BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

French

Contributed by Elena Kordi

E.K.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2010. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation. In 2023, some corrections have been made by Gilles Authier.

How to cite

Kordi, Elena. 2023. Bivalent patterns in French. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on May 9, 2023; last revised on August 13, 2023.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

French displays the nominative-accusative alignment. Nominal core arguments (A, S and O) remain unflagged, so that the distinction between subject and direct object is only indicated by word order (SVO). By contrast, personal pronouns (clitics) distinguish 2 or 3 case forms (depending on the person); besides, with pronominal direct objects, word order is SOV. The two variants of the transitive construction are given in (1) and (2).

(1) Paul   respecte         Marie
    PN(M)  respect.PRS.3SG  PN(F)
    ‘Paul respects Marie.’

(2) Paul   la       respecte
    PN(M)  she.ACC  respect.PRS.3SG
    ‘Paul respects her.’

Nominal arguments other than A, S and O are flagged by prepositions. Subjects (A and S) are indexed on the verbs. In some contexts, participles in analytic constructions also signal the gender (orthographically, also the number) of the direct object.

Case system

French has no morphological case on nouns. Personal pronouns has three case-marked clitic forms: nominative, accusative and dative. The dative form usually corresponds to the combination of the preposition à with the noun (although some discrepancies are possible), see (3) and (4).

(3)  Paul   a             répondu            à   ses       parent-s
     PN(M)  have.PRS.3SG  answer.PST.PTCP.M  to  one’s.PL  parent(M)-PL
     ‘Paul answered his parents.’

(4)  Paul   leur      a             répondu
     PN(M)  they.DAT  have.PRS.3SG  answer.PST.PTCP.M
     ‘Paul answered them.’

Apart from pronominal clitics, there are stressed pronouns that are used in a number of syntactic environments, including combinations with prepositions.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are shown in the infinitive form.

Glossing abbreviations

ACC — accusative; DAT — dative; DEF — definite; F — feminine; IMP — imperative; INDF — indefinite; INF — infinitive; M — masculine; PL — plural; PN — person name; PRS — present; PST — past; PTCP — participle; REFL — reflexive; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain avoir mal

Valency pattern: SBJ_a(LOC)
X: SBJ
Y: a(LOC)
Locus: Y
Paul a mal à la tête
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg painful to def . sg . f head( f )
‘Paul has a headache.’

2. have (illness) avoir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a une grippe
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg def . sg . f flu( f )
‘Paul has the flu.’

3. be afraid avoir peur

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul a peur de ce chien
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg fear( f ) of this. sg . m dog( m )
‘Paul is afraid of this dog.’

4. throw jeter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a jeté une pierre dans l’ eau
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg throw. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f stone( f ) inside def . sg . f water( f )
‘Paul threw a stone into the water.’

5. have enough avoir assez

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
maintenant Paul a assez d’ argent
now pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg enough of money( m )
‘Now Paul has enough money.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + NP-internal component).

6. resemble ressembler

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul ressemble à Marie
pn ( m ) look_like. prs .3 sg to pn ( f )
‘Paul resembles Marie.’

7. believe croire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul croit Marie
pn ( m ) believe. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul believes Marie.’

8. take prendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a pris un livre sur le rayon
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg take. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m book( m ) on def . sg . m shelf( m )
‘Paul took a book from the shelf.’

9. see voir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul voit une maison
pn ( m ) see. prs .3 sg indf . sg . f house( f )
‘Paul sees a house.’

10. influence influer

Valency pattern: SBJ_sur
X: SBJ
Y: sur
Locus: Y
l’ âge influe sur la mémoire
def . sg . m age( m ) influence. prs .3 sg on def . sg . f memory( f )
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter rencontrer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a rencontré Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg meet. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul encountered Marie.’

12. enter entrer

Valency pattern: SBJ_dans
X: SBJ
Y: dans
Locus: Y
Paul est entré dans la maison
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg enter. pst . ptcp . m inside def . sg . f house( f )
‘Paul entered the house.’

13. win gagner

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul a gagné contre Michel
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg win. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f against pn ( m )
‘Paul beat Michel.’

14. go out sortir

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul est sorti de la maison
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg exit. pst . ptcp . m of def . sg . f house( f )
‘Paul went out of the house.’

15. drive mener

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul mène sa vache au pâturage
pn ( m ) lead. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . f cow( f ) to. def . sg . m pasture( m )
‘Paul is driving his cow to the pasture.’

