BivalTyp

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Mano

Contributed by Maria Khachaturyan

M.Kh.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2023. The translations were generously provided by Pé Mamy. The data were collected using French as the language of elicitation (and sometimes the English version of the questionnaire).

How to cite

Khachaturyan, Maria. 2023. Bivalent patterns in Mano. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on November 27, 2023; last revised on December 25, 2023.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain wàā

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
ŋ̄ sɔ̰́ɔ̰́ tɔ́ɔ̄ lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ wàā
1 sg tooth dem . vis 3 sg . ipfv 1 sg hurt: ipfv
‘This tooth of mine hurts.’
Note: The possessor is necessarily coreferential with the direct object.

2. have (illness) kɛ̄

Valency pattern: mo_SBJ
X: mo
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
nɛ́nɛ́yàà lɛ̄ Sèé mɔ̀
malaria 3 sg . exi pn on
‘Se has malaria.’
Note: Existential construction. Under specific circumstances, the verb 'to be' (kɛ̄) has a zero form.

3. be afraid túó

Valency pattern: SBJ_lee
X: SBJ
Y: lee
Locus: Y
Sèé lɛ́ɛ̀ tùò gbá̰ lɛ̀ɛ̄
pn 3 sg . ipfv be_afraid dog to
‘Se is afraid of dogs.’

4. throw dùò

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ gɔ́ wɛ́lɛ́ dùò
1 sg . pst cola bone throw
‘I threw cola nuts.’

5. have enough kɛ̄

Valency pattern: kele_SBJ
X: kele
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
wɛ́lì lɛ̄ ŋ̄ kɛ̀lɛ̀
money 3 sg . exi 1 sg pstp hand
‘I have money.’
Note: Existential construction. Under specific circumstances, the verb 'to be' (kɛ̄) has a zero form.

6. resemble ɓɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Pèé lɛ́ɛ̀ ɓɔ̄ dàā
pn 3 sg . ipfv leave 3 sg . refl father in
‘Pe resembles his father.’

7. believe láá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pèé lɛ́ɛ̀ làà ŋ̄ là
pn 3 sg . ipfv spread: ipfv 1 sg on
‘Pe believes me.’

8. take sí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé sɛ́ɓɛ̀ sí
pn 3 sg . pst book take
‘Pe took a book.’

9. see gɛ̰̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé lɛ́ɛ̀ ká̰ gɛ̰̀
pn 3 sg . ipfv house see: ipfv
‘Pe sees a house.’

10. influence *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

11. encounter ɓɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
ŋ̄ ɓɔ̄ Pèé mɔ̀ lɔ́í
1 sg . pst leave pn on market
‘I encountered Pe at the market.’

12. enter wàà

Valency pattern: SBJ_LOC
X: SBJ
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kō wàà kɛ́ì
1 pl . pst enter house. loc
‘We entered a house.’
Note: LOC is a special form of (some) nouns. It goes back to the postposition "yí" but is not synchronically interchangeable with it.

13. win kɔ̀ bɛ̀ī

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ō kɔ̀ bɛ̀ī gbàlà mìà mɔ̀
3 pl arm 3 sg . pst be.able k pelle person. pl : cstr on
‘They beat the Kpelle.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

14. go out ɓɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_LOC
X: SBJ
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kō ɓɔ̄ kɛ́ì
1 pl . pst leave house. loc
‘We went out of the house.’
Note: LOC is a special form of (some) nouns. It goes back to the postposition "yí" but is not synchronically interchangeable with it.

15. drive nū

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
lɛ̄ nū-pɛ̀lɛ̀ dìì ká
3 sg . exi come- inf cow with
‘S/he is driving a cow.’

16. bend gbīnī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yílí kɔ̀ɔ̀ gbīnī
3 sg . pst tree branch bend
‘S/he bent a branch.’

