BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

Italian

Contributed by Anna Alexandrova (academia.edu profile) and Chiara Naccarato. Maria Ralko greatly contributed to the technical preparation of the Italian dataset.

A.A.'s photo C.N.'s photo

The data were initially provided by Anna Alexandrova in 2013 using the Russian version of the questionnaire. In 2023, Chiara Naccarato made some changes to the dataset and streamlined it using the English version of the questionnaire.

How to cite

Alexandrova, Anna & Chiara Naccarato. 2024. Bivalent patterns in Italian. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on May 14, 2022; last revised on March 13, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on )

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Italian displays the nominative-accusative alignment. Nominal core arguments (A, S and O) remain unflagged, so that the distinction between subject and direct object is mainly indicated by word order, which is predominantly SVO. By contrast, pronominal object clitics are used before the verb. They come in a fixed order and display three distinct cases. Nominal arguments other than A, S and O are flagged by prepositions. Subjects (A and S) are indexed on the verbs. In some contexts, participles in analytic constructions also signal the number and gender of the direct object.

Case system

Italian has no morphological case on nouns. Traditionally, personal pronouns are described as having three case-marked forms: nominative, accusative and dative. However, there are actually further variations in the form of pronouns, depending on the presence of stress and the syntactic environment.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are shown in the infinitive form.

Glossing abbreviations

AUX — auxiliary; CL — clitic; DEF — definite; F — feminine; INDF — indefinite; INF — infinitive; INT — intensifier; M — masculine; PL — plural; PN — person name; POSS — possessive; PRS — present; PST — past; PTCP — participle; REFL — reflexive; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain fare male

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo fa male la test-a
to pn ( m ) make.3 sg . prs pain def . sg . f head- sg . f
‘Leo has a headache.’

2. have (illness) avere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha l’ influenz-a
pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs def . sg . f flu- sg . f
‘Leo has a flu.’

3. be afraid aver paura

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo ha paur-a del can-e
pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs fear- sg . f of. def . sg . m dog- sg . m
‘Leo is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw tirare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha tirato un sass-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs throw. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m stone- sg . m
‘Leo threw a stone.’

5. have enough bastare

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo bast-ano i sold-i
to pn ( m ) be_enough-3 pl . prs def . pl . m money- pl . m
‘Leo has enough money.’

6. resemble assomigliare

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo assomigli-a a Maria
pn ( m ) look_like-3 sg . prs to pn ( f )
‘Leo resembles Maria.’

7. believe credere

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo cred-e a Maria
pn ( m ) believe-3 sg . prs to pn ( f )
‘Leo believes Maria.’

8. take prendere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha preso un libr-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs take. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m book- sg . m
‘Leo took a book.’

9. see vedere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ved-e un-a cas-a
pn ( m ) see-3 sg . prs indf . sg - f house- sg . f
‘Leo sees a house.’

10. influence influenzare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
l’ età influenz-a negativamente la memori-a
def . sg . f age. sg . f influence-3 sg . prs negatively def . sg . f memory- sg . f
‘Age negatively influences memory.’

11. encounter incontrare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha incontrato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs meet. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo encountered Maria.’

12. enter entrare

Valency pattern: SBJ_in
X: SBJ
Y: in
Locus: Y
Leo è entrat-o nella cas-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs enter. pst . ptcp - sg . m in. def . sg . f house- sg . f
‘Leo entered the house.’

13. win battere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha battuto Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs beat. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo beat Maria.’

14. go out uscire

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
Leo è uscit-o dall’ uffici-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs exit. pst . ptcp - sg . m by. def . sg . m office- sg . m
‘Leo exited the office.’

15. drive portare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo port-a la mucc-a al pascol-o
pn ( m ) lead-3 sg . prs def . sg . f cow- sg . f to. def . sg . m pasture- sg . m
‘Leo drives the cow to the pasture.’

16. bend piegare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha piegato un ramoscell-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs bend. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m branch- sg . m
‘Leo bent a branch.’

17. tell dire

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo ha detto a Maria: vieni a trovar-mi
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs say. pst . ptcp to pn ( f ) come. imp .2 sg to find. inf -me
‘Leo told Maria: "Come visit me".’

18. hold tenere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo tien-e un libr-o in man-o
pn ( m ) hold-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m book- sg . m in hand- sg . f
‘Leo holds a book in his hands.’

19. catch up raggiungere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha raggiunto Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs reach. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo caught up with Maria.’