16. bend courber

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a courbé une branche
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg bend. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f branch( f )
‘Paul bent a branch.’

17. tell dire

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul a dit à Michel: viens me voir
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg say. pst . ptcp . m to pn ( m ) come. imp i . acc see. inf
‘Paul told Michel: “Come and see me.”’

18. hold tenir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul tient un livre à la main
pn ( m ) hold. prs .3 sg indf . sg . m book( m ) to def . sg . f hand( f )
‘Paul is holding a book in his hand.’

19. catch up rattraper

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a rattrapé Marie près du parc
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg catch_up. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f ) near of. def . sg . m park( m )
‘Paul caught up with Marie near the park.’

20. milk traire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a trait sa vache
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg milk. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f cow( f )
‘Paul milked his cow.’

21. reach atteindre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a atteint la rive
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg reach. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . f shore( f )
‘Paul reached the bank.’

22. touch toucher

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a touché le mur
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg touch. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . m wall( m )
‘Paul touched the wall.’

23. fight se battre

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul s’ est battu contre Michel
pn ( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg fight. pst . ptcp . m against pn ( m )
‘Paul fought with Michel.’

24. be friends être ami

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul est ami avec Michel
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg friend( m ) with pn ( m )
‘Paul is friends with Michel.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

25. think penser

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Paul pense à Marie
pn ( m ) think. prs .3 sg to pn ( f )
‘Paul is thinking about Marie.’

26. eat manger

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a mangé une pomme
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg eat. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f apple( f )
‘Paul ate an apple.’

27. fry faire frire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a fait frire le poisson
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m fry. inf def . sg . m fish( m )
‘Paul fried the fish.’

28. wait attendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul attend Marie
pn ( m ) wait. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul is waiting for Marie.’

29. forget oublier

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul a oublié qu’ il existe un autre chemin
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg forget. pst . ptcp . m that it exist. prs .3 sg indf . sg . m other. sg . m road( m )
‘Paul forgot that there was another road.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed in a dependent clause. The transitive construction ("Paul a oublié l'autre chemin, plus proche") would have a differenr meaning (he forgot the specific way and was unable to follow the shorter road).

30. depend dependre

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
la mémoire d’ une personne dépend de son âge
def . sg . f memory( f ) of indf . sg . f person( f ) depend. prs .3 sg of one’s. sg . m age( m )
‘One's memory depends on their age.’

31. call appeler

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a appelé Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg call. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul called Marie.’

32. get to know faire la connaissance

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul a fait la connaissance de Marie il y a un an
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . f knowledge( f ) of pn ( f ) it there have. prs .3 sg one. sg . m year( m )
‘Paul got to know Marie a year ago.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

33. know connaître

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul connaît Michel
pn ( m ) know_someone. prs .3 sg pn ( m )
‘Paul knows Michel.’

34. play (instrument) jouer

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul joue de la guitare
pn ( m ) play. prs .3 sg of def . sg . f guitar( f )
‘Paul is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid éviter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul évite Marie
pn ( m ) avoid. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul avoids Marie.’

36. make fabriquer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a fabriqué une bombe
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f bomb( f )
‘Paul made a bomb.’

37. make fun se moquer

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul se moque de Michel
pn ( m ) refl mock. prs .3 sg of pn ( m )
‘Paul is making fun of Michel.’

38. have avoir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a une voiture
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg indf . sg . f car( f )
‘Paul has a car.’

39. look for chercher

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul cherche ses clef-s
pn ( m ) look_for. prs .3 sg one’s. pl key( f )- pl
‘Paul is looking for his keys.’

40. paint peindre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a peint sa palissade
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg paint. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f fence( f )
‘Paul painted his fence.’

41. bite mordre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un chien a mordu Paul
indf . sg . m dog( m ) have. prs .3 sg bite. pst . ptcp . m pn ( m )
‘A dog bit Paul.’

42. forfeit perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a perdu sa maison
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg lose. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f house( f )
‘Paul lost his house.’

43. try to catch attraper

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul attrape son chat
pn ( m ) catch. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . m cat( m )
‘Paul is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break casser

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a cassé un bâton
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg break. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m stick( m )
‘Paul broke a stick.’

45. flatter flatter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul flatte Marie
pn ( m ) flatter. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul is flattering Marie.’

46. love (person) aimer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul aime Marie
pn ( m ) love. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul loves Marie.’

47. wave agiter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul agite son mouchoir
pn ( m ) stir. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . m handkerchief( m )
‘Paul is waving his handkerchief.’

