BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

Guinean Kpelle

Contributed by Maria Konoshenko (Academia.edu profile)

M.K.'s photo

The French version of the questionnaire was used for the elicitation.

How to cite

Konoshenko, Maria. 2024. Bivalent patterns in Guinean Kpelle. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on March 6, 2024; last revised on March 6, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ŋwána

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe kɔ́ɣɔ káa ŋwàná-ì
pn leg cop 3 sg \hurt- inf
‘Pepee has leg pain.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

2. have (illness) káa

Valency pattern: bha_SBJ
X: bha
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
kwɛ́lɛ-ɲɔ́ŋ̀ gáa Pépèe ɓà
cold-illness\ l cop pn on1
‘Pepee has fever.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

3. be afraid ɲɔ̀w

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa ɲɔ̀w-íì ɲìlé-i ɲɛ́i ɓâ
pn cop be_afraid. inf def \dog- art dem on1
‘Pepee is afraid of this dog.’

4. throw pǐli

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá kwɛ̀ni píli
pn 3 sg . pfv stone throw
‘Pepee threw a stone.’

5. have enough káa … kɛ́nɛ

Valency pattern: yei_SBJ
X: yei
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
wálî káa Pépèe yéì kɛ́nɛ
money cop pn hand. loc many
‘Pepee has much money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

6. resemble kǔlo

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe kùlo-á-ì Hèhee ɓà
pn go_out- stat - pred pn on1
‘Pepee resembles Hehee.’

7. believe láa

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pépèe láa-ì Hèhee lá
pn lie.stat- pred pn on2
‘Pepee believes Hehee.’

8. take hěɣe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa hɛ́ɓɛ̂ hèɣě dàɓálî ɲɛ́
pn 3 sg . prf book take def \table on3
‘Pepee took a book from the table.’

9. see káa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe káa pɛ́lɛ káa-ì
pn cop house see- inf
‘Pepee sees a house.’

10. influence *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

11. encounter kìêŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá kìéŋ̀ Nɔ̌wai
pn 3 sg . pfv meet with pn
‘Pepee encountered Nowai.’

12. enter lɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_mu
X: SBJ
Y: mu
Locus: Y
Pépèe àa lɔ́ bɛ̀lɛ́-í ɲɛ́i mû
pn 3 sg . pfv enter def \house- art dem under
‘Pepee entered the house.’

13. win yée tɛ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe yée àá tɛ̀ɛ Hɛ́ni ɓâ
pn hand 3 sg . prf pass pn on1
‘Pepee beat Heni.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

14. go out kǔlo

Valency pattern: SBJ_mu
X: SBJ
Y: mu
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá kùló bɛ̀lɛ́-i ́ɲɛ́i mû
pn 3 sg . pfv go_out def \house- art dem under
‘Pepee went out of the house.’

15. drive lí

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa lì-î ŋwɔ̀ nìŋɛ̌-ì nàá mìǐ mɛ́ni ɓà
pn cop go- inf with 3 sg . poss cow- art there eat issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is taking his cow to eat.’

16. bend kpíníŋ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá ŋwùlú ɓéɣéŋ̀ kpíníŋ́
pn 3 sg . pfv def \tree branch bend
‘Pepee bent a branch.’

17. tell kɛ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe yɛ̀ Hèhee ɓà: Pá gáa
pn 3 sg .say pn on1 come 2 sg 1 sg \see
‘Pepee told Hehee: Come see me.’

18. hold káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zɛ̀ɓɛ̂ káa Pépèe yée ɲá
def \book cop pn hand on3
‘Pepee holds the book in his hand.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

19. catch up kpɛ̀ɛ́ … hǒŋ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe àá ǹókòlò kpɛ̀ɛ́, àá zǒŋ
pn 3 sg . pfv def \child chase 3 sg . pfv 3 sg \catch
‘Pepee chased the child and caught him.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (two clauses).

20. milk ɲíni yá kǔlo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá ŋwɔ̀ nìŋɛ ɲíni yá kǔlo
pn 3 sg . pfv 3 sg . poss cow breast milk\ if go_out
‘Pepee has milked his cow.’

