] dollar( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘This cup costs 1 dollar.’

101. shoot at ( vystrelitʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vystreli-l v ptic-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg shoot( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in bird( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja shot at the bird.’

102. pour ( nasypatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja nasypa-l saxar v čašk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg pour( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] sugar( m )[ acc . sg ] in cup( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose ( poterjatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja poterja-l ključ-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petja lost his keys.’

104. sink ( utonutʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vLOC
X: NOM
Y: vLOC
Locus: Y
polen-o utonu-l-o v vod-e
log( n )- nom . sg drown( pfv )- pst - n . sg in water( f )- loc . sg
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ( ubitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ubi-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg kill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja killed Maša.’

106. hit ( udaritʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja udari-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja hit Maša.’

107. kiss ( pocelovatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja pocelova-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg kiss( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja kissed Maša.’

108. read ( pročitatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja pročita-l interesn-uju knig-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg read( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] interesting- f . acc . sg book( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( poševelitʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja poševeli-l palʹc-em
pn ( m )- nom . sg stir( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] finger( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja moved his finger.’

110. respect ( uvažatʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja uvaža-et Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg respect( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja respects Maša.’

111. be squeamish ( brezgovatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja brezgu-et grjazn-oj posud-oj
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_squeamish( ipfv )- prs .3 sg dirty- f . ins . sg dishes( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content ( dovolen + COP ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja dovolen svo-im syn-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg content[ pred . m . sg ] one’s- m . ins . sg son( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love ( vljubitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vljubi-l-sja v Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg fall_in_love( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl in pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja fell in love with Maša.’

114. trust ( doverjatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja doverja-et Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg trust( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja trusts Maša.’

115. sympathise ( žaletʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja žale-et svo-ju matʹ
pn ( m )- nom . sg sympathise( ipfv )- prs .3 sg one’s- f . acc . sg mother( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy ( zavidovatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja zavidu-et Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg envy( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja envies Maša.’

117. be angry ( zlitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja zl-it-sja na Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg make_angry( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl on pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja is angry with Maša.’

118. be surprised ( udivitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja udivi-l-sja èt-omu podark-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg surprise( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl this- m . dat . sg gift( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) ( ljubitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ljub-it čaj
pn ( m )- nom . sg love( ipfv )- prs .3 sg tea( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja loves tea.’

120. enjoy ( naslaždatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja naslažda-et-sja gorjač-im ča-em
pn ( m )- nom . sg enjoy( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl hot- m . ins . sg tea( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja enjoys hot tea.’

121. want ( xotetʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja xoč-et nov-yj mobilʹnik
pn ( m )- nom . sg want( ipfv )- prs .3 sg new- m . acc . sg cellphone( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge ( serditʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja serd-it-sja na Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg vex( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl on pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja holds a grudge against Maša.’

123. take offence ( obidetʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja obide-l-sja na Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg offend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl on pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja took offence at Maša.’

124. upset ( ogorčitʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja očenʹ ogorči-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg very upset( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja greatly upset Maša.’

125. marvel ( porazitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja porazi-l-sja èt-omu gorod-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg amaze( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl this- m . dat . sg city( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja was impressed by this town.’

126. despise ( preziratʹ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja prezira-et Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg despise( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja despises Maša.’

127. get upset ( ogorčitʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_izzaGEN
X: NOM
Y: izzaGEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja ogorči-l-sja iz-za svo-ego syn-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg upset( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl from-behind one’s- m . gen . sg son( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated ( razdražatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja razdraža-et-sja na svo-ju dočʹ
pn ( m )- nom . sg irritate( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl on one’s- f . acc . sg daughter( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja is getting irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond ( simpatizirovatʹ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja simpatiziru-et Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_fond( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja is fond of Maša.’

130. be shy ( stesnjatʹsja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja stesnja-et-sja svo-ego rost-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg cumber( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl one’s- m . gen . sg height( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja is embarrased about his height.’