17. tell gèē

Valency pattern: SBJ_lee
X: SBJ
Y: lee
Locus: Y
Pèé gèē ŋ̄ lɛ̀ɛ̄
pn 3 sg . pst >3 sg say 1 sg to
‘Pe told me..’
Note: Obligatory 3SG direct object.

18. hold kɔ̀ be

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pèé kɔ̀ lɛ̄ sɛ́ɓɛ̀ mɔ̀
pn arm 3 sg . exi book on
‘Pe is holding a book.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

19. catch up kṵ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé Sèé kṵ́
pn 3 sg . pst pn catch
‘Pe caught up with Se.’

20. milk ɲɔ́yíí ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé dìì ɲɔ́yíí ɓō
pn 3 sg . pst cow milk take_out
‘Pe milked a cow.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

21. reach ɓɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pèé ɓɔ̄ yíí kpóŋ́ là
pn 3 sg . pst leave water edge on
‘Pe arrived at a river bank.’

22. touch pá

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
Pèé pá kágóó mɔ̀
pn 3 sg . pst touch wall on
‘Pe touched the wall.’

23. fight gèlè gɔ̰̄

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kò gbàlà mìà kóò gèlè gɔ̰̄
1 pl . ip k pelle person. pl : cstr 1 pl . ipfv war fight: ipfv
‘We and the Kpelle people fight.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

24. be friends dà

Valency pattern: SBJ_pie
X: SBJ
Y: pie
Locus: Y
Kɔ̀ɔ́ dà lúlɔ̀ nì píé
k o 3 sg . pst fall 2 sg sister pl behind
‘Ko became friends with your sisters.’

25. think yɛ́lɛ́ táá

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
Pèé lɛ̄ yɛ́lɛ́ táá-pɛ̀lɛ̀ mɔ̀
pn 3 sg . exi 3 sg . refl spirit walk- inf 2 sg on
‘Pe is thinking about you.’
Note: Labile verb used transitively. The object’s possessor is necessarily coreferential with the subject.

26. eat ɓèlè

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé āà ɓū ɓèlè
pn 3 sg . prf rice eat
‘Pe has eaten rice.’

27. fry yìè

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé kpà̰á̰ yìè
pn 3 sg . pst fish fry
‘Pe fried the fish.’

28. wait mɛ́ gbṵ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ mɛ́ gbṵ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . exi 2 sg prev gather- inf
‘S/he is waiting for you.’

29. forget lèmā

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
lèmā ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . pst forget 1 sg on
‘S/he forgot about me.’

30. depend *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call súò kɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ súò kɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg call do: ipfv
‘S/he calls me.’

32. get to know dɔ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ dɔ̄
3 sg . pst 1 sg know
‘S/he got to know me.’

33. know dɔ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ dɔ̄
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg know: ipfv
‘S/he knows me.’

34. play (instrument) mɛ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ɓàlā mɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv tamtam hit: ipfv
‘S/he plays tamtam.’

35. avoid mɛ́ kpɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ mɛ́ kpɔ̄
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg prev put: ipfv
‘S/he avoids me.’

36. make bɛ̀ī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
dḭ̄ḭ̄ bɛ̀ī
3 sg . pst powder make
‘S/he made powder.’

37. make fun bá̰

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
lɛ́ɛ̀ bā̰ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . ipfv touch: ipfv 1 sg on
‘S/he makes fun of me.’

38. have kɛ̄

Valency pattern: kele_SBJ
X: kele
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
wɛ́lì kɛ̄ ŋ̄ kɛ̀lɛ̀
money 3 sg . pst be 1 sg pstp hand
‘I had money.’

39. look for nāā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ là nɛ́ nāā-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . exi 3 sg . poss child love- inf
‘S/he is looking for his/her child.’

40. paint bɛ̰̀ɛ̰̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ sɔ̄ wɛ̄ bɛ̰̀ɛ̰̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv dress dem color- inf
‘S/he is coloring the dress.’