21. reach hěli

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá hèlí ɲà ɓâ
pn 3 sg . pfv reach def \river on1
‘Pepee reached the river.’

22. touch yéé pɛ̌lɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá ɲèe pɛ́lɛ dàɓálî ɓà
pn 3 sg . pfv 3 sg \hand stretch def \table on1
‘Pepee touched the table.’

23. fight kpìlêŋ kɔ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe dà Hèhee dàá kpìléŋ̀ gɔ́
pn 3.and pn 3 pl . prf battle fight
‘Pepee has fought with Hehee.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

24. be friends káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe dà Hèhee dì káa ɓɛ̀laŋ-aa
pn 3.and pn 3 pl cop with friend- pl
‘Pepee is friends with Hehee.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

25. think kíli ɲɛ́ hǐe

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa gìli ɲɛ́ hìé-ì Hɛ́ní ɓâ
pn cop 3 sg \mind on walk- inf pn on1
‘Pepee is thinking about Heni.’

26. eat mɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá gwìî mɛ̌ɛ
pn 3 sg . prf def \banana eat
‘Pepee ate a banana.’

27. fry yélîŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá hɔ̀ɣɔlee yéliŋ̀
pn 3 sg . prf fish fry
‘Pepee fried a fish.’

28. wait mǎa kpɔ̌ŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe káa Hèhee màá kpɔ̀z-î
pn cop pn surface unite- inf
‘Pepee is waiting for Hehee.’

29. forget lɛ̌a

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá lɛ̀a Hɛ́ni ɓâ
pn 3 sg . prf forget pn on1
‘Pepee forgot Heni.’

30. depend *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call tólu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá Hèhee tólu
pn 3 sg . prf pn call
‘Pepee called Hehee.’

32. get to know kɔ́lɔŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá Hèhee kɔ́lɔŋ
pn 3 sg . prf pn know
‘Pepee got to know Hehee.’

33. know kɔ́lɔŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe Hèhee kɔ́lɔŋ
pn 3 sg . b pn know
‘Pepee knows Hehee.’

34. play (instrument) yɔ̌u

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe káa kwíi-gwɛ́nîŋ ɲɔ̀w-î
pn cop white-guitar\ l play- inf
‘Pepee is playing the guitar .’

35. avoid hwálaŋ ɓó

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa vàláŋ̀ mó-í Hèhee ɓà
pn cop 3 sg \avoidance implement- inf pn on1
‘Pepee is avoiding Hehee.’

36. make pɛ̌li

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá ŋwɛ̀ni pɛ́li
pn 3 sg . prf bird make
‘Pepee made a bird.’

37. make fun yɛ́lɛ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa yɛ́lɛ-ì Ɲàákwɛ̀i ɓà
pn cop laugh- inf pn on1
‘Pepee is making fun of Nyakwei.’

38. have káa

Valency pattern: yei_SBJ
X: yei
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
mɔ̀ɓíliì káa Pépèe yéì
car cop pn hand. loc
‘Pepee has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

39. look for kwɛ́li

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe káa nàklê kwɛ́li-ì
pn cop def \key look_for- inf
‘Pepee is looking for the key.’

40. paint peinture tɛ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
àá peinture tɛ́ ŋwɔ̀ pɛ́lɛ-í ɓà
3 sg . prf peinture go_up 3 sg . poss house- def on1
‘He has painted his house.’

41. bite ɲíŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yílê àa Hólomo ɲíŋ
dog 3 sg . prf pn bite
‘A dog bit Holomo.’

42. forfeit hwɛ̀ɣɛ̌

Valency pattern: SBJ_hu
X: SBJ
Y: hu
Locus: Y
Tòkpa àá hwɛ̀ɣɛ́ ŋwɔ̀ pɛ́lɛ-í hù
pn 3 sg . prf lose 3 sg . poss house- def in
‘Tokpa lost his house.’