20. milk mungere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha munto la mucc-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs milk. pst . ptcp def . sg . f cow- sg . f
‘Leo milked the cow.’

21. reach raggiungere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha raggiunto la riv-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs reach. pst . ptcp def . sg . f shore- sg . f
‘Leo reached the coast.’

22. touch toccare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha toccato il mur-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs touch. pst . ptcp def . sg . m wall- sg . m
‘Leo touched the wall.’

23. fight litigare

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo sta litig-ando con Maria
pn ( m ) stay. prs .3 sg fight- ger with pn ( f )
‘Leo is fighting with Maria.’

24. be friends essere amico

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Leo è amic-o di Maria
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg friend- sg . m of pn ( f )
‘Leo is friends with Maria.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

25. think pensare

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Leo pens-a a Maria
pn ( m ) think-3 sg . prs to pn ( f )
‘Leo thinks about Maria.’

26. eat mangiare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha mangiato un-a mel-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs eat. pst . ptcp indf . sg - f apple- sg . f
‘Leo ate an apple.’

27. fry friggere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha fritto il pesc-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs fry. pst . ptcp def . sg . m fish- sg . m
‘Leo fried the fish.’

28. wait aspettare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo aspett-a Maria
pn ( m ) wait-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo waits for Maria.’

29. forget dimenticarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo si è dimenticat-o dell’ altr-a strad-a
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs forget. pst . ptcp - sg . m of. def . sg . f other- sg . f road- sg . f
‘Leo forgot about the other road.’

30. depend dipendere

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
la salut-e dipend-e dall’ età
def . sg . f health- sg . f depend-3 sg . prs by. def . sg . f age. sg . f
‘Health depends on age.’

31. call chiamare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha chiamato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs call. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo called Maria.’

32. get to know conoscere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha conosciuto Maria un ann-o fa
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs know_someone. pst . ptcp pn ( f ) indf . sg . m year- sg . m ago
‘Leo got to know Maria a year ago.’

33. know conoscere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo conosc-e Maria
pn ( m ) know_someone-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo knows Maria.’

34. play (instrument) suonare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo suon-a la chitarr-a
pn ( m ) play-3 sg . prs def . sg . f guitar- sg . f
‘Leo plays the guitar.’

35. avoid evitare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo evit-a Maria
pn ( m ) avoid-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo avoids Maria.’

36. make fabbricare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha fabbricato un-a bomb-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs make. pst . ptcp indf . sg - f bomb- sg . f
‘Leo made a bomb.’

37. make fun prendere in giro

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo prend-e in gir-o Maria
pn ( m ) take-3 sg . prs in circle- sg . m pn ( f )
‘Leo makes fun of Maria.’

38. have avere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha un-a macchin-a
pn ( m ) have-3 sg . prs indf . sg - f car- sg . f
‘Leo has a car.’

39. look for cercare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo cerc-a le chiav-i
pn ( m ) look_for-3 sg . prs def . pl . f key- pl . f
‘Leo looks for the keys.’

40. paint pitturare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha pitturato il recint-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs paint. pst . ptcp def . sg . m fence- sg . m
‘Leo painted the fence.’

41. bite mordere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
il can-e ha morso Leo
def . sg . m dog- sg . m aux .3 sg . prs bite. pst . ptcp pn ( m )
‘The dog bit Leo.’

42. forfeit perdere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha perso cas-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs lose. pst . ptcp house- sg . f
‘Leo lost his house.’

43. try to catch cercare di catturare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo cerc-a di cattur-are il gatt-o
pn ( m ) look_for-3 sg . prs of catch- inf def . sg . m cat- sg . m
‘Leo tries to catch the cat.’

44. break rompere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha rotto il baston-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs break. pst . ptcp def . sg . m stick- sg . m
‘Leo broke the stick.’

45. flatter lusingare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo lusing-a Maria
pn ( m ) flatter-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo flatters Maria.’

46. love (person) amare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo am-a Maria
pn ( m ) love-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo loves Maria.’

47. wave sventolare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo sventola un fazzolett-o
pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m handkerchief- sg . m
‘Leo waves a handkerchief.’

48. dream sognare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo sogn-a un-a macchin-a nuov-a
pn ( m ) dream-3 sg . prs indf . sg - f car- sg . f new- sg . f
‘Leo dreams of a new car.’

49. wash lavare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha lavato la tazz-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs wash. pst . ptcp def . sg . f cup- sg . f
‘Leo washed the cup.’