41. bite sɔ̰́ɔ̰́ dɔ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ sɔ̰́ɔ̰́ dɔ̄
3 sg . pst 1 sg tooth install
‘It bit me.’

42. forfeit kɔ̰́

Valency pattern: SBJ_yi
X: SBJ
Y: yi
Locus: Y
kɔ̰́ ká yí
3 sg . pst be.deprived house in
‘S/he was deprived of a house.’

43. try to catch kṵ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ lūúgɔ̰̀à̰nɛ́ɛ́ kṵ́-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . exi wild.cat catch- inf
‘S/he is trying to catch a wild cat’

44. break wí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ō vɛ́ɛ́lɛ́ tɔ́ɔ̄
3 pl . pst cup dem . prox . vis break
‘They broke the cup.’

45. flatter tɛ̀nɛ̄

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pèé lɛ̄ nā tɛ̀nɛ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀
pn 3 sg . exi 3 sg . refl wife praise- inf
‘Pe is praising his wife.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

46. love (person) nāā

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
ŋ́ŋ̀ nàà ká
1 sg . ipfv love 2 sg with
‘I love you.’

47. wave vṵ́ ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà mmouchoir vṵ́ ɓō
3 sg . prf handkerchief[ fr ] movement implement
‘S/he waved a handkerchief.’

48. dream mɛ̀ŋ̀ zɛ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
mɛ̀ŋ̀ zɛ̄ ŋ̄ ká
3 sg . pst dream kill 1 sg with
‘S/he dreamed of me.’

49. wash pɛ́lɛ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lāā pɛ́lɛ́-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . pst >3 sg wash- inf
‘S/he is washing him.’

50. put on wàà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà kīī wàà
3 sg . prf shoes enter
‘S/he has put her shoes on.’

51. be called gèē

Valency pattern: lee_BARE
X: lee
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
óò gèē lɛ̀ɛ̄ Cèé
3 pl . ipfv >3 sg say: ipfv 3 sg to pn
‘S/he is called Ce.’
Note: This is a transimpersonal construction with a dummy DO.

52. punish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

53. attack yà

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
lɛ̄ yà-pɛ̀lɛ̀ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . exi sit- inf 3 sg on
‘S/he attacks me.’

54. fill (intr) yí pā

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
tɛ́à yí lɛ̄ pā-pɛ̀lɛ̀ yíí ká
bowl interior 3 sg . exi fill- inf water with
‘The bowl is being filled with water.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

55. find nāā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
māà ɓà ká nāā
1 sg . prf >3 sg 2 sg . poss house love
‘I found your house.’

56. be short lépāà + COP.NEG

Valency pattern: kele_ka
X: kele
Y: ka
Locus: XY
lépāà wáá ká wáá vṵ̀ dōó ká pèé kɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg completeness cop . neg >3 sg with thousand ten one with pn hand
‘Pe lacks ten thousand (Guinean Francs).’ Lit.: ‘Its completeness isn’t with it with ten thousand in Pe’s hand.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The Y argument is obligatorily expressed as the possessor of the relative noun "lépāà" and also optionally signalled by the postposition "ká".

57. hate kɛ̄

Valency pattern: ge_SBJ
X: ge
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
kɛ̄ ŋ̄ gé
3 sg . pst be 1 sg pstp stomach
‘I hated him.’

58. like zò kṵ́

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ zò kṵ̄
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg heart catch: ipfv
‘I like him/her.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

59. need màkó be

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ màkó kɛ̄ mɔ̀
1 sg need 3 sg . pst be 2 sg on
‘I needed you.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

60. surround nìà

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
óò nìà mɔ̀
3 pl . ipfv turn: ipfv 3 pl on
‘They surround them.’

61. remain tó

Valency pattern: kele_SBJ
X: kele
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
wɛ́lì āà tó ŋ̄ kɛ̀lɛ̀
money 3 sg . prf stay 1 sg pstp hand
‘I have some money left.’