43. try to catch kpɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá ǹókòlò kpɛ̌ɛ
pn 3 sg . pfv def \child chase
‘Pepee chased the child.’

44. break hǔ yálí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hwáahúɣû àa gbɔ́ŋ̀ hǔ yáli
pn 3 sg . prf stick interior break
‘Hwahughu broke the stick.’

45. flatter ɲáa hɛ́ŋ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe àa Hɛ́ni ɲáa hɛ́ŋ
pn 3 sg . prf pn surface aim
‘Pepee cajoled Heni.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

46. love (person) wɛ́li káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hɛ́ni wɛ́li káa Pépèe ɓà
pn love cop pn on1
‘Pepee loves Heni.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

47. wave *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

48. dream hḭ̀ḭ̂ ɓó

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Hèhee hḭ̀ḭ̂ ɓò mɔ̀ɓílíì
pn 3 sg .b dream implement with car
‘Hehee dreamt of a car.’

49. wash wǎa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hɛ́ni àá ŋwɔ̀ hɛ̀ɲáŋaa-ì wǎa
pn 3 sg . prf 3 sg . poss plate- art wash
‘Heni washed her plate.’

50. put on lɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hɛ́ni àá kɔ̀lɔ lɔ́ gwɛ̀án
pn 3 sg . prf shoe enter 3 sg \leg. loc
‘Heni put on shoes.’

51. be called láa ɓáa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
vɛ̀lî kɛ́ hɛ́ŋ̀ ɲɛ́i láa ɓáa dàmaŋ
def \music make thing\ l dem name cop with daman
‘This instrument is called daman.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

52. punish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

53. attack wólo

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
yílê àa wólo Tòkpa ɓà
dog 3 sg . prf attack pn on1
‘The dog attacked Tokpa.’

54. fill (intr) láa hwɛ́ɛ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zòô láa káa hwɛ́ɛ-ì à yá
def \bucket mouth cop fill- inf with water
‘The bucket is being filled with water.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

55. find káa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá nàklê káa
pn 3 sg . prf def \key see
‘Pepee found the key.’

56. be short *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

57. hate wɛ́li hwó

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Yɔ̀uyɔu wɛ́li hwó Kɔ̀lukɔlu ɓà
pn love neg . cop pn on1
‘Kolukolu hates Youyou.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

58. like líi hǒŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: TR
Hɛ́ni àa Pépèe líi hǒŋ
pn 3 sg . prf pn heart catch
‘Pepee likes Heni.’

59. need mǎa kpáaŋ̀ káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
wálî màa kpááŋ̀ gáa míì
money surface need\ l be 1 sg .on1
‘I need money.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

60. surround mǎa tínɛŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
tínɛŋ bɛ́lɛ-ɣàa dàá gwèlí màa tínɛŋ
turn house- pl 3 pl . prf def \yard surface turn
‘The huts surround the yard.’

61. remain lɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: yei_SBJ
X: yei
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
wáa tɔ́nɔ̂ ɓé àá lɛ̀ɛ Pépèe yéì
thousand one foc 3 sg . prf remain pn hand. loc
‘Pepee has 1000 francs left.’

62. answer wóo púlû pěne

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá nàkwɛ́li kàlamɔɔ wóo púlu pěne
pn 3 sg . prf def \school teacher\ l speech back return
‘Pepee answered to the teacher.’

63. open láa ɓó

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá gbòɣo láa ɓó
pn 3 sg . prf def \box mouth open
‘Pepee opened the box.’

64. be different těe

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
ŋwɔ́ hèɣe-í tèé-ì éwɛ̀-ì ɓâ
1 sg . poss shirt- art be different- pred 3 sg . poss - art on1
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

65. fall behind lɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_pulu
X: SBJ
Y: pulu
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá lɛ̀ɛ Hɛ́ni púlû
pn 3 sg . prf remain pn back
‘Pepee fell behind Heni.’

66. plough híŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá kɛ̀ɛ híŋ
pn 3 sg . prf field cultivate
‘Pepee cultivated a field.’