50. put on mettersi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo si è mess-o i pantalon-i
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs put_on. pst . ptcp - sg . m def . pl . m trousers- pl . m
‘Leo put on trousers.’

51. be called chiamarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE(NO.AGR)
X: SBJ
Y: BARE(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
quest-o strument-o si chiam-a bussol-a
this- sg . m instrument- sg . m refl call-3 sg . prs compass- sg . f
‘This instrument is called a compass.’

52. punish punire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha punito su-o figli-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs punish. pst . ptcp poss .3 sg - sg . m son- sg . m
‘Leo punished his son.’

53. attack aggredire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
l’ ors-o ha aggredito un pescator-e
def . sg . m bear- sg . m aux .3 sg . prs attack. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m fisherman- sg . m
‘The bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) riempirsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
il secchi-o si è riempit-o d’ acqu-a
def . sg . m bucket- sg . m refl aux .3 sg . prs fill. pst . ptcp - sg . m of water- sg . f
‘The bucket filled up with water.’

55. find trovare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha trovato le chiav-i
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs find. pst . ptcp def . pl . f key- pl . f
‘Leo found the keys.’

56. be short mancare

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo manc-a un dollar-o
to pn ( m ) lack-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m dollar- sg . m
‘Leo is one dollar short.’

57. hate odiare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo odi-a Maria
pn ( m ) hate-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo hates Maria.’

58. like piacere

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo piac-e quest-a camici-a
to pn ( m ) like-3 sg . prs this- sg . f shirt- sg . f
‘Leo likes this shirt.’

59. need servire

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo serv-ono sold-i
to pn ( m ) need-3 pl . prs money- pl . m
‘Leo needs money.’

60. surround circondare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
le mur-a circond-ano la città
def . pl . f wall- pl . f surround-3 pl . prs def . sg . f city. sg . f
‘The walls surround the city.’

61. remain rimanere

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo sono rimast-i dieci dollar-i
to pn ( m ) aux .3 pl . prs stay. pst . ptcp - pl . m ten dollar- pl . m
‘Leo has ten dollars left.’

62. answer rispondere

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo ha risposto all’ insegnant-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs answer. pst . ptcp to. def . sg . m teacher- sg . m
‘Leo answered the teacher.’

63. open aprire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha aperto un barattol-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs open. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m can- sg . m
‘Leo opened a can.’

64. be different essere diverso

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
la mi-a camici-a è divers-a dalla tu-a
def . sg . f poss .1 sg - sg . f shirt- sg . f be.3 sg . prs different- sg . f by. def . sg . f poss .2 sg - sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind rimanere indietro

Valency pattern: SBJ_rispetto.a
X: SBJ
Y: rispetto.a
Locus: Y
Leo è rimast-o indietro rispetto a Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs stay. pst . ptcp - sg . m behind compared to pn ( f )
‘Leo fell behind Maria.’

66. plough arare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ar-a il camp-o
pn ( m ) plough-3 sg . prs def . sg . m field- sg . m
‘Leo ploughs the field.’

67. smell sapere

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
le mi-e man-i sanno di benzin-a
def . pl . f poss .1 sg - pl . f hand- pl . f smell.3 pl . prs . of gasoline- sg . f
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross attraversare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha attraversato la strad-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs cross. pst . ptcp def . sg . f street- sg . f
‘Leo crossed the street.’

69. sing cantare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha cantato un-a bell-a canzon-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs sing. pst . ptcp indf . sg - f beautiful- sg . f song- sg . f
‘Leo sang a beautiful song.’

70. write scrivere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha scritto un-a letter-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs write. pst . ptcp indf . sg - f letter- sg . f
‘Leo wrote a letter.’

71. drink bere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha bevuto il latt-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs drink. pst . ptcp def . sg . m milk- sg . m
‘Leo drank the milk.’

72. melt fondere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha fuso un pezz-o di piomb-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs melt. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m piece- sg . m of lead- sg . m
‘Leo melted a piece of lead.’

73. match stare bene

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
quest-a cintur-a sta bene con il mi-o vestit-o
this- sg . f belt- sg . f stay. prs .3 sg well with def . sg . m poss .1 sg - sg . m dress- sg . m
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave lasciare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha lasciato la su-a città natal-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs leave. pst . ptcp def . sg . f poss .3 sg - sg . f city. sg . f native- sg . f
‘Leo left his native city.’

75. cover coprire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
il tappet-o copr-e tutt-o il paviment-o
def . sg . m carpet- sg . m cover-3 sg . prs all- sg . m def . sg . m floor- sg . m
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ricordare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ricord-a bene la cas-a
pn ( m ) remember-3 sg . prs well def . sg . f house- sg . f
‘Leo remembers the house well.’