62. answer wè là nìà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà ŋ̄ wè là nìà
3 sg . prf 1 sg speech surface turn
‘S/he has responded to me.’

63. open lé ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà ká lé ɓō
3 sg . prf house mouth remove
‘S/he opened the house.’

64. be different kɛ̄ gbɛ̄ɛ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
kɛ̄ gbɛ̄ɛ̄ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . pst be different 1 sg on
‘S/he was different from me.’

65. fall behind tó

Valency pattern: SBJ_pie
X: SBJ
Y: pie
Locus: Y
āà tó ŋ̄ píé
3 sg . prf stay 1 sg behind
‘S/he fell behind me.’

66. plough ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ lɛ̀ ɓō
3 sg . ipfv field remove
‘S/he cultivates a field.’
Note: Always combines with lɛ̀, field.

67. smell gḭ̄ḭ̄ be

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
tíéyíí gḭ̄ḭ̄ lɛ̄ ŋ̄ kɔ̀ mɔ̀
gasoline smell 3 sg . exi 1 sg arm on
‘My arms smell of gazoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross ká̰

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ yíí ká̰
1 sg . pst water cut
‘I crossed the river.’

69. sing ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ tá̰ ɓō
3 sg . ipfv song remove
‘S/he sings.’
Note: Always combines with tá̰, song.

70. write bɛ̰̀ɛ̰̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ sɛ́ɓɛ̀ bɛ̰̀ɛ̰̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . exi book write- inf
‘S/he is writing a letter.’

71. drink mī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ yíí mī
3 sg . ipfv water drink
‘S/he drinks water.’

72. melt sèŋē

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
fɔ̰́á̰ sèŋē
3 pl . pst aluminium melt
‘They melted aluminium.’

73. match bɛ̀ī

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: The only construction obtained runs along the lines of "X+Y Aux ló sɛ̀ X+Ypron recp bà", where X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

74. leave wɛ̀lɛ̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_LOC
X: SBJ
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
āà pɛ̄lɛ̄í
3 sg . pst leave village. loc
‘S/he left the village.’
Note: LOC is a special form of (some) nouns. It goes back to the postposition "yí" but is not synchronically interchangeable with it.

75. cover gbīnī

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
sàā lɛ́ɛ̀ gbìnì sɛ́lɛ́ séŋ́ là
natte 3 sg . ipfv bend: ipfv soil all on
‘The mat covers all the floor.’

76. remember ŋwɔ̀míní sí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ ŋwɔ̀míní sí
3 sg . pst 1 sg memory take
‘S/he remembered me.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

77. help gbṵ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
āà gbṵ̄ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . pst unite 1 sg on
‘S/he helped me.’

78. understand (language) mā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ máá wè mā
3 sg . ipfv m ano speech hear: ipfv
‘S/he understands Mano.’

79. hit (target) dà

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
gbá̰nà dà ká mɔ̀
lightning 3 sg . pst fall house on
‘The lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself (kɔ̀) ká̰

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
(kɔ̀) ká̰ làà ká
3 sg . pst 3 sg . refl arm cut knife with
‘S/he cut himself with a knife.’

81. get stuck kɔ̀nɔ̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
āà kɔ̀nɔ̀ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . pst stick 1 sg on
‘It got stuck to me.’

82. lose (game) kɔ̀ bɛ̀ī

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kɔ̀ bɛ̀ī ŋ̄ mɔ̀
2 sg arm 3 sg . pst be.able 1 sg on
‘I lost to you.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

83. be glad gé lī

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ gé lɛ́ɛ̀ lī píé
1 sg stomach 3 sg . ipfv become.beautiful: ipfv 2 sg to
‘I am glad about you.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

84. speak mɛ́ŋ́ ɓō

Valency pattern: SBJ_lee
X: SBJ
Y: lee
Locus: Y
ŋ́ŋ̀ mɛ́ŋ́ ɓō lɛ̀ɛ̄
1 sg . ipfv judgement remove 2 sg to
‘I speak with you.’