67. smell kúŋ káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
èsáns kùŋ gáa ɲée-ɣáà dìê
gazoline smell\ l be 1 sg \hand- pl 3 pl .on1
‘My hands smell of gazoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross téɣeŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá bèle téɣeŋ
pn 3 sg . prf def \road cross
‘Pepee crosses the road.’

69. sing tǒo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hɛ́ni àá wèle tóo
pn 3 sg . prf song fall
‘Heni sang a song.’

70. write pɛ̰̌ɛ̰

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá hɛ́ɓɛ̂ pɛ̰̌ɛ̰
pn 3 sg . prf letter write
‘Pepee wrote a letter.’

71. drink kpěle

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hwáahuɣû àá nìŋɛ níni yà kpěle
pn 3 sg . prf cow breast\ l milk\ l drink
‘Hwaahughu drank cow milk.’

72. melt pú

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá hɛ́ni pú
pn 3 sg . prf gold pour
‘Pepee melted gold.’

73. match mǎa hǒŋ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
éwɔ́ hèɣè-í dà bɛ̀lɛ̀ŋ̀ dàá dì-kéè màa hóŋ
2 sg . poss shirt- art 3.and trousers 3 pl . prf 3 pl - refl surface catch
‘Your shirt and your trousers match.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

74. leave hěɣe

Valency pattern: SBJ_hu
X: SBJ
Y: hu
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá hèɣé gàá táa hù
pn 3 sg . prf leave be_born town\ l in
‘Pepee left his hometown.’

75. cover mɛ̌i kpúlu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ɲìi héɣê àá gbìŋ gélee mɛ̀i kpúlu
def \sleep cloth\ l 3 sg . prf def \bed all upper_surface close
‘The bedsheet covered all the bed.’

76. remember kíli káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Zálikwɛ̀lɛ kíli káa ɲá
n zerekore spirit be 1 sg .on3
‘I remember Nzerekore..’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Nzerekore is the capital of Forest Guinea.

77. help kpɔ̀ŋmáà tɛ̌ɣɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá kpɔ̀ŋmáà tɛ̀ɣɛ Hɛ́ni ɓâ
pn 3 sg . prf help give pn on1
‘Pepee helped Heni.’

78. understand (language) mǎŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe kpɛ̀lɛɛwoo màŋ
pn 3 sg . hab kpelle-language\ l understand\ l
‘Pepee understands the Kpelle language.’

79. hit (target) tǒo

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
yèle gbɛ́náà àá tòo bɛ̀lɛ́ ɓâ
sky gun\ l 3 sg . prf fall def \house on1
‘The lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself téɣe

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá dèɣé mɛ̀ikɔ́ù
pn 3 sg . prf 3 sg \cut with arrow
‘Pepee cut himself with an arrow.’

81. get stuck kánaŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
gbèle kɔ́ɣɔ̂ àa kánaŋ dàɓálî ɓà
def \drink cup\ l 3 sg . prf stick def \table on1
‘The cup stuck to the table..’

82. lose (game) yée pɛ́li

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe yée àa pɛ́li Hèhee ɓà
pn hand 3 sg . prf be_able pn e on1
‘Hehee lost to Pepee.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

83. be glad kwèi nɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe kwèi nɛ̀ɛ́-ì zɛ̀ɓɛ́-ì ɲɛ́i màa mɛ́nî ɓà
pn stomach. loc be_nice- pred def \book- art dem surface issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is glad about this letter.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

84. speak lóno kɛ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe dà Hɛ́ni dì káa lóno kɛ́-ì
pn 3.and pn 3 pl cop speech make- inf
‘Pepee is speaking with Heni.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

85. give birth káa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àá gàa
3 sg . prf 3 sg /give_birth
‘She gave birth to him .’

86. drop tǒo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àá kpèle kɔ́ɣɔ̂ tǒo
3 sg . prf drink cup\ l fall
‘She dropped a cup.’

87. govern ɲáa wôo ɓó

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe ɓé kúwɔ tàá-ì ɲáa wóò ɓó-ì
pn foc 1 pl . excl . poss town- art surface speech\ l implement- inf
‘It's Pepee who governs our village.’

