BivalTyp

Yargun Lezgian

Contributed by Ayten Babaliyeva.

A.B.'s photo

The data were collected in 2024 based on the Azerbaijani and Russian versions of the questionnaire.

How to cite

Babaliyeva, Ayten. 2024. Bivalent patterns in Yargun Lezgian. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on June 17, 2024; last revised on June 17, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-n qˈil tta-zva
pn - obl - gen head have.pain- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib has a headache.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

2. have (illness)

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NSBJ)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NSBJ)
Locus: Y
Sahib grip xha-nva
pn flu become. pfv - prf
‎‎‎‘Sahib has the flu.’

3. be afraid

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB/POSTEL
X: DAT
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z kiçˈ-i-kaa kiçˈe-zva
pn - obl - dat dog- obl - sub / postel be.scared- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a qvan xkkadar-na
pn - erg stone throw- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib threw a stone.’

5. have enough

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z pul bes je-zva
pn - obl - dat money enough become. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib has enough money.’

6. resemble

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-z uxșar ya
pn pn - obl - dat like cop
‎‎‎‘Sahib resembles Eldar.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-l çˈalax ya
pn pn - obl - sup believing cop
‎‎‎‘Sahib believes Eldar.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

8. take

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a kittab qaçu-na
pn - erg book take- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib took a book.’

9. see

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z kˈval akkva-zva
pn - obl - dat house see. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib sees the house.’

10. influence

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
yaș-di yaddaș-di-z tesir-zva
age- erg memory- obl - dat influence- prs
‎‎‎‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-l halt-na
pn pn - obl - sup meet- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib encountered Eldar.’

12. enter

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib kˈval-i-z haxh-na
pn house- obl - dat enter- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib entered the house.’

13. win

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a Eldar tuxva-na
pn - erg pn carry. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib beat Eldar.’

14. go out

Valency pattern: NOM_INEL
X: NOM
Y: INEL
Locus: Y
Sahib kˈval-aa aqat-na
pn house- inel come_out- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib went out of the house.’

15. drive

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a kkal çukkur-zva
pn - erg cow drive_away- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is driving the cow.’

16. bend

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a ttar-a-n xel kaku-r-na
pn - erg tree- obl - gen branch bend. msd - caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib bent the branch.’

17. tell

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-z laha-na
pn - erg pn - obl - dat say. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib told Eldar.’

18. hold

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a kittab qu-nva
pn - erg book take. pfv / mas - prf
‎‎‎‘Sahib is holding a book.’

19. catch up

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
Sahib Samire-di-v agaʔ-na
pn pn - obl - ad arrive- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib caught up with Samira.’

20. milk

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a kkal acca-na
pn - erg cow milk. pfv / ipfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib milked the cow.’

21. reach

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
Sahib vacˈ-u-n qerex-di-v agaʔ-na
pn river- obl - gen shore- obl - ad arrive- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib reached the bank.’

22. touch

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POST
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POST
Locus: Y
Sahib cila-k galuqˈ-na
pn wall. obl - sub / post touch- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib touched the wall.’

23. fight

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTgalaz
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTgalaz
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a galaz kikˈi-zva
pn pn - obl ( sub / post ) with fight. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is fighting with Eldar.’

24. be friends

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTgalaz
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTgalaz
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a galaz dustval-zva
pn - erg pn - obl ( sub / post ) with have.friendship- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is friends with Eldar.’

25. think

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB/POSTEL
X: ERG
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Samire-d-kaa fikir-zva
pn - erg pn - obl - sub / postel think- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is thinking about Samira.’

26. eat

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a tˈü-na
pn - erg apple eat. pfv / mas - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib ate the apple.’

27. fry

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a ǧed qavurmiș-na
pn - erg fish grill_ vn - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib grilled the fish.’

28. wait

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a Eldar güzlemiș-zva
pn - erg pn wait_ vn - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is waiting for Eldar.’

29. forget

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-n rikˈ-a-laa micci reqh alat-nva
pn - obl - gen heart- obl - supel other way pass- prf
‎‎‎‘Sahib forgot about the other road.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

30. depend

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
yaddaș yaș-di-laa asıllı ya
memory age- obl - supel depending cop
‎‎‎‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-z ever-na
pn - erg pn - obl - dat call- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib called Eldar.’

32. get to know

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTgalaz
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTgalaz
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a galaz sa yis id-laa vilik taniș xhii-d-ya
pn pn - obl ( sub / post ) with one year this. obl - supel before known become. aop - sbst - cop
‎‎‎'Sahib got to know Eldar a year ago.’

33. know

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z Eldar ççi-zva
pn - obl - dat pn know. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib knows Eldar.’