85. give birth yē

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ká
Locus: Y
āà yē nɛ́ pèèlɛ̄ ká
3 sg . pst give.birth child two with
‘S/he gave birth to two children.’

86. drop dà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà nɛ́ dà
3 sg . prf child fall
‘S/he dropped the child.’

87. govern yí wè gèē

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ pɛ̄ séŋ́ yí wè gèē
3 sg . ipfv thing all inside speech say: ipfv
‘S/he governs everything.’

88. miss lɔ̀ kṵ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
lɔ̀ lɛ̄ ŋ̄ kṵ́-pɛ̀lɛ̀
2 sg love 3 sg . exi 1 sg catch- inf
‘I miss you.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

89. follow lúó

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ lùò
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg chase: ipfv
‘S/he follows me.’

90. dismount yɔ̀ló

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: là
Locus: Y
yɔ̀ló mòtōò là
3 sg . pst go.down motorbike on
‘S/he got off the motobike.’

91. listen tóó dɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
ŋ̄ ŋ̄ tóó dɔ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀ mɔ̀
1 sg . exi 1 sg ear install- inf 2 sg on
‘I am listening to you.’

92. obey wéè píé kɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ dàā wéè píé kɛ̄
3 sg . ipfv 3 sg . refl father speech behind do
‘S/he obeys his father.’

93. hear mā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ mī wéè mā
3 sg . ipfv person speech hear: ipfv
‘S/he hears people's voices.’

94. mix bɔ́nɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
ɓòō yíí bɔ́nɔ́ ɓū ká
sauce water 3 sg . pst mix.up rice with
‘The sauce got mixed up with the rice.’

95. look mɛ́ ɲɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ sɔ̄ mɛ́ ɲɛ̄
3 sg . ipfv cloth prev finish: ipfv
‘S/he looks at the fabric.’

96. take off ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sɔ̄ ɓō
3 sg . pst cloth remove
‘S/he took his shirt off.’

97. dream (sleeping) mɛ̀ŋ̀ zɛ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
lɛ́ɛ̀ mɛ̀ŋ̀ zɛ̄ wìì ká
3 sg . ipfv dream kill: ipfv meat with
‘S/he dreams about meat.’

98. agree káá

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sèé wà Pèé káá kíè bà
pn 3 pl . ip pn 3 pl . pst pour 3 pl recp in
‘Se and Pe agreed.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

99. have a quarrel wéè kɛ̄

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sèé wà Pèé wéè kɛ̄
pn 3 pl . ip pn 3 pl . pst speech do
‘Se and Pe disputed.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

100. cost kɛ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
ɓū kɛ̄ wáá sɔ́ɔ́lī ká
rice 3 sg . pst be thousand five with
‘The rice costs 5 thousand (francs).’

101. shoot at bṵ̄ dà

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
māà bṵ̄ dà mīī mɔ̀
1 sg . prf gun fall person on
‘I shot at a person.’

102. pour káá

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
māà yíí káá
1 sg . prf water pour
‘I have poured water.’

103. lose gínī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
māà pɛ̄ dò gínī
1 sg . prf thing indef lose
‘I have lost something.’

104. sink tó

Valency pattern: SBJ_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
āà tó yíí bà
3 sg . prf stay water in
‘S/he sinked in water.’

105. kill zɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà miī zɛ̄
3 sg . prf person kill
‘S/he has killed a person.’

106. hit mɛ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà mīī mɛ̀
3 sg . prf person hit
‘S/he has hit a person.’

107. kiss *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

108. read gèē

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ sɛ́ɓɛ̀ gèē
3 sg . ipfv book say: ipfv
‘S/he reads a book.’

109. move (bodypart) vṵ́ ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà kɔ̀ vṵ́ ɓō
3 sg . prf 3 sg . refl arm movement remove
‘S/he has moved her hand.’

110. respect ɓɛ̀lɛ̄ yà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ dàā ɓɛ̀lɛ̄ yà
3 sg . ipfv 3 sg . refl father respect sit
‘S/he respects his father.’