77. help aiutare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha aiutato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs help. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo helped Maria.’

78. understand (language) capire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo capisc-e il frances-e
pn ( m ) understand-3 sg . prs def . sg . m f rench- sg . m
‘Leo understands French.’

79. hit (target) colpire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un fulmin-e ha colpito la cas-a
indf . sg . m lightning- sg . m aux .3 sg . prs strike. pst . ptcp def . sg . f house- sg . f
‘A lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself tagliarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo si è tagliat-o con il rasoi-o
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs cut. pst . ptcp - sg . m with def . sg . m razor- sg . m
‘Leo cut himself with the razor.’

81. get stuck appiccicarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
il bicchier-e si è appiccicat-o al tavol-o
def . sg . m glass- sg . m refl aux .3 sg . prs stick. pst . ptcp - sg . m to. def . sg . m table- sg . m
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) perdere

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo ha perso con Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs lose. pst . ptcp with pn ( f )
‘Leo lost to Maria.’

83. be glad essere felice

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
Leo era felic-e per la letter-a
pn ( m ) be. impf happy- m . sg for def . sg . f letter- sg . f
‘Leo was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

84. speak parlare

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo parl-a con Maria
pn ( m ) talk-3 sg . prs with pn ( f )
‘Leo talks to Maria.’

85. give birth avere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Maria ha avuto un figli-o
pn ( f ) aux .3 sg . prs have. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m son- sg . m
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

86. drop far cadere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha fatto cad-ere un bicchier-e
pn ( f ) aux .3 sg . prs make. pst . ptcp fall- inf indf . sg . m glass- sg . m
‘Leo dropped a glass.’

87. govern dirigere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo dirig-e l’ aziend-a
pn ( m ) rule-3 sg . prs def . sg . f company- sg . f
‘Leo runs the company.’

88. miss mancare

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo manc-a Maria
to pn ( m ) lack-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo misses Maria.’

89. follow seguire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo segu-e Maria
pn ( m ) follow-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo follows Maria.’

90. dismount smontare

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
Leo è smontat-o da cavall-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs dismount. pst . ptcp - sg . m by horse- sg . m
‘Leo dismounted the horse.’

91. listen ascoltare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ascolt-a la radio
pn ( m ) listen-3 sg . prs def . sg . f radio. sg . f
‘Leo listens to the radio.’

92. obey obbedire

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo obbedisc-e alla mamm-a
pn ( m ) obey-3 sg . prs to. def . sg . f mom- sg . f
‘Leo obeys his mom.’

93. hear sentire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo sent-e la music-a
pn ( m ) hear-3 sg . prs def . sg . f music- sg . f
‘Leo hears the music.’

94. mix fondersi

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
il miel-e si è fus-o con il latt-e
def . sg . m honey- sg . m refl aux .3 sg . prs mix. pst . ptcp - sg . m with def . sg . m milk- sg . m
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look guardare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo guard-a le nuvol-e
pn ( m ) look_at-3 sg . prs def . pl . f cloud- pl . f
‘Leo looks at the clouds.’

96. take off togliersi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo si è tolto la camicia
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs remove. pst . ptcp - sg . m def . sg . f shirt- sg . f
‘Leo took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) sognare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo sogn-a Maria
pn ( m ) dream-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo dreams of Maria.’

98. agree dirsi d’accordo

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo si è dett-o d’ accord-o con Maria
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs say- pst . ptcp of agreement- m . sg with pn ( f )
‘Leo agreed with Maria.’

99. have a quarrel litigare

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo ha litigato con Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs argue. pst . ptcp with pn ( f )
‘Leo had a quarrel with Maria.’

100. cost costare

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE(NO.AGR)
X: SBJ
Y: BARE(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
la tazz-a cost-a un dollar-o
def . sg . f cup- sg . f cost-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m dollar- sg . m
‘The cup costs a dollar.’

101. shoot at sparare

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo ha sparato a un uccell-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs shoot. pst . ptcp to indf . sg . m bird- sg . m
‘Leo shot a bird.’

102. pour versare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha versato lo zuccher-o in un-a tazz-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs pour. pst . ptcp def . sg . m sugar- sg . m in indf - sg . f cup- sg . f
‘Leo poured the sugar into a cup.’

103. lose perdere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha perso le chiav-i
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs lose. pst . ptcp def . pl . f key- pl . f
‘Leo lost the keys.’