34. play (instrument)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a gittara yaʕa-zva
pn - erg guitar play. pfv / ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTEL
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-kaa gahat-iz eqve-zva
pn pn - obl - sub / postel run_away- imc walk. pfv / ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib avoids Eldar.’

36. make

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a qˈif-er qa-din djile aras-na
pn - erg mouse- pl catch. ipfv - evtprt trap make- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB/POSTEL
X: ERG
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-kaa qhaç-zva
pn - erg pn - obl - sub / postel mock- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is making fun of Eldar.’

38. have

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z mașin ava
pn - obl - dat car be.in
‎‎‎‘Sahib has a car.’

39. look for

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POST
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POST
Locus: Y
Sahib açaari-k eqve-zva
pn key. pl . obl - sub / post search. pfv / ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is looking for his keys.’

40. paint

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a çapar-di-z șir yaʕa-na
pn - erg fence- obl - dat paint apply. pfv / ipfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib painted the wall.’

41. bite

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
kiçˈ-i Sahib kˈas-na
dog- erg pn bite- aor
‎‎‎‘The dog bit Sahib.’

42. forfeit

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTEL
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib kˈval-i-kaa xha-na
pn house- obl - sub / postel become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib lost his house.’

43. try to catch

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a kkaç qa-zva
pn - erg cat take. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a tˈval xa-na
pn - erg stick break. ipfv / pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib broke a stick.’

45. flatter

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib Samire-di-z yaltaxlamiș je-zva
pn pn - obl - dat flatter_ vn become. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is flattering Samira.’

46. love (person)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z Lale kkan-zva
pn - obl - dat pn love- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib loves Lale.’

47. wave

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a yaylux uzu-r-zva
pn - erg handkerchief shake. mas - caus - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a cˈii mașin arzulamiș-zva
pn - erg new car wish_ vn - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a çașkka çüxve-na
pn - erg cup wash. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib washed the cup.’

50. put on

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a șalvar aluqˈ-na
pn - erg trousers dress- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib put on his trousers.’

51. be called

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM(NSBJ)
X: DAT
Y: NOM(NSBJ)
Locus: XY
ida-z kompas luhu-da
this. obl - dat compass say. ipfv / mas - evt
‎‎‎‘This is called a compass.’

52. punish

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a viç-i-n xççi-z djeza ga-na
pn - erg self- obl - gen son. obl - dat punishment give. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib punished his son.’

53. attack

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
sev-re ǧetter qa-zaa-d-a-l hüdjum-na
bear- erg fish. pl catch. ipfv - prsprt - sbst - obl - sup attack- aor
‎‎‎‘The bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr)

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
vidre ççi-v acˈa-na
pail water. obl - ad fill. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z açar-ar ççaǧa-na
pn - obl - dat key- pl find. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib found his keys.’

56. be short

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z sa dollar agaʔ-za-ș
pn - obl - dat one dollar reach- prs - neg
‎‎‎‘Sahib is one dollar short.’

57. hate

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z Eldar tta-kkan-zva
pn - obl - dat pn neg -love- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib hates Eldar.’

58. like

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB/POSTEL
X: DAT
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z in pperem-di-kaa xuș qve-zva
pn - obl - dat this shirt- obl - sub / postel pleasant come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib likes this shirt.’

59. need

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z pul lazim ya
pn - obl - dat money needful cop
‎‎‎‘Sahib needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround

Valency pattern: GENyuqva_NOM
X: GENyuqva
Y: NOM
Locus: X
șeher cilar-i-n yuqˈv-a ava
town wall. pl - obl - gen middle- in be.in
‎‎‎‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z cˈıd dollar ama
pn - obl - dat ten dollar be.still
‎‎‎‘Sahib has ten dollars left.’

62. answer

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a maʕlim-di-z djavab ga-na
pn - erg teacher- obl - dat answer give. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib answered the teacher.’

63. open

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a bankka aqhay-na
pn - erg jar open- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib opened a can.’

64. be different

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
zu pperem vi-d-laa ferqli ya
1 sg . gen shirt 2 sg . gen - sbst - supel different cop
‎‎‎‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-laa ccüǧvena amuqˈ-na
pn pn - obl - supel behind. in remain- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib fell behind Eldar.’

66. plough

Valency pattern: ERG_IN
X: ERG
Y: IN
Locus: Y
Sahib-a nikka ccan cca-zva
pn - erg field. in plowing plough. ipfv / pfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is ploughing the field.’

67. smell

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zu ǧil-er-i-kaa benzin-di-n ni qve-zva
1 sg . gen hand- pl - obl - sub / postel gasoline- obl - gen smell come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
Sahib reqe-laa alat-na
pn way. obl - supel pass- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib crossed the road.’