48. dream rêver

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul rêve d’ une voiture neuve
pn ( m ) dream. prs .3 sg of indf . sg . f car( f ) new. sg . f
‘Paul is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash laver

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a lavé sa tasse
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg wash. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f cup( f )
‘Paul washed his cup.’

50. put on enfiler

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a enfilé son pantalon
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg put_on. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . m trousers( m )
‘Paul put on his trousers.’

51. be called s’appeler

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE
X: SBJ
Y: BARE
Locus: Y
cet instrument s’ appelle une boussole
this. sg . m instrument( m ) refl call. prs .3 sg indf . sg . f compass( f )
‘This instrument is called a compass.’
Note: This is not a transitive construction (cf. the use of "comment" ‘how’ as an interrogative word).

52. punish punir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a sévèrement puni son fils
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg severely punish. pst . ptcp . m one’s.3 sg . m son( m )
‘Paul severely punished his son.’

53. attack attaquer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un ours a attaqué un pêcheur
indf . sg . m bear( m ) have. prs .3 sg attack. pst . ptcp . m . indf . sg . m fisherman( m )
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) se remplir

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
le seau s’ est rempli d’ eau
def . sg . m bucket( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg fill. pst . ptcp . m of water( f )
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find trouver

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a trouvé ses clef-s
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg find. pst . ptcp . m one’s. pl key( f )- pl
‘Paul found his keys.’

56. be short manquer

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
un dollar manque à Paul pour acheter un billet
indf . sg . m dollar( m ) be_missing. prs .3 sg to pn ( m ) for buy. inf indf . sg . m ticket( m )
‘Paul needs one dollar to buy a ticket.’

57. hate detester

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul deteste Marie
pn ( m ) hate. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul hates Marie.’

58. like plaire

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
cette chemise plaît beaucoup à Paul
this. sg . f shirt( f ) please. prs .3 sg much to pn ( m )
‘Paul likes this shirt.’

59. need avoir besoin

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul a besoin d’ argent
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg need( m ) of money( m )
‘Paul needs money.’

60. surround entourer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
des mur-s entourent la ville
indf . pl wall( m )- pl surround. prs .3 pl def . sg . f city( f )
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain rester

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
dix dollar-s restent à Paul
ten dollar( m )- pl remain. prs .3 pl to pn ( m )
‘Paul has ten dollars left.’

62. answer répondre

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul a répondu au professeur
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg answer. pst . ptcp . m to. def . sg . m teacher( m )
‘Paul answered the teacher.’

63. open ouvrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a ouvert le bocal
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg open. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . m jar( m )
‘Paul opened a can.’

64. be different se distinguer

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
ma chemise se distingue de la tienne, elle est plus foncée
my. sg . f shirt( f ) refl distinguishю. prs .3 sg of def . sg . f your. sg . f she be. prs .3 sg more dark. sg . f
‘My shirt is different from yours, it is darker.’

65. fall behind être distancé

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul a été distancé par Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg be. pst . ptcp . m outrun. pst . ptcp . m by pn ( f )
‘Paul fell behind Marie.’
Note: Passive construction.

66. plough labourer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul laboure son champ
pn ( m ) plough. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . m field( m )
‘Paul is ploughing the field.’

67. smell sentir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mes main-s sentent l’ essence
my. pl hand( f )- pl smell. prs .3 pl def . sg . f gasoline( f )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross traverser

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a traversé la route
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg cross. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . f road( f )
‘Paul crossed the road.’

69. sing chanter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a chanté une jolie chanson
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg sing. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f beautiful. sg . f song( f )
‘Paul sang a beautiful song.’

70. write écrire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a écrit une lettre
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg write. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f letter( f )
‘Paul wrote a letter.’

71. drink boire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a bu du lait
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg drink. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m milk( m )
‘Paul drank some milk.’

72. melt faire fondre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a faire fondre un morceau de plomb
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m melt. inf indf . sg . m piece( m ) of lead( m )
‘Paul melted a piece of lead.’

73. match aller

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
ces soulier-s vont avec ma robe
this. pl shoe( m )- pl go. prs .3 pl with my. sg . f dress( f )
‘These shoes go well with my dress.’

74. leave quitter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a quitté sa ville natale
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg leave. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f city( f ) native. sg . f
‘Paul left his native city.’