104. sink affondare

Valency pattern: SBJ_in
X: SBJ
Y: in
Locus: Y
il tronc-o di legn-o è affondat-o nell’ acqu-a
def . sg . m log- sg . m of wood- sg . m aux .3 sg . prs sink. pst . ptcp - sg . m in. def . sg . f water- sg . f
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill uccidere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha ucciso Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs kill. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo killed Maria.’

106. hit colpire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha colpito Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs hit. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo hit Maria.’

107. kiss baciare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha baciato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs kiss. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo kissed Maria.’

108. read leggere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha letto un libr-o interessant-e
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs read. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m book- sg . m interesting- sg . m
‘Leo read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) muovere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha mosso un dit-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs move. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m finger- sg . m
‘Leo moved a finger.’

110. respect rispettare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo rispett-a Maria
pn ( m ) respect-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo respects Maria.’

111. be squeamish fare schifo

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo fanno schif-o i piatt-i sporch-i
to pn ( m ) make.3 pl . prs disgust- sg . m def . pl . m dish- pl . m dirty- pl . m
‘Leo is disgusted by dirty dishes.’

112. be content essere contento

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo è content-o di su-o figli-o
pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs pleased- sg . m of poss .3 sg - sg . m son- sg . m
‘Leo is pleased with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love innamorarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo si è innamorat-o di Maria
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs fall_in_love. pst . ptcp - sg . m of pn ( f )
‘Leo fell in love with Maria.’

114. trust fidarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo si fid-a di Maria
pn ( m ) refl trust-3 sg . prs of pn ( f )
‘Leo trusts Maria.’

115. sympathise provare pena

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
Leo prova pen-a per su-a madr-e
pn ( m ) try.3 sg . prs pain- sg . f for poss .3 sg - sg . f mother- sg . f
‘Leo feels sorry for his mother.’

116. envy invidiare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo invidi-a Maria
pn ( m ) envy-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo envies Maria.’

117. be angry essere arrabbiato

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo è arrabbiat-o con Maria
pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs angry- sg . m with pn ( f )
‘Leo is angry with Maria.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

118. be surprised rimanere sorpreso

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
Leo è rimast-o sorpres-o dal regal-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs stay. pst . ptcp - sg . m surprise. pst . ptcp - sg . m by. def . sg . m gift- sg . m
‘Leo got surprised at the gift.’

119. love (tea) piacere

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo piac-e il
to pn ( m ) like-3 sg . prs def . sg . m tea. sg . m
‘Leo loves tea.’

120. enjoy godersi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo si god-e il cald-o
pn ( m ) int enjoy-3 sg . prs def . sg . m tea. sg . m hot- sg . m
‘Leo enjoys the hot tea.’

121. want volere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo vuol-e un cellular-e nuov-o
pn ( m ) want-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m mobile_phone- sg . m new- sg . m
‘Leo wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge essere arrabbiato

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo è arrabbiat-o con Maria
pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs angry- sg . m with pn ( f )
‘Leo is angry with Maria.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

123. take offence offendersi

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo si è offes-o con Maria
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs offend. pst . ptcp - sg . m with pn ( f )
‘Leo got offended at Maria.’

124. upset rendere triste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha reso molto trist-e Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs make. pst . ptcp very sad- sg . f pn ( f )
‘Leo made Maria very sad.’

125. marvel rimanere stupito

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
Leo è rimast-o stupit-o da quest-a città
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs stay. pst . ptcp - sg . m impress. pst . ptcp - sg . m by this- sg . f city. sg . f
‘Leo was impressed by this city.’

126. despise disprezzare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo disprezz-a Maria
pn ( m ) despise-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo despises Maria.’

127. get upset dispiacersi

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
Leo si è dispiacut-o per su-o figli-o
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs regret. pst . ptcp - sg . m for poss .3 sg - sg . m son- sg . m
‘Leo got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated irritarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo si irrit-a con su-a figli-a
pn ( m ) refl irritate-3 sg . prs with poss .3 sg - sg . f daughter- sg . f
‘Leo gets irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond stare simpatico

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo st-a simpatic-a Maria
to pn ( m ) stay-3 sg . prs nice- sg . f pn ( f )
‘Leo is fond of Maria.’

130. be shy vergognarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo si vergogn-a della su-a statur-a
pn ( m ) refl be_ashamed-3 sg . prs of. def . f . sg poss .3 sg - sg . f height- sg . f
‘Leo is ashamed of his height.’