69. sing

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a sa ayar sa maʕni laha-na
pn - erg one beautiful one song say. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib sang a beautiful song.’

70. write

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a mixhttub kxha-na
pn - erg letter write. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib wrote a letter.’

71. drink

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a nek qhva-na
pn - erg milk drink. pfv / ipfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib drank the milk.’

72. melt

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a qˈurqˈușum-di-n sa kˈus cˈurcˈu-r-ar-na
pn - erg lead- obl - gen one piece melt. pfv / mas - caus - caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib melted a piece of lead.’

73. match

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB/POSTgalaz
X: ERG
Y: SUB/POSTgalaz
Locus: Y
in çˈül-üni zu bulușa-d galaz qa-zva
this belt- erg 1 sg . gen dress- obl ( sub / post ) with take. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave

Valency pattern: NOM_INEL
X: NOM
Y: INEL
Locus: Y
Sahib viç-i-n xii șeher-d-aa aqat-na fe-na
pn self- obl - gen native town- obl - inel come_out- seq go. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib left his native city.’

75. cover

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
xaliça-di ççil viri qu-nva
carpet- erg earth all take. pfv / mas - prf
‎‎‎‎‎'The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
viç çˈexi xhii kˈval Sahib-a-n rikˈ-a-l qhsan ala-ma
self big become. aop house pn - obl - gen heart- obl - sup well be.on- cont
‎‎‎‘Sahib vividly remembers the house where he grew up.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

77. help

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-z kümek-na
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib helped Eldar.’

78. understand (language)

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Sahib fransuz çˈal-a-n ʕavur-d-a aqˈa-zva
pn f rench language- obl - gen understanding- obl - in bump. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib understands French.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

79. hit (target)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
cˈaalapan kˈval-a-l avat-na
lightning house- obl - sup fall- aor
‎‎‎‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sahib-a-n ççin lezvi-di atˈa-na
pn - obl - gen face blade- erg cut. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘The razor cut Sahib’s face.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

81. get stuck

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
isttikan sttul-da-l alkˈa-na
glass table- obl - sup stick. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-z meǧlub xha-na
pn pn - obl - dat defeated become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib lost to Eldar.’

83. be glad

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib mixhttub-da-l şad xha-na
pn letter- obl - sup glad become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib was glad about the letter.’

84. speak

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTgalaz
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTgalaz
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a galaz lükˈven-zva
pn pn - obl ( sub / post ) with speak- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is speaking with Eldar.’

85. give birth

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Lale-di-z sa gada xha-na
pn - obl - dat one son become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Lale gave birth to a son.’

86. drop

Valency pattern: ADEL_NOM
X: ADEL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-vaa isttikan avat-na
pn - obl - adel glass fall- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib dropped the glass.’

87. govern

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a ji xür-ü-z çˈexival-zva
pn - erg 1 pl . gen village- obl - dat reign- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib runs our village.’

88. miss

Valency pattern: GEN_SUB/POST
X: GEN
Y: SUB/POST
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-n Lale-di-k vil gala
pn - obl - gen pn - obl - sub / post eye be.behind
‎‎‎‘Sahib misses Lale.’

89. follow

Valency pattern: NOM_GENccugvena
X: NOM
Y: GENccugvena
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-n ccüǧvena ava-z fi-zva
pn pn - obl - gen behind. in be.in- imc go. ipfv / mas - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib follows Eldar.’

90. dismount

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
Sahib ppalkkan-d-laa ivicˈ-na
pn horse- obl - supel descend- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib got down from the horse.’

91. listen

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB/POST
X: ERG
Y: SUB/POST
Locus: Y
Sahib-a raduva-di-k yob akal-zva
pn - erg radio- obl - sub / post ear join- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is listening to radio.’

92. obey

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib-a dide-da-l yob alaa-zva
pn - erg mother- obl - sup ear plonk- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib obeys his mother.’

93. hear

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z sa maʕni-di-n van qve-zva
pn - obl - dat one song- obl - gen noise come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib hears the song.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

94. mix

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POST
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POST
Locus: Y
virt nikkedi-k akaxh-na
honey milk. obl - sub / post mix- aor
‎‎‎‘The honey got mixed with milk.’

95. look

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a çuf-ar-i-z kilig-zva
pn - erg cloud- pl - obl - dat look- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a pperem xttun-na
pn - erg shirt take_off- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z Lale akkva-zva axvar-aa
pn - obl - dat pn see. ipfv - prs sleep- inel
‎‎‎‘Sahib dreams about Lale.’

98. agree

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTgalaz
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTgalaz
Locus: Y
Sahib Lale-d galaz razi xha-na
pn pn - obl ( sub / post ) with agreeing become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib agreed with Lale.’