75. cover couvrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
le tapis couvre tout le plancher
def . sg . m carpet( m ) cover. prs .3 sg all. sg . m def . sg . m floor( m )
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember se souvenir

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul se souvient de la maison il a passé son enfance
pn ( m ) refl remember. prs .3 sg of def . sg . f house( f ) where he have. prs .3 sg pass. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . m childhood( m )
‘Paul remembers the house where he spent his childhood .’

77. help aider

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a aidé Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg help. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul helped Marie.’

78. understand (language) comprendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul comprend l’ allemand
pn ( m ) understand. prs .3 sg def . sg . m g erman( m )
‘Paul understands German.’

79. hit (target) s’abattre

Valency pattern: SBJ_sur
X: SBJ
Y: sur
Locus: Y
la foudre s’ est abattue sur la maison
def . sg . f lightning( f ) refl be. prs .3 sg bring_down. pst . ptcp . f on def . sg . f house( f )
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself se couper

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul s’ est coupé avec un rasoir
pn ( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg cut. pst . ptcp . m with indf . sg . m razor( m )
‘Paul cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck se coller

Valency pattern: SBJ_a(LOC)
X: SBJ
Y: a(LOC)
Locus: Y
le verre s’ est collé à la table
def . sg . m glass( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg stick. pst . ptcp . m to def . sg . f table( f )
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) perdre

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul a perdu une partie d’ échec-s contre Michel
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg lose. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f game( f ) of chess- pl against pn ( m )
‘Paul lost a game of chess to Michel.’

83. be glad se réjouir

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul s’ est réjouit du succès de Michel
pn ( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg gladden. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m success( m ) of pn ( m )
‘Paul was delighted with Michel’s success.’

84. speak parler

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul parle à Marie
pn ( m ) talk. prs .3 sg to pn ( f )
‘Paul is speaking to Marie.’

85. give birth avoir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Marie a eu un garçon
pn ( f ) have. prs .3 sg have. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m boy( m )
‘Marie gave birth to a son.’

86. drop faire tomber

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a fait tomber un verre
pn ( f ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m fall- inf indf . sg . m glass( m )
‘Paul dropped the glass.’

87. govern diriger

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul dirige notre ville
pn ( m ) rule. prs .3 sg our. sg town( m )
‘Paul runs our town.’

88. miss manquer

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Marie manque à Paul
pn ( f ) miss. prs .3 sg to pn ( m )
‘Paul misses Marie.’

89. follow suivre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul suit Marie
pn ( m ) follow. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul follows Marie.’

90. dismount descendre

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul est descendu du cheval
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg dismount. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m horse( m )
‘Paul got down from the horse.’

91. listen écouter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul écoute la radio
pn ( m ) listen. prs .3 sg def . sg . f radio( f )
‘Paul is listening to radio.’

92. obey obéir

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul obéit à sa mère
pn ( m ) obey. prs .3 sg to one’s. sg . f mother( f )
‘Paul obeys his mother.’

93. hear entendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul entend la musique
pn ( m ) hear. prs .3 sg def . sg . f music( f )
‘Paul hears the music.’

94. mix se melanger

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
le miel s’ est mélangé avec le lait
def . sg . m honey( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg mix. pst . ptcp . m with def . sg . m milk( m )
‘The honey got mixed with milk.’

95. look regarder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul regarde les nuage-s
pn ( m ) look_at. prs .3 sg def . pl cloud( f )- pl
‘Paul is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ôter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a ôté sa chemise
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg take_off. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f shirt( f )
‘Paul took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) rêver

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul rêve de Marie
pn ( m ) dream. prs .3 sg of pn ( f )
‘Paul dreams about Marie.’

98. agree être d’accord

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul a été d’ accord avec Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg be. pst . ptcp . m of agreement( m ) with pn ( f )
‘Paul agreed with Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

99. have a quarrel se disputer

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul s’ est disputé avec Marie
pn ( m ) refl be. prs .3 sg argue. pst . ptcp . m with pn ( f )
‘Paul had an argument with Marie.’

100. cost coûter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
cette tasse coûte un dollar
def . sg . f cup( f ) cost. prs .3 sg indf . sg . m dollar( m )
‘This cup costs one dollar.’

101. shoot at tirer

Valency pattern: SBJ_sur
X: SBJ
Y: sur
Locus: Y
Paul a tiré sur l’ oiseau
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg shoot. pst . ptcp . m on def . sg . m bird( m )
‘Paul shot at the bird.’

102. pour verser

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a versé du sucre dans la casserole
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg pour. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m sugar( m ) inside def . sg . f saucepan( f )
‘Paul poured sugar into the pan.’
Note: The use of the preposition "de" is triggered by the partitive meaning, not by the argument frame of the verb.