88. miss wɛ́li hǒŋ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kɔ̀lukɔlu wɛ́li káa Pépèe hò-zî
pn love cop pn catch- inf
‘Pepee misses Kolukolu.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

89. follow hwílêŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_pulu
X: SBJ
Y: pulu
Locus: Y
àa hwíléŋ̀ Pépèe púlû
3 sg . prf follow pn back
‘He followed Pepee.’

90. dismount kǔlo

Valency pattern: SBJ_mei
X: SBJ
Y: mei
Locus: Y
àá kùlo mòtó mɛ̀i
3 sg . prf go_out motorbike on4
‘He went down from the motorbike.’

91. listen wéli tɔ̌ɔ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa ŋwèlí tɔ̌ɔ-i radio ɓà
pn cop 3 sg \ear install- inf radio on
‘Pepee is listening to the radio.’

92. obey *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

93. hear wóo mǎŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
gáa wèle wóo mɛ̀ŋ-zḭ̂
1 sg \ cop song voice hear- inf
‘I hear a song.’

94. mix hǔmuŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
nòú àá hùmuŋ mà
def \sauce 3 sg . prf mix with def \rice
‘The sauce has mixed with rice.’

95. look ɲɛ́i kpàŋɔ̂ŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
gàá ɲɛ̀í kpàŋɔ́-zì míì
3 sg \ cop 3 sg \face push- inf 1 sg .on1
‘He is staring at me.’

96. take off kǔlo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hèhee àá ŋwɔ̀ hèɣe-i kúlo gwàna
pn 3 sg . prf 3 sg . poss shirt- art go_out 3 sg \neck. loc
‘Hehee took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) hḭ̀îŋ ɓó

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Hèhee káa hḭ̀ḭ́ŋ mò-í Hɛ́ni
pn cop dream implement- inf with pn
‘Hehee is dreaming of Heni.’

98. agree wóo tɔ̌ɔ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hèhèe dà Pépèe dàá dì wóo tɔ̌ɔ dì kéè pɔ́
pn 3.and pn 3 pl . prf speech install 3 pl refl to
‘Hehee agreed with Pepee.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

99. have a quarrel hwáa kɛ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe dà Kwɛ́likɔlɔ̂ dàa hwáa kɛ́
pn 3.and k welikolo 3 pl . prf argument make
‘Pepee had a quarrel with Kwelikolo.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

100. cost káa

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
gwíi kpɔ̀lu hàaɓa káa wáa tɔ́nɔ̂
banana red three be with thousand one
‘Three bananas cost one thousand.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at gbɛ́náà tǒo

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Hwáahuɣû àa gbɛ́naa tòo ŋwɛ̀ni ɓâ
pn 3 sg . prf gun fall def \bird on
‘Hwaahughu shot at the bird.’

102. pour pú

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hɛ́ni àá lɔ̀ɔ kwélê pú ŋwɔ̀ kpèle kɔɣɔ̂ hù
pn 3 sg . prf wine white pour 3 sg . poss drink cup\ l in
‘Heni poured some white wine to her cup.’

103. lose pǐli

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá gwɛ̀li píli
pn 3 sg . prf def \key lose
‘Pepee lost the key.’

104. sink lɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_hu
X: SBJ
Y: hu
Locus: Y
nú tà wɛ́i lɛ̀ɛ ɲà-í ɲɛ́í hû
person some 3 sg yesterday stay def \water- art dem in
‘Someone got drowned in this river yesterday.’

105. kill pǎa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa Ámadù pǎa
pn 3 sg . prf pn kill
‘Pepee killed Amadu.’

106. hit kɛ́lɛ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa Ámadù kɛ́lɛ̂
pn 3 sg . prf pn hit
‘Pepee hit Amadu.’

107. kiss *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

108. read ɓó

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa hɛ́ɓɛ̂ lɛ́lɛ-ɛ tà ɓó
pn 3 sg . prf book be_good- stat some implement
‘Pepee read a good book.’