99. have a quarrel

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POST
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POST
Locus: Y
Sahib Lale-d galaz qal xha-na
pn pn - obl ( sub / post ) with dispute become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib had a quarrel with Lale.’

100. cost

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POST
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POST
Locus: Y
in çașkka sa dollar-di-k ya
this cup one dollar- obl - sub / post cop
‎‎‎‘This cup costs one dollar.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a quș-ra-z gülle aqhaa-na
pn - erg bird- obl - dat bullet open- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib shot at the bird.’

102. pour

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a çașkka-di-z ppasuk vehe-na
pn - erg cup- obl - dat caster_sugar throw. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib poured the sugar into the cup.’ (?)

103. lose

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a açar-ar kvadar-na
pn - erg key- pl lose. caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib lost his keys.’

104. sink

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
kˈançˈ vac’-a batmiș xha-na
stump river- in sink_ vn become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘The stump sank in the river.’

105. kill

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a murdar qˈe-na
pn - erg snake kill. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib killed the snake.’

106. hit

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a Eldar yaʕa-na
pn - erg pn hit. pfv / ipfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib hit Eldar.’

107. kiss

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Lale-di-z siv ga-na
pn - erg pn - obl - dat mouth give. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib kissed Lale.’

108. read

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a sa maraǧlı kittab kˈel-na
pn - erg one interesting book read- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a tˈub uzu-r-na
pn - erg finger shake. mas - caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib moved his finger.’

110. respect

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-z hürmet-zva
pn - erg pn - obl - dat respect- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib respects Eldar.’

111. be squeamish

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z qˈacˈaa qappar tta-kkan qve-zva
pn - obl - dat dirty container. pl neg -want come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEL
Locus: Y
Sahib viç-i-n xiçça-laa razi ya
pn self- obl - gen son. obl - supel satisfied cop
‎‎‎‘Sahib is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z Lale kkan xha-na
pn - obl - dat pn love become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib fell in love with Lale.’

114. trust

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Lale-da-l ixtibar-zva
pn - erg pn - obl - sup trust- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib trusts Lale.’

115. sympathise

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z viç-i-n dide-di-n yuzux qve-zva
pn - obl - dat self- obl - gen mother- obl - gen poor come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

116. envy

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-l ppaxil ya
pn pn - obl - sup envious cop
‎‎‎‘Sahib envies Eldar.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

117. be angry

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB/POSTEL
X: DAT
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z Eldar-a-kaa qhel qve-zva
pn - obl - dat pn - obl - sub / postel anger come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is angry with Eldar.’

118. be surprised

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib in ppadarkka-da-l mehttel xha-na
pn this gift- obl - sup surprised become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z çay ppara kkan-da
pn - obl - dat tea much want- evt
‎‎‎‘Sahib loves tea.’

120. enjoy

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB/POSTEL
X: ERG
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib-a qaynar çay-ini-kaa lezzet qaçu-zva
pn - erg hot tea- obl - sub / postel pleasure take- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib enjoys hot tea.’

121. want

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z cˈii ttilifun kkan-zva
pn - obl - dat new telephone want- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB/POSTEL
X: ERG
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-kaa qhel-nva
pn - erg pn - obl - sub / postel sulk- prf
‘Sahib holds a grudge against Eldar.’

123. take offence

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTEL
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-kaa beykef xha-nva
pn pn - obl - sub / postel offended become. pfv - prf
‎‎‎‘Sahib took offence at Eldar.’

124. upset

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a Eldar ppara ppașman-ar-na
pn - erg pn much sad- caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib greatly upset Eldar.’

125. marvel

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib in șeher-da-l mehttel xha-na
pn this town- obl - sup surprised become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib was impressed by this town.’

126. despise

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a Eldar neh-nva
pn - erg pn ignore- prf
‎‎‎‘Sahib despises Eldar.’

127. get upset

Valency pattern: DAT_DATgure
X: DAT
Y: DATgure
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z viç-i-n gada-di-z güre hayif-ar xha-na
pn - obl - dat self- obl - gen son- obl - dat because_of regret- pl become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTEL
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib viç-i-n ruș-a-kaa giji je-zva
pn self- obl - gen daughter- obl - sub / postel irritated become. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is getting irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB/POSTEL
X: DAT
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z Lale-d-kaa xuș qve-zva
pn - obl - dat pn - obl - sub / postel pleasant come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is fond of Lale.’

130. be shy

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB/POSTEL
X: DAT
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: XY
Samire-di-z viç-i-n boy-di-kaa reǧü-zva
pn - obl - dat self- obl - gen height- obl - sub / postel be_shy- prs
‎‎‎‘Samira is embarrased about her height.’