103. lose perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a perdu ses clef-s
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg lose. pst . ptcp . m def . pl key( f )- pl
‘Paul lost his keys.’

104. sink s’enfoncer

Valency pattern: SBJ_dans
X: SBJ
Y: dans
Locus: Y
la bûche s’ est enfoncée dans l’ eau
def . sg . f log( f ) refl be. prs .3 sg push. pst . ptcp . m inside def . sg . f water( f )
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill tuer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a tué Michel
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg kill. pst . ptcp . m pn ( m )
‘Paul killed Michel.’

106. hit frapper

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a frappé Michel
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg hit. pst . ptcp . m pn ( m )
‘Paul hit Michel.’

107. kiss embracer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a embrassé Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg kiss. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul kissed Marie.’

108. read lire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a lu un livre intéressant
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg read. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m book( m ) interesting. sg . m
‘Paul read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) remuer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a remué un doigt
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg move. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m finger( m )
‘Paul moved his finger.’

110. respect respecter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul respecte Marie
pn ( m ) respect. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul respects Marie.’

111. be squeamish être dégoûté

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul est dégoûté par la vaisselle sale
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg disgust. pst . ptcp . m by def . sg . f dishes( f ) dirty. sg . f
‘Paul is disgusted by dirty dishes.’
Note: Passive construction.

112. be content être content

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul est content de son fils
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg pleased. sg . m of one’s. sg . m son( m )
‘Paul is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love tomber amoureux

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul est tombé amoureux de Marie
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg fall. pst . ptcp . m enamoured. sg . m of pn ( f )
‘Paul fell in love with Marie.’

114. trust faire confiance

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul fait confiance à Marie
pn ( m ) make. prs .3 sg trust( f ) to pn ( f )
‘Paul trusts Marie.’

115. sympathise compatir

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul compatit avec sa mère
pn ( m ) sympathise. prs .3 sg with one’s. sg . f mother( f )
‘Paul sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy envier

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul envie Marie
pn ( m ) envy. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul envies Marie.’

117. be angry s’énerver

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul s’ énerve contre Marie
pn ( m ) refl make_nervous. prs .3 sg against pn ( f )
‘Paul is angry with Marie.’

118. be surprised être surpris

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul a été surpris par ce cadeau
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg be. pst . ptcp . m surprise. pst . ptcp . m by this. sg . m gift( m )
‘Paul was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Passive construction.

119. love (tea) aimer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul aime les pomme-s
pn ( m ) like. prs .3 sg def . pl apple( f )- pl
‘Paul loves apples.’

120. enjoy savourer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul savoure le thé chaud
pn ( m ) enjoy. prs .3 sg def . sg . m tea( m ) hot. sg . m
‘Marie enjoys hot tea.’

121. want vouloir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul veut un nouveau téléphone
pn ( m ) want. prs .3 sg indf . sg . m new. sg . m phone( m )
‘Paul wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge être fâché

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul est fâché contre Marie
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg make_angry. pst . ptcp . m against pn ( f )
‘Paul is angry with Marie.’
Note: Passive construction.

123. take offence en vouloir

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul en a voulu à Marie
pn ( m ) refl of.it have. prs .3 sg want. pst . ptcp . m to pn ( f )
‘Paul had a grudge against Marie.’

124. upset chagriner

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a beaucoup chagriné Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg much make_sad. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul greatly upset Marie.’

125. marvel être imprissionné

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul a été impressionné par cette ville
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg be. pst . ptcp . m impress. pst . ptcp . m by this. sg . f city( f )
‘Paul was impressed by this town.’
Note: Passive construction.

126. despise mépriser

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul méprise Marie
pn ( m ) despise. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul despises Marie.’

127. get upset faire de la peine

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
le fils de Paul lui a fait de la peine
def . sg . m son( m ) of pn ( m ) he. dat have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m of def . sg . f pain( f )
‘Paul’s son upset him.’

128. get irritated être agacé

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul est agacé par sa fille
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg irritate. pst . ptcp . m by one’s. sg . f daughter( f )
‘Paul is irritated with his daughter.’
Note: Passive construction.

129. be fond apprécier

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul apprecie Marie
pn ( m ) appreciate. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul appreciates Marie.’

130. be shy avoir honte

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul a honte de sa petite taille
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg shame( f ) of one’s small. f . sg height( f )
‘Paul is ashamed of his small height.’