111. be squeamish gḭ̄ḭ̄ yà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kɔ́nɔ́ gḭ̄ḭ̄ āà ŋ̄
food 3 sg . poss taste 3 sg . prf sit 1 sg on
‘(S)he is disgusted by the food’ (Lit: ‘The taste of the food sits on him’).
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

112. be content gé lī

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ gé lɛ́ɛ̀ lī píé
1 sg stomach 3 sg . ipfv become.beautiful: ipfv 2 sg to
‘I am glad about you.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

113. fall in love lɔ̀ɔ̀ dà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
lɔ̀ɔ̀ dà ŋ̄ mɔ̀
2 sg love 3 sg . pst fall 1 sg on
‘I fell in love with you.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

114. trust láá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
ŋ́ŋ̀ làà là
1 sg . ipfv spread 3 sg on
‘I trust him.’

115. sympathise yéŋ̀ kɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ yéŋ̀ kɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg pity do: ipfv
‘S/he sympathizes with me.’

116. envy fɔ̀ɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
lɛ́ɛ̀ fɔ̀ɔ̄ ɓɛ́ì mɔ̀
3 sg . ipfv inflate 3 sg . refl friend on
‘S/he envies his friend.’

117. be angry wɛ̄lɛ̄ kpō kùnɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
ŋ̄ ŋ̄ wɛ̄lɛ̄ kpō kùnɔ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀ mɔ̀
1 sg . exi 1 sg face ball bend- inf 2 sg on
‘I am angry with you.’
Note: The possessor is necessarily coreferential with the subject.

118. be surprised gé dùò

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ gé dùò sɛ́lɛ́ ɓɛ̄ ká
1 sg stomach 3 sg . pst throw town dem with
‘I am astonished by this town .’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

119. love (tea) nāā

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
ŋ́ŋ̀ nàà ká
1 sg . ipfv love 2 sg with
‘I love you.’

120. enjoy ɲɔ́nɔ́ sí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
kɔ́nɔ́ ɲɔ́nɔ́ sí
3 sg . pst food oil take
‘S/he enjoyed the food.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

121. want nāā

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
lɛ́ɛ̀ nàà ɓū dò ká
3 sg . ipfv want: ipfv rice indef with
‘S/he wants some rice.’

122. have a grudge wɛ̄lɛ̄ kpō kùnɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
ŋ̄ ŋ̄ wɛ̄lɛ̄ kpō kùnɔ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀ mɔ̀
1 sg . exi 1 sg face ball bend- inf 2 sg on
‘I am angry with you.’
Note: The possessor is necessarily coreferential with the subject.

123. take offence *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

124. upset kɛ̄ yéŋ̀zɛ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ kɛ̄ yéŋ̀zɛ̀
3 sg . pst 1 sg do unhappy
‘S/he upset me.’

125. marvel gé dùò

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ gé dùò sɛ́lɛ́ ɓɛ̄ ká
1 sg stomach 3 sg . pst throw town dem with
‘I am astonished by this town .’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

126. despise sà̰ dɔ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ sà̰ dɔ̄
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg neglect install
‘S/he despises me.’

127. get upset lé pā

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ lé āà pā ŋwɛ́ŋ̀
1 sg mouth 3 sg . prf fill 2 sg because.of
‘I have got upset because of you.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

128. get irritated tā̰ā̰

Valency pattern: le_SBJ
X: le
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
lɛ́ɛ̀ tà̰à̰ ŋ̄ lé
3 sg . ipfv annoy: ipfv 1 sg mouth
‘I am irritated by him.’

129. be fond *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

130. be shy kpàā

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
lɛ́ɛ̀ kpàā kɛ̀ ɓúlùū-là
3 sg . ipfv be.embarrased: ipfv 3 sg . poss be: nmlz shortness- abstr with
‘S/he is embarrassed by his short statue. .’