109. move (bodypart) túmuŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àá ɲèe kpúô túmuŋ
3 sg . prf 3 sg \hand short\ l move
‘He moved his finger.’

110. respect mǎa wǐe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul Màrí màa wíê
pn 3 sg . hab pn surface be_heavy
‘Paul respects Marie.’

111. be squeamish hwó

Valency pattern: SBJ_po
X: SBJ
Y: po
Locus: Y
Hɛ́ni hwó kɔ̀ɣɔ kpàŋ bɔ́
pn be. neg cup dirty\ l to
‘Heni does not like (dirty) dishes.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

112. be content kwèi nɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Ɲàákwɛì kwèi nɛ̀ɛ́-ì nòŋ bɔ́
pn stomach. loc be_nice- pred 3 sg \child to
‘Nyakwei is content about his child.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

113. fall in love wɛ́li tǒo

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kwɛ́likɔlɔ̂ wɛ́li àá tòo Pépèe ɓà
pn love 3 sg . prf fall pn on1
‘Pepee fell in love with Kwelikolo.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

114. trust láa

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pépèe láa-ì Hèhee lá
pn lie.stat- pred pn on2
‘Pepee trusts Hehee.’

115. sympathise ɲɛ́i mǎa wɛ́li káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul nèe ɲɛ́i màa wɛ́li káa mà
pn 3 sg \mother face surface love be 3 sg .on1
‘Paul sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

116. envy hwɛ́ɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa hwɛ́ɛ-ì Hèhee ɓà
pn cop fill- inf pn on1
‘Pepee envies Hehee.’

117. be angry líi hólu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe líi àa hólu Ɲàákwɛ̀i pɔ́
pn heart 3 sg . prf sting pn to
‘Pepee is angry with Nyakwei.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

118. be surprised kwèi pǐli mà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul kwèi àá pìlí mà dàa ɲɛ́í màa mɛ́nî ɓà
pn stomach. loc 3 sg . prf throw 3 sg .on1 def \town dem surface issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is surprised by this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

119. love (tea) wɛ́li káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kwíi tóù wɛ́li káa Hɛ́ni ɓâ
white_person palm\ l love be pn on1
‘Heni loves pineapples.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

120. enjoy kwèi nɛ̌ɛ

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
nɔ̀ɔ kwélê àa Pépèe kwèi nɛ̌ɛ
def \wine white 3 sg . prf pn stomach. loc be_tasty
‘Pepee enjoys white wine.’

121. want káa

Valency pattern: SBJ_po
X: SBJ
Y: po
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa yá pɔ́
pn cop water to
‘Pepee wants water.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

122. have a grudge líi hólu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe líi àa hólu Ɲàákwɛ̀i pɔ́
pn heart 3 sg . prf sting pn to
‘Pepee is angry with Nyakwei.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

123. take offence *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

124. upset ɲɛ́i pǎa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa Hɛ́ni ɲɛ́i páa
pn 3 sg . prf pn face kill
‘Pepee upset Heni.’

125. marvel kwèi pǐli mà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul kwèi àá pìlí mà dàa ɲɛ́í màa mɛ́nî ɓà
pn stomach. loc 3 sg . prf throw 3 sg .on1 def \town dem surface issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is surprised by this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

126. despise tɛ̌ɣɛ ɓó

Valency pattern: SBJ_hu
X: SBJ
Y: hu
Locus: Y
Hɛ́ni tɛ̀ɣɛ ɓó Màrí hù
pn 3 sg . hab pass implement pn in
‘Heni despises Mari.’

127. get upset *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

128. get irritated líi hólu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe líi àa hólu Ɲàákwɛ̀i pɔ́
pn heart 3 sg . prf sting pn to
‘Pepee is angry with Nyakwei.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

129. be fond *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

130. be shy kpáaŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe kpáaŋ-aa-ì gbùo ́mɛ́nî ɓà
pn be_shy- stat - pred 3 sg \be_short issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is shy about being short .’